At the beginning of European aggression and expansion, Germany and Italy gradually established fascist colonial rule in the countries and regions they occupied, which is called the “new order” of Europe.
Under this guise, they have committed unforgivable crimes of cruel and violent rule, genocide and economic plunder against the people of the occupied territories.
On March 7, 1936, the German army entered Rhineland and began the rehearsal of external expansion.
Two weeks later, he declared for the first time that Europe should establish a “new order”.
The implication is to establish a Europe dominated by Aryan “superior race” advocated by him.
In May 1939, Hitler reiterated at a high-level military conference in Germany that Germany should be given “living space commensurate with its national status” to solve the food supply and other economic problems of its 80 million people.
Accordingly, Germany was not satisfied with the restoration of its pre World War I borders and was ready to incorporate northern France, most of Burgundy, Alsace and Lorraine, Austria, and the countries and regions where the Dutch, Danes, Norwegians and Swedes were located into the territory of greater Germany.
In the East, we should seize a vast “living space” directly to the Ural for our country.
Among them, the Baltic Sea coastal area, Ukraine and Kerim should become Germany’s immigration areas.
Germany’s satellite countries were established in the rest of France, the Balkans, Italy, Spain and Portugal.
Hitler believed that the only way to achieve the above goals was to launch war and expand abroad.
Racism is also an important factor affecting the concept of a “new order” in Germany and Europe.
The Nazi party platform slanders Jews as the “scourge” of the German nation and incites and destroys Germany.
Hitler claimed that only the “superior race” Aryans were “builders of civilization” and had the right to dominate Europe.
“Inferior races” such as Jews and Slavs are “destroyers of civilization”.
He advocated the elimination of the Jewish and Slavic nationalities by means of war and the razation of major cities such as Warsaw, Moscow and grad, so as to make a broad “living space” for the Germanic nation.
In January 1939, when he delivered a speech at the German parliament, he predicted again: “if the international Jewish financial forces inside and outside Europe can plunge countries into a world war again, the result will not be the bolshevikization of the world and the subsequent victory of Jews, but the complete elimination of the Jewish nation in Europe.
” Accordingly, Germany formulated the policy of national extinction and national oppression.
In the fields of politics and culture, German propaganda minister Goebbels declared in April 1940 that Germany’s “revolution” should be extended to European countries.
The implication is to enforce the fascist system in the countries and regions occupied by Germany, exercise comprehensive control over these countries and regions, and ban and suppress all anti Nazi activities.
In order to completely eliminate Bolshevism, In March 1941, Hitler put forward the following guidelines on issues related to the invasion of the Soviet Union: the impending Soviet German war “It is not only an armed struggle, but also a struggle between two world views.
Due to the vast territory, the armed forces that defeat the enemy are not enough to end the war.
The whole region must be disintegrated into several countries and each establish a government with which we can reconcile”, “the Jewish Bolshevik intellectuals who have oppressed the people so far must be eradicated”.
On June 6, the German command issued the “order on political commissar” according to Hitler’s will.
The order stipulates that in the struggle against Bolshevism, captured political members should not be treated according to the standards of international law, but all political members should be selected from prisoners of war and then executed on the spot.
In order to solve the economic difficulties caused by militarism and meet the needs of expanding the war of aggression, von K, the German Minister of economy and President of the National Bank, who was responsible for formulating the European “new order” plan, announced at home and abroad on July 25, 1940 that Germany’s idea of “transforming” the European economy is to implement professional division of labor and “close cooperation” among countries, Arrange industrial and agricultural production under a unified plan.
Adjust the export structure and reduce trade barriers.
Berlin is the financial center of Europe and the Deutsche mark is the common currency.
In short, Europe should become an economic community controlled by Germany.
All occupied areas and satellite countries of Germany should provide Germany with raw materials and commodity sales markets to maximize Germany’s needs for arms production, economic stability, welfare improvement and world hegemony.
