After the outbreak of the European war, the president declared that the United States remained neutral.
On September 5, 1939, he signed the declaration of neutrality, declaring that the export of arms and military materials to belligerents was prohibited.
In fact, the Roosevelt administration neither believed that the United States could stay out of the war, nor was it willing to truly abide by the neutral position.
American policymakers realize that America is no longer a single continent, and conflicts or wars on other continents will inevitably affect the United States, especially the Atlantic.
If it is controlled by hostile countries, it will do harm to the United States.
In the face of German, Italian and Japanese fascist countries advancing step by step from the East and West, the United States is in danger of fighting between the two oceans at any time.
Once caught in a two-line battle, the US Navy will not be able to undertake the defense of the Western Hemisphere alone.
Only Britain and France can provide effective support to the United States.
Therefore, the American decision-makers have a consensus that the security of the United States and the Western Hemisphere depends on the existence of Britain and France, and it is in the interests of the United States to assist Britain and France.
In fact, Roosevelt also made it clear in his speech on September 3 that as long as the peace in any place is destroyed, the peace of all countries in the world is threatened.
Every word from the air, every ship sailing in the ocean and every battle competing with each other will affect the future of the United States.
I can’t ask every American to be ideologically neutral.
Even the neutral has the right to consider the facts.
Even a neutral person should not be asked to shut his eyes and hide his conscience.
Therefore, while strengthening the war preparation and defense of the United States, the Roosevelt administration actively sought to modify or cancel the several revised Chinese legislation introduced in 1935.
When the German army attacked and the Polish army continued to rout, American public opinion generally believed that France and Britain would be the next targets of the war.
However, without the assistance of the United States, France and Britain would face extinction.
Once they were defeated, the security of the United States would be directly threatened.
As a result, the attitude of Congress towards the Chinese legislation has changed, and more and more members support the principle of “cash purchase and self transportation”.
However, this does not mean that the amendment of the Chinese legislation has come naturally.
In fact, there is still great resistance to the amendment of the Chinese legislation.
Although American public opinion generally sympathizes with Britain and France and most people are in favor of assisting Britain and France, they firmly oppose any assistance that may involve the United States in war.
Isolationists set off a national radio campaign.
Senator Bola accused the repeal of the Chinese legislation of interference.
Senator Vandenberg said that the United States could not become the arsenal of one side and not the target of the other.
The leader of the isolationist group decided to stick to the position that “voting for the abolition of neutrality is voting for war” in the congressional debate.
In order to deal with the challenges of isolationists and dispel the public’s doubts and worries, Roosevelt took the sincere cooperation between the two parties and the avoidance of war as the keynote of trying to amend the Chinese legislation.
The day before Congress, Roosevelt invited leaders of both parties and Republican presidential and vice presidential candidates Langdon and Knox in 1936 to attend a meeting of the White House, calling on the two parties to cooperate sincerely and act together at an urgent moment to cancel the Chinese legislation.
Participants agreed to lift the embargo, implement “cash and carry” and do not provide loans to belligerents.
On September 21, 1939, the United States Congress convened a special session on the legislation of the people’s Republic of China, Roosevelt stressed in his speech: “the embargo provisions of the Chinese legislation pose a fatal threat to the neutrality and security of the United States, especially the peace of the United States.
By abolishing the embargo, the United States may be able to maintain peace better than maintaining the current law.
Cash and self transportation is a positive way to provide security.
” A few days later, pitman, chairman of the Senate Foreign Affairs Committee, proposed an amended “Chinese legislation”, which stipulated that the embargo should be lifted, the principle of cash purchase and self transportation should be implemented, American ships and American citizens should be prohibited from entering the war zone designated by the president, and loans to belligerent countries should be prohibited.
After nearly a month of debate in the Congress, the faction supporting the amendment of the Chinese legislation defeated the opposition.
On November 4, President Roosevelt signed the bill and issued the necessary announcements to make the provisions of the bill effective.
The amended Chinese legislation lifted the ban on the export of arms to belligerents, opening up the way for the United States to assist Britain and France.
In order to make the aid go smoothly and effectively, the British Procurement Committee led by Arthur Purvis was established on the third day after the amendment of the Chinese legislation.
Since then, France has also established a procurement delegation led by Jean Bloch Rene.
On December 6, Roosevelt ordered the establishment of a liaison committee composed of representatives of the Department of the army, the Department of the Navy and the procurement department of the Ministry of finance, led by Treasury Secretary Morgenthau, to help implement foreign procurement plans.
Before the amendment of the Chinese legislation, American manufacturers manufacturing aircraft and weapons for Britain and France had produced according to the original purchase order of the other party.
After the amendment of the Chinese legislation, delivery was resumed immediately, and aid materials were continuously transported to the UK.
In December 1939, the United States also sent the first batch of experts to Britain to assist it in assembling the purchased aircraft.
Because the industrial production capacity of the United States has not been adjusted to the level of large-scale production, and during the “strange war”, Britain and France mistakenly believed that the war would be delayed for as long as three years, they had plenty of time to strengthen their armed forces, and the order requirements for the United States were not urgent.
Therefore, before the fall of France, the scale of American assistance to Britain and France was small.
After the German army captured Denmark and Norway, it obtained the outpost of attacking Britain from the sea, and Britain was facing the serious threat of invasion.
After Winston · became prime minister, while adopting the strategies of sea blockade and air bombing against Germany, Britain mainly placed the hope of winning the war on the United States, so it took winning American aid and promoting the United States to participate in the war as an important strategic goal.
On May 25, 1940, the British Committee of Chiefs of staff concluded in a situation assessment report that Britain’s hope for the future lies in “Britain can rely on the full economic and financial support of the United States, and may develop to the United States to participate in our war”.
To this end, Churchill kept telling the United States about Britain’s plight and the disastrous impact of Britain’s defeat on the United States in order to seek American assistance.
On the fifth day after he took office, he called Roosevelt and said: I believe you will realize that if the opinions and forces of the United States are suppressed for too long, it may be useless.
A completely conquered Nazi Europe will soon appear in front of you.
We may not be able to bear this pressure.
What I’m asking now is that you announce the U.S. office.