Japan’s arrogant plan to establish a “new order in Greater East Asia” has directly damaged the political and economic interests of the United States, and the contradiction between Japan and the United States has become increasingly acute.
After Japan US relations reached an impasse, the Japanese government suggested that Japan US summit talks be held.
On August 8, 1941, Nomura proposed to hull to hold a summit meeting between the two countries in Hawaii.
Hull said he was not interested in the summit talks.
On August 28, Prime Minister Jinwei sent a letter asking the two heads of state to meet directly in Hawaii.
Japan also agreed with the four hull principles to the United States that these principles “should be applied not only to the Pacific region, but also to the whole world”.
Roosevelt said he could talk with the guards and was optimistic about the prospect of the talks.
Hull believes that three issues must be resolved before the summit: first, Japan’s withdrawal from China.
Second, the relationship between Japan and the alliance.
Third, equal trade opportunities in the Pacific region.
Roosevelt agreed with hull.
On September 3, Nomura held talks with Roosevelt and hull.
Roosevelt formally replied that he agreed to the US Japan summit and put forward the memorandum of the US government.
The memorandum reaffirmed hull’s principles and hoped that the summit would be held after reaching agreement on these principles.
In September 4th, the Japanese government also proposed new conditions for the negotiations between Japan and the United States.
The main points are: first, although Japan is based on the French Indochina, it does not attack the surrounding areas by force, nor does it attack the north without any reason.
Second, the attitude of the United States towards the European war should be based on the concept of defense.
Once the United States participates in the European war, Japan will take action in accordance with its interpretation of the Treaty of alliance between Germany, Italy and Japan.
Third, Japan strives to restore normal relations between Japan and China and is prepared to withdraw troops from China as soon as possible in accordance with the Japan China Agreement.
Fourth, the United States should resume trade relations with Japan and revoke the decision to freeze Japanese assets.
On September 27, Jinwei urged the United States to hold summit talks as soon as possible and believed that October 10-15 was appropriate.
However, Roosevelt believed that the summit would never be held without prior assurances.
On October 2, hull sent a note to the Japanese government that if the Japan US summit is to be held, Japan must promise to undertake the following four conditions: first, confirm the above-mentioned four principles as the basic principles among countries.
The two is the complete withdrawal of troops from China and French Indochina.
Third, abandon the special close relationship between Japan and China.
Fourth, abandon the substantive part of the treaty between the three countries.
On October 12, Japan held a five phase meeting.
There were differences between Jinwei and Hideki Tojo on how to expand.
Dongtiao Lu did not give in to the issue of garrison and advocated stopping the negotiations, while Jinwei hoped to achieve its goal through negotiations.
On October 16, Jinwei resigned and Dongtiao formed a cabinet.
The Japan US summit meeting was in vain.
Although the Japan US summit has not been realized, the talks between Nomura and hull have not been finally stopped.
On October 18, the Dongtiao cabinet was established, and Dongxiang maode served as foreign minister.
The Tojo cabinet is eager to take war action when the negotiations fail.
The Japan US negotiations have completely become a smokescreen to cover its war intention and a means to buy time.
The breakdown of the negotiations is only a matter of time.
On November 1, the joint meeting between the Japanese army base camp and the government decided to continue to negotiate and strive to reach an agreement, and make war determination and prepare for war.
On November 5, the pre imperial meeting made a decision to start war against the United States, Britain and the Netherlands.
The time is early December, and the negotiations with the United States will continue until December 1.
According to this decision, Dongxiang called Nomura and asked him to first put forward Japan’s case a, and then put forward case B as the final plan if it is difficult for the United States to accept it.
At the same time, he also sent an additional special envoy to assist Nomura in the negotiations.
On November 7, Nomura submitted case a to hull.
On November 14, hull officially rejected the a case and advocated that all Japanese troops withdraw from China.
On November 20, Nomura and laiqi submitted case B to hull.
The main contents are: the governments of Japan and the United States mutually guarantee not to expand by force in South Asia and the South Pacific outside French Indochina, the United States supplies oil required by Japan, and the United States does not set obstacles to the peace efforts of Japan and China.
On November 26, hull told Nomura and laiqi that he could not agree with the Japanese “case B”.
On the same day, Japanese mobile forces set sail in concealment.
As early as September 6, 1941, Japan’s pre imperial conference adopted the essentials for the implementation of the imperial national policy, which officially put forward: “in order to ensure self preservation and self-defense, the Empire, with the determination to fight against the United States, will roughly complete the war preparation in late October.