This is the first plan of the German authorities on the “new order” in Europe, but it only involves economic aspects.
The political significance of the “new order” did not become clear until the signing of the alliance treaty between Germany and Italy on September 27, 1940.
Italy is only Germany’s “little partner”, obeying Germany everywhere, and its occupied territory and sphere of influence are also relatively limited.
Therefore, the above ideas of Germany basically represent Germany and Italy.
The “new order” in Europe was gradually established by German and Italian Fascists in the process of external expansion by means of aggressive war.
From March 1938 to March 1939, Germany first annexed Austria and the Czech Republic in Central Europe by force threat and diplomatic means.
Since the German army invaded Poland in September 1939, it successively occupied Denmark, Norway, the Netherlands, Belgium, Rwanda and France in northern and Western Europe in 1940.
In April 1941, Germany, together with Italy and other countries, invaded and divided Yugoslavia and Greece in southern Europe.
So far, Germany has seized about 2 million square kilometers of land and about 140 million people in Europe.
After the German army invaded the Soviet Union in June 1941, it once occupied a large area of the European part of the Soviet Union west of Moscow.
In addition, Italy occupied Ethiopia and France in April 1939 and June 1940.
Thus, it created conditions for the establishment of a “new order” in Europe.
In order to strengthen the control and plunder of the occupied countries and regions, according to its racist and geopolitical principles and strategic considerations, German fascists temporarily adopted four types of ruling forms for different objects: the first type, which was incorporated into the merger area of German territory.
In 1938, Germany first annexed the Sudeten region of Austria and Czechoslovakia, and then divided it into several administrative regions.
On October 8, 1939, Hitler issued the announcement on administrative divisions and management measures in the eastern region, which incorporated a large area of Polish territory into Germany.
The second category is German immigration areas directly under the jurisdiction of German administrative officials.
one hundred and ninety-threeOn March 16, 2009, Hitler ordered that the remaining territory of the Czech Republic newly occupied by the German army be incorporated into the German state, but retained its limited autonomy and was renamed the Bohemian Moravian protectorate.
The head of the autonomous government must be Hitler, and the members of the government must be approved by the Bohemian Moravian protection officer of Germany before they can take office.
The German protection officer is responsible for supervising the local government and can directly issue decrees.
According to Hitler’s order on October 12, a governor’s district was established in Polish territory including Warsaw, Krakow and Lublin, and Hans frank, the former Minister of judicial unity of Germany, was appointed governor of the district.
On August 1, 1941, the eastern Galicia region was also incorporated into the governor’s jurisdiction.
After the German army invaded the Soviet Union, it successively established the Commissioner area of the eastern region and the Commissioner area of Ukraine to govern the occupied western Soviet Union.
During the Second World War, Germany began to immigrate to these areas.
The third category is the servant state under the supervision of German administrative officials.
For political reasons, Germany allows Denmark, Norway, the Netherlands and other countries with different numbers of Germanic residents to remain “independent” temporarily, but under the close supervision of the German plenipotentiary or commissioner.
For example, Germany once advertised Denmark as its “model protectorate”.
Its king and government were retained because they agreed to the German occupation.
The former central and local governments apparently worked as usual.
Their troops were not disarmed, and even the country’s non fascist political parties were not dissolved.
However, any major decision of the country must be agreed by the German plenipotentiary.
However, in July 1940, the Danish government was forced to restructure, pro German fascists joined the government, and schawillis became prime minister.
Since then, Denmark’s domestic and foreign policies have reversed, and people’s freedom of assembly, speech and other rights have been restricted.
The government took anti Semitic measures and signed the anti communist international agreement on September 25, 1941.
Later, with the change of the war situation, Germany’s defeat in the Soviet German battlefield and the development of the anti fascist movement in Denmark, Germany simply tore off the mask of “model protectorate” and changed from indirect control to direct control.
Denmark is under martial law, and its state activities are monitored by the German SS and the police.
Similarly, several other governments are also puppet regimes supported by Germany.
