Before the outbreak of the European war, Britain and France jointly formulated plans to defend Africa, the Mediterranean and the Near East.

The plan stipulates that in case of war, the allies must control the Mediterranean and carry out raids on the Italian troops in Libya and Ethiopia to defend East and North Africa.

After the defeat of France, the British mainland was directly threatened by the German army, and the strategic situation in East and North Africa changed significantly in favor of the axis powers.

The British troops commanded by the commander-in-chief of the British forces in the Middle East, general verville, had to prepare to fight alone, while the troops of the British forces in East and North Africa were quite weak.

Mussolini decided to take advantage of this favorable opportunity to seize Egypt and British Somalia with superior forces, control the Suez Canal and the Red Sea, cut off Britain’s lifeline and realize his dream of establishing a Mediterranean empire.

To this end, Italy has assembled more than 500000 troops.

On August 4, 1940, 17 infantry battalions of the Italian army invaded British Somalia from the previously occupied Ethiopia and Eritrea with the support of armor and artillery.

Two days later, the Italian army occupied Hargeisa and other places.

On August 11, it began to attack the main position of the British army in tuagan.

With only 1500 British troops in Somalia, they were forced to withdraw from Berbera to Aden by boat from August 15 to 17.

On August 20, all British Somalia was occupied by Italian troops.

In Sudan and Kenya, the Italian Army successively captured the towns of Kassala and galabat in Sudan and Moyale in Kenya.

However, the people of British Somalia, Sudan, Kenya and Ethiopia carried out extensive guerrilla warfare, forcing the Italian army to stop attacking in this area.

The British army took the opportunity to expand its troops in Sudan and Kenya to 150000, while strengthening Egypt’s defense forces.

At the end of August, the British aircraft carrier “Guanghui”, one battleship and two cruisers entered the port with the support of the Gibraltar sub fleet.

After a period of preparation, the British troops started a large-scale counter offensive in East Africa in January 1941.

On January 19, the British army of the North Road launched a counter offensive against Eritrea from northeast Sudan, and captured Karen, the gateway to Asmara, the capital of Eritrea, on March 27.

On April 1, British forces occupied Asmara.

On April 8, the Italian Army stationed at Massawa naval base surrendered, and many Italian ships were sunk.

On January 24, 1941, the British army of South Road broke into Italian Somalia, occupied Mogadishu on February 25, and then went north to Ethiopia.

On March 25, the British army occupied Harrell.

On April 6, captured Addis Ababa, the capital of Ethiopia.

On May 18, OSTA led the main force of the Italian army to surrender in ambaraji mountain in northern Ethiopia.

In northwest Ethiopia, the rest of the Italian Army surrendered on November 28.

It means that East Africa is completely in the hands of the British army.

Italy’s aggression and expansion in North Africa was slightly later than that in East Africa.

The Italian army has two group armies stationed in Libya – the 10th group army, which is deployed on the eastern border between Libya and Egypt, ready to attack Egypt.

The fifth group army is deployed in the west to cover the direction of Tunisia.

In order to strengthen the defense of North Africa, the British Army transferred some Commonwealth troops to Egypt and transported some tanks from Dunkirk there.

When the British army launched the attack, the Nile group army in North Africa governed two divisions and two brigades, one of which was launched on the border between Liberia and Egypt.

On September 13, 1940, the tenth group army of the Italian Army crossed the border between Liberia and Egypt and launched an attack on the British army.

After a short period of resistance, the British army retreated across the board.

On the same day, the Italian army occupied selum and captured Lani in West Dubai three days later.

However, the supply of the Italian army became increasingly difficult and was forced to stop the attack.

Pull back to the preset position near Martello and continue.

Thus, a wide middle zone was formed between the two armies.

After occupying the West Dubai Lani, the Italian army began to turn its attention to the Greek battlefield.

On October 28, the Italian army invaded Greece and continued to fight in Africa.

The British Nile group army took advantage of this opportunity to adjust its deployment and prepare to expel the Italian army from Egypt.

On December 9, the British army launched a limited target counterattack against the tenth group army of the Italian army with an armored division and an infantry division.

The British Army unexpectedly attacked the rear of the Italian army through the gap between the Italian army.

The command of the Italian army failed, and a large number of Italian troops fell without war.

On December 11, the British army recovered Sidi Barani.

On December 17, they occupied selum.

The Italian army withdrew from Egypt in a hurry and retreated to Libya.

The British army pursued the victory.

On January 5, 1941, the British army occupied the Libyan fortress baierdiye and occupied tubluk on January 22.

On February 6, it occupied Benghazi, Italy’s last important stronghold in East Libya.

On February 10, British troops arrived at the front line east of Aguilar and malada and occupied the whole territory of Cyrenaica.

At this time, he decided to transfer troops to the Balkans and build a military base in the Balkans by taking advantage of the failure of the Italian army in Greece.

Therefore, a British army in North Africa was transferred to Greece and stopped attacking in North Africa.

The British Army pushed westward for more than 800 kilometers in two months and achieved great results at a small cost.

The defeat of the Italian army in North Africa deeply disturbed.

For Hitler, Africa was a thorny secondary war zone.

Taking action there too early would interfere with and affect his whole strategic deployment.

However, Italy’s disastrous defeat in Africa forced Germany to disperse its forces and get involved in African wars.

On February 3, 1941, in consultation with the commander in chief of the three services, Hitler decided to send an armored force to North Africa.

The air force bombed the British forces in Cyrenaica and Malta Island, strengthened combat with the British navy and damaged British Maritime Transportation.

On February 5, Hitler sent a letter to Mussolini, informing Germany of the above decision, and demanded that Italian warplanes be under the jurisdiction of the German army, and the German and Italian rapid troops in North Africa be under the unified command of the German army.