If the diplomatic negotiations still fail to meet our requirements by early October, it will be determined to fight against the United States.
” On November 5, the pre imperial meeting approved the “Essentials for the implementation of imperial national policies”, which set “the time to start the war as early December”.
On November 29, the emperor of Japan listened to the opinions of important ministers.
In his speech, 23 dignitaries advocated “enduring the United States and maintaining the status quo to avoid danger”, while 13 dignitaries advocated “war against the United States”.
Hideki Tojo informed the cabinet and the imperial command that now there is no choice but war, otherwise, “we will lose the opportunity to fight”.
On December 1, Japan’s pre imperial meeting made a final decision – “no agreement was reached in the negotiations with the United States.
The Empire went to war against the United States, Britain and the Netherlands”.
Since the Japanese pre imperial conference decided to launch the Pacific War on September 6, 1941, the Japanese base camp has focused on formulating war guidance plans for the United States, Britain and the Netherlands.
By early October, the “guiding outline for the war against the United States, Britain and the Netherlands” was formulated, which includes: the purpose of the war, the guiding principles of the war, the guiding points of armed warfare, the scope of armed warfare, the outline for the treatment of occupied areas, the guiding points of ideological warfare, the guiding points of economic warfare, the guiding outline of diplomatic warfare, and the strategy for ending the war.
After that, the Japanese base camp formulated the “draft on promoting the end of the war against the United States, Britain, the Netherlands and Chiang Kai Shek”.
The plan adopted at the joint meeting of the base camp and the government on November 15 stipulates that the essentials of the war are: the Empire should carry out flash warfare, destroy the bases of the United States, Britain and the Netherlands in East Asia and the southwest Pacific, establish strategic advantages, and ensure important resource areas and major transportation lines, resulting in a situation of long-term self-sufficiency.
Try to use all means to lure the main force of the US Navy and annihilate it in time.
There is no doubt that Japan takes the occupation of resource areas in the south, seizing the rich resources there and ensuring the safety of traffic lines as an important focus of its war.
However, Japan is very worried about being attacked by the US Pacific fleet from Hawaii when attacking the south.
To this end, JapanThis decision was to annihilate the US Pacific Fleet, but there was no consensus on what measures to take.
On January 7, 1941, Japanese joint fleet commander Yamamoto 56 said in his “opinion on war preparedness” to the Minister of the Navy: the operational policy and plan to be adopted in the early stage of the war: use all the aviation forces of the first and second aviation fleets to launch a sudden attack on the US Pacific Fleet while taking advantage of the moonlight or dawn, “Strive for total annihilation” of the US fleet anchored in Pearl Harbor.
The Japanese base camp adopted Yamamoto’s opinion and formulated a plan to attack Pearl Harbor according to his idea, which is code named “Z” operation plan.
Pearl Harbor is located in the south of Oahu Island in the Hawaiian Islands.
It is the main base of the U.S. Navy in the Pacific Ocean.
It is also an important maritime transportation route between the United States, the Far East and the Western Pacific.
It has a very important strategic position and is known as the “heart of the Pacific”.
The inner water area of Pearl Harbor is about 32 square kilometers, with an average water depth of 12 to 18 meters.
It can park about 500 ships at the same time.
The base has complete facilities and equipment, including military ports, airports, air stations, oil depots, ammunition depots, ship repair yards and other military facilities.
In May 1940, in order to curb Japan’s further expansion in the Pacific region, the United States moved the Pacific fleet from the west coast of the United States to Pearl Harbor.
The attack on Pearl Harbor is an important part of Japan’s strategic plan to launch the Pacific War.
The strategic attempt is to launch an attack in the form of sudden attack, use shipborne aviation to destroy or paralyze the large ships and aircraft of the US Pacific Fleet, make it difficult for them to recover and participate in the war for a period of time, seize the sea and air control in the early stage of the war, and ensure the safety of the flanks of Japan’s southward strategy.
As for the timing of war, considering the reduction of oil reserves and the rapid enhancement of the joint defense forces of the United States, Britain and the Netherlands, Japan feels that the sooner the better.
According to the climate and sea waves, the base camp finally chose the timing of war in early December.
According to the Japanese War guidance plan, the land and Navy part of the Japanese army base camp formulated land and Navy operation plans separately.
Since May 1940, the army has begun to formulate operational plans against the United States, Britain and the Netherlands.