The fourth category is the military area directly controlled by the German armed forces.
According to the needs of the subsequent combat situation, the German army exercised military control over the important ports of the Netherlands, most of Belgium, the northern and western coastal areas of France, the British Channel Islands, most of Serbia in Yugoslavia, Thessaloniki in Greece and some islands, as well as part of the territory of the Soviet Union behind the German army.
In addition to exercising classified rule over the occupied countries and regions, Germany also incorporated its servant countries into its European “new order”.
Romania, Hungary, Slovakia, Croatia and Bulgaria were drawn into the alliance of Germany, Italy and Japan, and Finland and Spain were also regarded as allies by Germany.
In the “new order” of Europe, the above-mentioned countries maintain “independence” in name, but in fact, they are also under the control, oppression and plunder of Germany, and are tied to their chariots of aggression and expansion.
In August and September 1940, Germany forced Romania to cede North Transylvania and South dobroga to Hungary and Bulgaria respectively.
Later, Romania, Hungary and Bulgaria were asked to provide them with military bases, a large number of food and raw materials, and bear the occupation expenses of the German army.
In addition, soldiers from Hungary, Romania, Sri Lanka, Finland and Spain were also driven to the battlefields of invading Yugoslavia and the Soviet Union.
As the main ally of Nazi Germany, Italy was very dependent on Germany.
On the one hand, it was influenced and manipulated by Germany, and on the other hand, it established its own “new order” in its limited sphere of influence.
From 1939 to 1941, Italy successively incorporated all the territory of Albania, Kosovo of Yugoslavia, one part of Macedonia, some coastal areas and islands of Dalmatia, southern Slovenia and the South spolazes islands of Greece into its territory, and controlled most of Greece Military control was implemented in Montenegro, Yugoslavia and some areas on the left bank of Menton and Rhone River in France.
At the same time, German and Italian fascists also formulated a series of occupation laws and regulations, implemented fascist dictatorship and predatory “economic integration”, and set up relevant institutions.
For example, shortly after the German army invaded the Soviet Union, Hitler issued the decree on the management of the New Oriental occupied areas and the decree on the security of the New Oriental occupied areas on July 17, 1941.
The decree stipulates that once the fighting in these areas stops, the German military authorities will hand over the management of civil affairs departments with the participation of relevant personnel such as SS and police.
In order to unify the leadership of the above-mentioned regional commissions, Germany has also established a new Ministry of Eastern occupied areas affairs headed by Rosenberg.
In addition to the implementation of the continuous sitting responsibility system in the occupied areas, Hitler issued the “night fog order” on December 2, 1941, stipulating that “anyone who violates the German occupation authorities or the German occupation forces, except those sentenced to death, shall be secretly taken back to Germany and handed over to the security police and the SS security department for sentencing or execution”.
These people must wear signs, shall not communicate with their country and their families during their detention, and do not notify their families after death, so as to obtain a “lasting deterrent effect”.
For the affairs of the occupied areas, the German Ministry of the interior, the Ministry of economy, the secret police, the SS, the “Tott organization” responsible for the construction of strategic projects and the Commissioner for labor distribution have stepped in one after another.
They have overlapping functions and powers and act in their own ways, forming the rudiment of a chaotic “new order” in Europe.
The German Italian Fascist “new order” in Europe is a complete deprivation of the national sovereignty and national interests of European countries and a genocide, colonial rule and crazy plunder of the people of all ethnic groups in Europe.
Therefore, it has been firmly opposed by the European people.
The violent rule over the occupied areas of Europe and the establishment of the European “new order” rely on violence, and the maintenance and consolidation of this “new order” can only rely on violence.
Under the violent rule of German and Italian fascists, the secret police replaced the intelligence bureau, the SS replaced the national defense force, the torture room replaced the military court, and Europe became a prison for all ethnic groups.
Anti Semitism and annihilation of Semitism is the consistent thought and proposition of Hitler and the Nazi party.