Mussolini immediately accepted the German conditions, recalled graziani to China, took over the commander-in-chief of the Italian army in North Africa with Italo Garibaldi, and decided to send two new Italian divisions to North Africa.

On February 11, the German 5th light armored division arrived in Libya as the first batch of troops to Africa.

The next day, Rommel flew to Tripoli and met with Italian commander-in-chief Garibaldi there.

On the 18th, the German army officially named the troops sent to Libya as “German African Army”, and Rommel was appointed commander.

In order to strengthen the African Army, Hitler strengthened a tank regiment for the fifth light armored division and decided to form another 15th armored division to go to North Africa.

During this period, some British troops have been transferred to the Greek battlefield.

The commander-in-chief of the British army in North Africa, general verville, has been arrestedIt was noted that the German army sent troops to Africa, but it did not attract enough attention.

He mistakenly believed that it would take at least two months for the German army to transfer the troops and equipment of the two divisions to Tripoli.

Therefore, there will be no danger in spring, and the German Italian coalition will not launch an attack in the hot summer.

However, despite the warning of Franz halde, chief of general staff of the German army, and the reminder of Gary boldi, commander-in-chief of the Italian army in North Africa, Rommel commanded the German Italian coalition to launch a tentative attack on the British Army on March 24 and drove the British army to agueira.

Without the consent of the superior, he launched an attack on the British Army on March 31.

After encountering the tenacious resistance of the British army, Rommel gave up the frontal attack and implemented a circuitous siege to the wing of the British army.

The British army withdrew to ajdabiya without fighting.

The German Italian allied forces pursued the victory and captured ajdabiya on April 2.

Under the command of Rommel, the German Italian coalition troops were divided into three routes to attack north and northeast.

Hitler warned Rommel not to take risks, but by this time his vanguard troops had set out.

On April 4, the German Italian allied forces took Benghazi first, and then surrounded the tubluk fortress on April 11.

By mid April, the German Italian coalition army entered the border between Libya and Egypt and occupied the whole territory of Cyrenaica outside tubluk.

Rommel expected to be reinforced before launching an attack on the Egyptian capital Cairo.

However, Hitler was ready to concentrate all available forces to invade the Soviet Union and no longer send troops to North Africa.

The front there was stabilized near the Liere border.

On April 30, the British forces firmly guarding the tubluk stronghold smashed the new attack of the German Italian coalition.

On the border between Libya and Egypt, the British army launched a counter offensive on May 15 and advanced to selum and kaptso fort.

Later, due to the strengthening of resistance by the German Italian coalition, the British army withdrew its offensive starting position two days later.

On June 15, after careful preparation, the British army launched a counterattack again in an attempt to recapture the halfaya pass and border fortifications in order to advance to tubluk and rescue the besieged stronghold.

The British army made a detour to the southeast of halfaya pass and pushed northward through kaptso fort.

Soon, the 15th German armored division, supported by the 5th light armored division, stopped the British counterattack.

In the autumn of 1941, the main force of the German army fell into the Soviet German battlefield, and its African Army was facing supply difficulties.

Churchill believed that the British army should seize the warplanes and seize the whole of Libya, and urge the French army in North Africa to turn to the British side.

Order the new commander-in-chief of British forces in the Middle East, general Okin lake, to boldly attack and seize the strategic initiative in North Africa.

In the early morning of November 18, with the support of the air force and the Mediterranean fleet, the British army launched the “Crusader” campaign to crush 10 divisions of the German Italian coalition army, lift their siege of the tubluk stronghold and liberate Cyrenaica.

On the 20th, the British Army completed the siege of the German Italian coalition, and the two sides launched a fierce tank battle in sidirezeg.

On the 21st, the British troops guarding tubluk attacked with the support of tanks and were ready to join the British troops of sidirezeg.

On the 25th, Rommel attacked the British rear with strong forces and failed to achieve significant results.

On December 4, Rommel ordered to abandon the more than 200 day siege of tubluk.

The German Italian allied forces withdrew to the region of Ghazala in an attempt to prevent the British army from advancing westward.

Under the continuous attack of the British army, the German Italian coalition army was forced to withdraw to Tripoli and Tania.

When the British troops advanced to Aguilar, they stopped pursuing.

After two months of fighting, the British Army lifted the siege of tupluk and recovered Cyrenaica, but failed to complete the main task of annihilating the German Italian African armor cluster.

Rommel was brewing a counterattack while the German Italian allied forces withdrew westward.

Because he took a lot of deceptive measures, the preparations for the counter offensive were quite hidden.

On January 21, 1942, the German and Italian allied forces launched a counter offensive.

The British army was unprepared and retreated in a hurry.

On January 28, the German Italian coalition forces recaptured Benghazi.

On May 26, Rommel launched the “tessi” campaign with about 130000 people in 10 divisions, 610 tanks and 600 aircraft in an attempt to seize Egypt and rush to the Near East.

On June 1, the German Italian coalition army captured birhakam, and on June 14, the troops belonging to the eighth group army of the British army were expelled from Gaza.

On June 19, the German Italian allied forces concentrated their forces to besiege tubluk and capture the city two days later.

The German Italian allied forces continued to March eastward and pursued the retreating British army.

On June 26, the German and Italian allied forces surrounded the port of matru, Egypt, and on June 28, the British Army surrendered to the city.

On June 30, the German Italian allied forces approached the British position near alaman.

From July 1 to 3, Germany and Italy carried out the first alaman battle and repeatedly attacked the British defense positions.

Since then, due to the difficulty of logistics supply, lack of oil and limited military strength, Rommel was forced to stop the attack and the front was relatively stable.