Before the outbreak of the European war, although the basis and conditions for establishing an anti fascist collective security system existed to a certain extent, it could not be established for various reasons.
With the continuous expansion of the scale of the Second World War, the countries invaded and threatened by fascist countries finally realized that fascism was their common enemy.
Therefore, starting from the common purpose of defeating fascism, they went beyond the differences of social system and ideology, gradually moved towards unity and established an international anti fascist alliance.
After the signing of the lease act, the United States and Britain have in fact formed an anti fascist alliance.
Although the United States has not directly participated in the war, through a large number of material assistance, including military equipment, it undoubtedly gives great encouragement to Britain, which fought with fascist Germany in Western Europe.
On June 22, 1941, the Soviet German war broke out.
This major event made it possible for countries such as the United States and Britain to form allies with the socialist Soviet Union, because no force could unite two different types of societies better than facing a common enemy.
After hearing the news of the outbreak of the Soviet German war, the British prime minister felt “relieved” because he believed that “we are no longer alone” after the Soviet Union entered the war.
At this time, German and Italian fascists not only occupied Europe and North Africa, but also attempted to return to Britain after defeating the Soviet Union.
After the Japanese occupation of China’s large territory and its entry into French Indochina, they actively prepared for the southward advance to establish the “Greater East Asia common prosperity circle”.
Britain realized that its vast colonies and dominions in Asia, Africa and the Mediterranean, and even its homeland, were fatally threatened by the axis powers.
In order to deal with the main enemy, it urgently needs to get rid of the situation of fighting alone and strive for mutual support and cooperation with the United States, the Soviet Union and other countries that depend on it.
Churchill made a radio speech on the night of the outbreak of the Soviet German war, pointing out that sending troops to invade Russia was just a prelude to an attempt to invade the British Isles.
There is no doubt that he hopes that this operation can end before winter and defeat Britain before the US Navy and air force intervene.
Therefore, the danger facing the Soviet Union is the danger facing us and the United States.
He announced that Britain would give the Soviet Union “all economic and technical assistance within our ability and beneficial to the Soviet Union”.
Before the Soviet German war, US Soviet relations had improved to some extent, and bilateral exchanges in the field of economy and trade had increased.
On January 22, 1941, the United States announced the cancellation of the “moral embargo” on the Soviet Union.
However, due to the estrangement between social system and ideology, the two sides have not yet reached understanding on some issues of principle.
Later, the development of the international situation made the United States increasingly aware that once Germany and Italy fascists seized Europe, Africa and the middle and Near East, it would pose a great threat to the overseas interests of the United States.
Japan’s aggression against China and French Indochina and its attempt to move south are both serious challenges to the US sphere of influence, sales market and raw material producing areas, and may also lead to the Pacific War.
After the outbreak of the Soviet German war, the United States worried that the premature collapse of the Soviet Union would make the United States and Britain more disadvantaged.
Therefore, it regarded the Soviet German battlefield as the first important defense line of the United States and Britain, and quickly expressed its support for the Soviet Union’s resistance to German aggression from the standpoint of safeguarding its own interests.
On June 23, 1941, Deputy Secretary of state wells issued a statement on behalf of the U.S. government: “the U.S. government believes that any anti Hitler struggle and the unity of any anti Hitler forces, regardless of their origin, will accelerate the inevitable defeat of today’s German rulers, thus promoting China’s national defense and security.
Today, Hitler’s army is the main danger to the American continent.
” On June 24, the president held a press conference at which he announced that the United States was ready to provide assistance to the Soviet Union and lift the freeze on Soviet assets worth US $39 million in Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia.
In the face of Germany’s treacherous aggression, the Soviet Union also abandoned its original position and adopted a new diplomatic policy, hoping to form an anti fascist alliance with European and American countries.
On July 3, it was stated in the “letter to the people of the Soviet Union” that the purpose of the Great Patriotic War was not only to defend the freedom and independence of the Soviet countries, but also to assist the people of other countries who fell victim to the fascist aggressors.
He also stressed that the war we are fighting for the freedom of our motherland will surely converge with the struggle of the people of European and American countries for independence, democracy and freedom.
This will be the united front of all peoples who uphold freedom and oppose the slavery and threat of slavery by Hitler’s fascist army.
In this way, in order to oppose the common enemy, the Soviet Union, the United States and Britain began to move towards the road of alliance.
Since the threat to Britain is far greater than that to the United States, the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union are ahead of and greater than the United States.
The Anglo Soviet agreement is an important step taken by the two countries on the road of anti fascist alliance.
In early July 1941, British ambassador to the Soviet Union kripps successively held talks with Stalin and Soviet diplomatic people’s commissar Molotov to discuss the basic provisions of the agreement between the two countries.
After learning the draft agreement, Churchill wrote to Stalin and told him: we fully agree with your proposal on the declaration of the Anglo Soviet agreement.
On July 12, Soviet Foreign Minister Molotov and British ambassador to Moscow kripps signed the British Soviet agreement on joint operations against Germany in Moscow on behalf of their respective governments.
The agreement includes two provisions: the two governments promise to give each other all assistance and support during the war against Hitler Germany.
Mutual assurance that in this war, unless agreed by both parties, neither party can negotiate or sign an armistice or peace agreement.
The two governments have reached an understanding that they will have to supplement this agreement with more detailed political and military agreements in the future.
At the same time, the two countries began to study the issue of opening up a second battlefield in Europe.
The Anglo Soviet agreement shows that the two countries have undertaken the obligation of supporting each other and fighting to the end in the anti fascist war.
The signing of this agreement marks the establishment of alliance between Britain and the Soviet Union and lays a foundation for the formation of the international anti fascist alliance in the future.
Compared with Britain, the United States has taken a smaller step in the Soviet Union because it has not directly participated in the war.
Although Roosevelt pursued the “slow down” policy of assisting the Soviet Union, in order to master the first-hand materials about the actual situation of the Soviet Union and the specific requirements of the Soviet Union in military assistance, Harry Hopkins, his most trusted assistant and in charge of loan assistance, was sent to Moscow.
After receiving the president’s order,.