In September 1939, after the German army invaded Poland, Polish Jews immediately fell into a very tragic situation.
Within six weeks, 57000 Jews were escorted to Germany for labour.
In cities such as Warsaw and Rhodes, Jews live inSame body.
In Poland, according to Goering’s order in October 1939, the occupation authorities tried to integrate the economy of the merged area into the German economic system as soon as possible, and transported all the raw materials, waste materials and machines that can be used for the German war economy in the governor’s area.
In the Bohemian Moravian protectorate, Czechs can handle most of the transactional economic work, but it must be completed under the direct supervision of Germany.
In Yugoslavia, Germany and Italy confiscated private enterprises, transportation and commodity reserves and plundered all grain.
Germany regards Yugoslavia as its ideal food base, and special commissioners are set up here to ensure the collection and supply of food.
In Greece, a large number of raw materials and grain were plundered to Germany, and Italy and Bulgaria also got a share.
In the Soviet Union, Germany’s plunder was more unscrupulous.
Before the war, the German command had instructed the troops to “make Germany get as much food and oil as possible, which is the main economic goal of the war”.
The first economic plunder plan against the Soviet Union, studied and formulated by the war economy and armaments Bureau of the German command, was to prevent the Soviet army from destroying grain, raw materials and industrial reserves and damaging national defense factories, mines and railway trunk lines during withdrawal.
In the first few months of the war against the Soviet Union, it began to use the economic resources of the European part of the Soviet Union to meet the war needs of the German army.
Therefore, the plan places particular emphasis on the importance of occupying the oil producing areas of the Caucasus.
In order to further obtain detailed information about the military industry, raw materials and fuel producing areas of the Soviet Union, and study and make use of them, the German war economy and armament bureau also established a war economy Staff Headquarters codenamed “Oldenburg”.
After the outbreak of the Soviet German war, the ministry added five economic inspection offices, 23 economic inspection teams and their branches to “develop” the economy of the occupied areas.
The document prepared by the Ministry stipulates that valuable raw materials and equipment from the Soviet Union shall be transported to Germany immediately, and as much food and oil as possible shall be seized.
Not only that, Germany even looted all the art galleries, museums, libraries and precious cultural relics and art treasures in private collections there.
In addition, Germany also integrated the economies of the Netherlands, Belgium, France and Denmark, and made full use of their factories and enterprises to serve Germany’s war economy through mandatory processing and ordering.
Relying on its military strength, Germany forced its occupying power and protectorate to provide loans far exceeding the amount they could lend, and clearly stipulated in the liquidation agreement that these loans should be repaid after the end of the war.
In this way, Germany received considerable money.
For example, the Bank of France was forced to lend 4.
5 billion marks to Germany.
Occupation fees are a large amount of German income.
Germany forced the occupied country to bear all the expenses of the German occupying forces according to the standards required by Germany and the country’s ability to pay.
Fine is a common way of economic plunder in Germany.
From time to time, it fined the occupied country for all kinds of unnecessary charges in order to obtain more funds.
In short, through various ways of collecting money, Germany squeezed a total of 104 billion marks from the occupied countries.
The lack of labor force is one of the main problems faced by the war machine of Germany.
Enslaving the labor force in the occupied areas is an important part of Germany’s foreign plunder.
In order to make up for the shortage of German labor force, Hitler pointed out as early as May 23, 1930: “residents in non German areas do not accept military service and can provide labor force.
” After the outbreak of the European war, Germany robbed tens of thousands of foreigners to Germany for labor service.
In fact, the number of people working for Germany in the occupied areas far exceeds the number of people working in Germany.
In addition, Himmler decided in the spring of 1942 to make maximum use of the labor in the concentration camp.
Therefore, new types of “labor education camp”, “foreign migrant camp” and “forced labor camp” were added to the Nazi concentration camp.
Millions of prisoners were forced to work for the Germans endlessly until they were tired to death.