Section III external expansion and expedition of the Arab Empire

Arab external expansion War refers to the action of forcibly annexing a large area of territory in Asia, North Africa and southwest Europe under the pretext of “spreading Islam” and “waging jihad against pagans” in order to expand the scope of their rule in the 7th-8th century A.D. During the period of the four caliphate States, the Arabs conquered West Asia and swept Egypt with a strong wind sweeping away the leaves. During the Umayyad Dynasty, the Arab rulers continued to invade cities and expand territory, and finally established a great empire across Asia, Africa and Europe.

background

since the 6th century, Western Arabia has become the object of contention between Byzantine Empire and Persian Empire. The long war caused serious damage to the southwest of Arabia. By the 7th century, the Arab region was barren, full of thorns and rubble, depressed cities, sharp decline in commerce and sharp decline in North-South freight. In 610 ad, Muhammad, a businessman from Luozhong in the west of Gulai in Mecca, founded Islam. The rise of Islam has played an important role in ending the division of the Arab nation and establishing a unified state. Under Muhammad’s propaganda, urban residents, farmers and handicraftsmen soon accepted Islam and established a theocratic state in Medina. Later, Muhammad used the armed forces of Muslims and Medina to conquer many parts of the Arabian Peninsula. By the time Muhammad died in 632, the whole peninsula had been largely unified. Under the guidance of the banner of Islamic unity against the enemy and “Jihad”, the United and unified Arab countries quickly moved towards the road of foreign expedition and expansion.

at the beginning of the 7th century, the Byzantine Empire and the Persian Empire were exhausted and their national strength was very weak due to the long-term war between each other, the invasion of foreign enemies and the resistance and struggle of domestic people. This has provided extremely favorable objective conditions for the establishment of a unified Arab state and the successful war of foreign expansion. After Muhammad’s death, Abu Burke succeeded him and changed his name to “Caliph”. After the war, Abu Burke unified all Arabia. Therefore, taking advantage of the favorable opportunity of the defeat of both the Byzantine Empire and Persia, the prelude to foreign territorial expansion was opened.

after the first stage of the

(1) War (634 ~ 656),

after the death of Muhammad, the founder of Islam, his successor Abu Burke continued to carry out his “Islamic expedition” plan of foreign military expansion. After calming the internal rebellion, in the autumn of 633 ad, three Arab armies with 7500 people each were organized to invade Palestine and Syria through the Syrian desert from the Arabian Peninsula. At this time, Byzantium and the Persian Empire were both defeated by the long war and were unable to resist the Arab attack.

“triumphal arch

in 636, the Arab army led by Walid headed for Iraq and Syria, first conquered Basra, the capital of the ghasani Dynasty, and then occupied fihar in outer Jordan, and took advantage of the victory to Damascus, besieging the city for six months. At this time, the Byzantine Empire sent 50000 troops to save Damascus. Walid was forced to give up Damascus and withdraw to the Bank of yamuk River, the East tributary of the Jordan River. With 25000 people, he defeated the Byzantine army, recovered Damascus and occupied the whole Syria.

the successive victories of the Arab army forced Jerusalem, which had been besieged for two years, to surrender automatically in 638. While marching into Syria, Arab forces also launched attacks on Iran and Egypt. In 633, after occupying Sheila in southern Iraq, the Arab army began to march into Iran. The Iranian army used war elephants as an assault force and defeated the Arab army, which once made the Arabs deeply afraid. On June 1, 637, after receiving reinforcements, the Arab army won the battle of katisia, took the capital of the Persian Empire, taixifeng, and seized a large number of booty and treasures.

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then captured Mosul and Naha fand and incorporated Iran into the territory of the Arab Empire. At the end of 639, the Arab army carried out a successful raid on Egypt, conquered pilushian in one fell swoop, and defeated the Byzantine army in Cairo in 640. Then he pushed forward quickly, occupied RIA in September 642 and entered Cyrenaica. From then on, the Byzantine Empire Lost Egypt.

the Arab army occupied Libya in 643 and invaded the Byzantine Empire’s territory in North Africa, Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco and other places in 647. In order to further control the Mediterranean, the Arabs recruited the coastal residents of Asia Minor, established a strong navy, and quickly occupied several strategic islands in the Mediterranean. By the 1950s, the Arab army had moved westward to occupy some provinces in North Africa, approached the Indian border to the East, and rushed northward to the north of Armenia, controlling most of the territory of the Byzantine Empire in the Near East, forming a new empire across Europe, Asia and Africa.

(2) the second stage of the war (668 ~ 750)

in 659, the Arab army temporarily stopped further expansion due to the internal strife of Arab nobles. In 661, the Umayyad Dynasty established the first dynasty of the Islamic Arab Empire based on Syria. After calming the civil strife, the Arabs reorganized and launched a new attack on the Byzantine Empire. The Arab army first targeted the coastal cities of the Byzantine Empire, sent a fleet across the Aegean Sea, through the Dardanelle Strait, into the Marmara Sea, and established a military base in the city of kizikus. From 673 to 677, the Arab fleet attacked Constantinople every summer. Because the Byzantine army made full preparations every time, carefully arranged defense, and used a liquid burning agent called “Greek fire”, which effectively smashed the attack of the Arab fleet and defended Constantinople.

in June 677, the Arab fleet was forced to withdraw from Constantinople. When passing through the sea on the South Bank of Asia Minor, it was attacked by a storm and intercepted by the Greek fleet, almost completely annihilated. The army was also attacked in Asia Minor