The initial plan was to capture Malaysia and the Philippines and other regional operations, and then changed to a comprehensive operation plan.
In 1940, the army’s operational plan stipulated that 9 divisions of troops should be used to attack Hongkong, Indochina, Borneo, Malaysia and Philippines.
The Navy’s operational plan in 1940 stipulates that the operational principles for this stage are: first, quickly annihilate the enemy of the eastern ocean and seize the sea power in the early stage of the war.
Coordinate with the army to capture Hong Kong, Luzon Island and important places nearby.
The northern part of France is captured and captured as far as possible in the southern part of Indochina.
In addition, at the beginning of the war, Guam should be captured with the coordination of the army.
Then, if circumstances permit, they will occupy important places such as British Borneo and Malaysia and seize Singapore.
The second is to spy on the movements of the enemy fleet, especially the US main fleet, try our best to weaken the enemy’s maritime power and focus on destroying the enemy’s maritime traffic lines in the Indian Ocean.
The operational policy of the second stage is that in addition to carrying out the established operational tasks, all units should also cooperate with the main force of the joint fleet.
The main force of the joint fleet will be annihilated after the main force of the enemy fleet enters the Dongyang sea area.
At this time, the British and American fleets should be wiped out as much as possible.
Obviously, this plan puts the occupation of important places in the south in the first stage and the interception of the US main fleet in the second stage.
This arrangement is extremely unfavorable, because it is extremely dangerous to transport army troops by sea in the presence of the enemy main fleet.
Therefore, the Japanese base camp adopted Yamamoto’s plan to attack Pearl Harbor with main aircraft carriers at the beginning of the war in 1941.
As the main aircraft carrier was used to sneak attack Pearl Harbor, the Japanese base camp decided to use the main air force of land and navy base in the southern operation to carry out air attack.
By August 1941, the Japanese Navy had basically completed the formulation of the battle plan.
After that, the Navy conducted a map exercise on the operation plan in September.
After research, the headquarters Department of the Navy approved the above operation plan by the end of October.
The chief of staff of Sugiyama and the chief of military command of Nagano played the battle plan to the emperor on November 3 and 5.
On November 5, the emperor approved the naval operation plan.
The Navy’s operational plan stipulates that the operational essentials of the first stage are as follows: first, in the early stage of operation, attack the US main fleet anchored in Pearl Harbor with the first aviation fleet.
Second, at the same time, the 11th aviation fleet cooperated with the army to carry out sudden attacks on the Philippines and the Malay Peninsula, and then carry out air combat missions in the theater.
Third, the second fleet carried out combat missions in the Philippine Sea area to seize the sea power in East Asia and ensure the safety of Army Transportation at sea.
Fourth, the Third Fleet escorts the fleet transporting landing troops in the Philippines and important places in the South and covers their landing operations.
The southern task force cooperates with the troops landing on the Malay Peninsula.
Fifth, the second fleet took part in the operation of attacking and occupying Hong Kong, and the fourth fleet took part in the operation of seizing Guam, waicrete island and Rabaul.
Sixth, the Sixth Fleet took part in the attack on Pearl Harbor, and then continued to attack enemy ships and weaken the enemy’s naval forces.
Seventh, in the first stage of operations, if the main fleet of the United States comes to attack, the main force of the joint fleet other than the third fleet and the southern fleet will meet and annihilate it.
According to the decisions of the Japanese pre imperial conference in various periods, the Japanese base camp stepped up the preparations for launching the Pacific War and implemented the strategic deployment of troops.
From January 29 to March 27, 1941, representatives of the US and British staff held a joint meeting in to adopt a new strategic plan.
The plan stipulates that, according to the strategic policy of “Europe before Asia” determined by both sides, if Japan launches an attack, the military strategy of the United States and Britain in the Far East is to take a defensive position and “take a containment war of attrition against Japan before Germany is defeated”.
According to the regulations of the Philippines, Guam and Crete are the main defense missions of the Philippines, so as to ensure that they are not infringed by the Pacific Fleet.
In addition, in order to reduce the pressure on the British forces in the Malaysian defense line, the fleet will use submarines to destroy Japan’s maritime traffic lines and take containment actions in the Marshall Islands and Caroline Islands.
On April 27, the military representatives of Britain, the United States and the Netherlands met in Singapore to discuss the Countermeasures of the Japanese army’s attack on Southeast Asia and formulate a common defense plan.
At the meeting, the representatives of the United Kingdom and the Netherlands requestedThe United States sent warships to Singapore to deter Japan.
The representative of the United States refused on the ground that it was “not in line with the overall strategy of the United States”.
From August 9 to 12, Roosevelt and held the Atlantic conference to revise the war plan and diplomatic policy of the United States and Britain.
The meeting discussed the situation in Europe and the Far East, adopted the Atlantic Charter, and both sides agreed to issue a serious warning to Japan.
On November 2, Churchill called Roosevelt: “the more determined you and we are, the less likely they are to wage war.
” In order to prevent the Japanese army from advancing southward, Britain sent admiral Phillips to lead the Z fleet composed of aircraft carrier “invincible”, battleship “Prince of Wales”, Battlecruiser “counterattack”, Destroyer “ilera”, “express”, “tenedos” and “vampire” from Britain to the Far East.
However, the aircraft carrier invincible hit a reef in Bermuda and could not serve as air cover for the formation.
The battleship Prince of Wales and the Battlecruiser counterattack arrived in Singapore before December 7.
With the implementation of the alliance strategy, the war preparedness of the United States and Britain in the Pacific region has been strengthened.
During this period, the United States has taken some practical steps to improve its situation in the Pacific region.
In April 1940, the US Navy Fleet conducted an annual exercise from the west coast of the United States to the Hawaiian Islands.
On May 7, US naval operations Secretary stark informed us admiral Richardson that after the exercise, he had been stationed in Pearl Harbor for a long time and did not return to the west coast.
The purpose was to force Japan to give up its plan to go south due to the failure of the Netherlands and the plight of Britain and France, so as to curb Japan’s actions.
However, the construction of the base of Pearl Harbor had not been completed at that time.
On October 18, Richardson, the commander of the fleet stationed in Hawaii, reported to Roosevelt that it was dangerous for the fleet to train in Hawaiian waters under the tense international situation because it was not ready for battle.
He suggested that the fleet return to the west coast of the United States.
In addition, some people in the Navy also oppose the permanent presence of the fleet in Hawaii.
They believe that this will not effectively clamp down on Japan, but will give Japan an excuse to wage war.
Roosevelt ignored Richardson and the rest of the Navy, and later even dismissed Richardson from the post of admiral.
On January 27, 1941, U.S. ambassador to Japan Geru reported to U.S. Secretary of state hull that the Japanese armed forces attempted to use all military means to sneak into Pearl Harbor on a large scale.
The State Department copied the important information sent back by Ambassador Gru to the Department of the army and the Department of the Navy, but this information did not attract enough attention.
On May 27, Roosevelt delivered a radio speech announcing that the United States had entered an “indefinite state of national emergency”.
On November 25, Roosevelt held the supreme military conference at the White House.
Hull, Stimson, Knox, Marshall and stark attended the conference.
According to the decision to confront Japan, the United States has taken various measures and made necessary military preparations.
On June 14, 1940, Roosevelt signed a bill to increase the number of naval ships by 11%.
On June 30, the United States decided to have 1 million army weapons and equipment, reserve 2 million army equipment, have the ability to produce 4 million army weapons, and provide 18000 aircraft for the army every year.
On July 19, Roosevelt signed the “two ocean Navy Expansion Act”, which stipulated that between 1940 and 1945, $4 billion would be allocated to build 257 additional ships with a total displacement of 1.
325 million tons, increasing the strength of the Navy by 70%, including the construction of 9 battleships, 11 aircraft carriers, 44 cruisers, more than 100 destroyers, and 100000 aircraft.
On September 16, the United States promulgated the conscription law, which stipulates that all men aged 21 to 35 are registered and ready to join the army.
At that time, the US Army was small.
In 1940, there were only 270000 troops in the army, 190000 in the Navy, less than 500000 in total, and 230000 in the National Guard.
On January 24, 1941, US Secretary of the Navy Knox sent a letter to Secretary of the army Stimson, proposing the “defense of Hawaii”.
He suggested to Stimson: the Army Department should first consider increasing Hawaiian fighters, anti-aircraft guns and establishing an air defense warning network.
In order to improve the defense of Pearl Harbor, the Army Department should consider the use of blocking balloons, smoke screens and other special devices.
It is necessary to formulate a unified operational plan for the local Navy and army to launch a sudden attack on enemy aircraft and effectively cooperate with air combat, ship and land air defense firepower.
Agree that the land and naval forces of Oahu Island should make appropriate joint defense preparations to prevent the sudden air attack of enemy aircraft on Pearl Harbor.
In order to defend against sudden air strikes, as long as the current turbulent situation continues to develop, the land and naval forces of Oahu will hold joint combat readiness exercises at least once a week.
On February 7, Stimson replied to Knox: “we fully agree to make maximum preparations immediately.
We should give special priority to the defense of Pearl Harbor.
” Although the Secretary of the army and the Secretary of the navy have given priority to strengthening the defense of Pearl Harbor, in fact, the defense of Pearl Harbor is very weak: the army was originally equipped with 180 B-17 aircraft, but actually only 12.
In fact, only 300 airships are required by the local commander.
There are 6 mobile radars, but the working time is very short, and 3 fixed radars are still being installed.
In February 1941, the US Navy officially established the two ocean fleet.
The Atlantic detachment of the navy was reorganized into the Atlantic Fleet, with Admiral Ernest king as commander.
The fleet in Pearl Harbor was reorganized into the Pacific Fleet, with Admiral hespend Kimmel as the commander, the former far east naval force in the Philippines was renamed the Asian fleet, and Admiral Thomas Hart as the commander.
On February 15, shortly after taking office, Kimmel warned the fleet that Japan “may sneak attacks on warships in Pearl Harbor and submarines on ships sailing at sea before declaring war”.
On February 18, Kimmel sent a letter to naval operations Secretary Stark: “I feel that a sudden attack on Pearl Harbor is possible.
We are taking immediate and feasible steps to minimize the damage caused by such an attack and ensure that the attacking enemy will pay a price.
” On February 27, Kimmel sent another letter to stark, hoping to give priority to supplying the army with aircraft and anti-aircraft guns for the defense mission of Pearl Harbor.
According to the strategic principle of “Europe before Asia”, in April and may, three battleships, one aircraft carrier, five destroyers, three oil tankers and three transport ships of the US Pacific Fleet were ordered to be transferred to the Atlantic Fleet to cope with the British invasionIn 1 hour and 30 minutes, 40 torpedoes and 556 various bombs were dropped, with a total of 144 tons.
The Japanese army sank and injured more than 40 American ships, destroyed 188 American planes and injured more than 4500 American people at a small cost of killing and wounding about 200 people and losing 29 aircraft and 5 submarines.
During the Japanese sneak attack on Pearl Harbor, four US aircraft carriers and 22 other ships went out to sea to perform tasks, so they survived.
The success of Japan’s sneak attack on Pearl Harbor caused serious losses to the Pacific fleet of the US Navy, lost its combat effectiveness and paralyzed for half a year.
From then on, the Japanese army can successfully carry out offensive campaigns in the western and southwestern Pacific, while the formation attacking Pearl Harbor can be used to support operations.
Japan’s sudden attack on Pearl Harbor opened the prelude to the Pacific War.
At 6:00 on the same day, the Japanese army and Navy headquarters announced: “the Imperial Army and Navy entered a state of war with the US and British forces in the Western Pacific early this morning.
” At 11:40, the Japanese government announced the imperial edict of the emperor declaring war on the United States.
Japan’s undeclared act of aggression shocked the US government and the public, and the whole country was extremely indignant.
The domestic voice of “isolationism” and “peace” against the US participation in the war and the protest against the government’s arms expansion immediately came to naught.
At the same time, it also declared the failure of the appeasement policy pursued by the US government for a long time.
Since then, the American people have been united, and people from all walks of life and political parties have expressed their support for the government’s declaration of war against Japan.
On the evening of December 7, President Roosevelt quickly convened a government meeting to discuss various countermeasures.
On December 8, Roosevelt delivered a state of war address to the joint meeting of the Senate and the house of Representatives.
He said: yesterday, December 7, 1941, we must always remember this humiliating day! The United States of America was suddenly and deliberately attacked by the naval and air forces of the Japanese Empire.
The United States and Japan live in peace.
At Japan’s request, they are still holding talks with their government and the emperor in order to maintain peace in the Pacific.
History will prove that Hawaii is so far away from Japan, indicating that the attack was carefully planned for many days or even weeks.
During this period, the Japanese government deliberately deceived the United States with false statements and expressed its desire to continue to maintain peace.
After Roosevelt’s speech, the US Congress passed the “Declaration of war on Japan” and clearly pointed out that Japan had taken combat action against all US territories without provocation.
The two houses of Congress held a joint meeting today to decide to declare war on Japan.
On December 9, President Roosevelt signed this document and officially declared a state of war with Japan.