In the early morning of September 7, during a demonstration in moluska oslava, a representative of the Sudeten German Party clashed with a Czech mounted police officer, who reportedly beat the representative with a whip.
That’s enough as an excuse.
The Sudetenland German party completely interrupted the negotiations with the Czech government, which stirred up a public commotion in the Sudetenland region.
It was not until September 15 that the hand to hand combat in the Sudeten region was settled.
In this way, the Czech government made great concession negotiations, which ended in the panic of the Sudetenland German Party about their own sudden victory.
On September 7, President Benes read such a proposal in the times that Czechoslovakia should make another sacrifice at the cost of ceding territory to Germany, which was never proposed by the Sudetenland German Party itself.
This is a measure taken by Britain and France to avoid conflict with Germany at the expense of Czechoslovakia’s interests.
Soon after, Chamberlain was invited by France and rushed to Germany on behalf of Britain to discuss “seeking a peaceful solution”.
After consultation, Chamberlain brought back the basic principle of separating the Sudetenland German region from Czechoslovakia in accordance with Hitler’s request for national autonomy.
On September 19, Chamberlain immediately drafted the ultimatum to Czechoslovakia with the French government and sent it to the Czechoslovak Government.
The ultimatum claims that if Czechoslovakia does not immediately cede the area mainly inhabited by Germans to Germany, the maintenance of peace and the security of Czechoslovakia’s vital interests cannot be effectively guaranteed.
The British and French governments said that after Czechoslovakia made such great sacrifices, they agreed to participate in the international guarantee to the Xinjiang community of Czechoslovakia.
But at the same time, they also directly threatened that if Czechoslovakia did not change its attitude, France “would not fulfill its treaty obligations” and Britain would “stay out”.
On September 21, the helpless Czechoslovak Government sent a note to the British and French governments, saying: “the Czechoslovak Government was forced by the current situation to make concessions to this non-negotiable advice and had to accept the suggestions of France and Britain with a deep heart.
” “We have no other choice because we have been abandoned,” President Benes said angrily in his speech to the nation So far, Chamberlain flew to Germany again with the suggestions of Britain and France and the humiliation Treaty of Czechoslovakia to prepare for the second meeting with Hitler.
However, Chamberlain was poured cold water on his head.
Hitler put forward new requirements: the areas where the German nationality accounted for more than 50% of the residents should be occupied by Germany.
In areas where the German nationality does not account for the majority of residents, its ownership should be determined by “referendum”.
At the same time, Czechoslovakia should also meet the territorial claims put forward by Hungary and Poland.
Although Chamberlain was shocked and angry at Hitler’s greed and arrogance, he was more afraid that the German Czech conflict would involve Britain and France in the war, and worried that his efforts to safeguard peace with his personal reputation would fail.
So he promised to hand over Hitler’s new harsh conditions to the Czechoslovak Government.
Hitler’s greedy demands aroused strong repercussions throughout Europe.
There was a wave of protests across Czechoslovakia, demanding that the government resist aggression.
On the 25th, Czechoslovakia’s envoy to the UK submitted a rejection note to the British Prime Minister, and then issued a war mobilization order.
On September 20, 22 and 23, the Soviet government repeatedly stated that the Soviet Union would undertake its obligations to provide effective assistance to Czechoslovakia in accordance with the provisions of the mutual assistance treaty.
To this end, the Soviet Union assembled 30 infantry divisions in the West and ordered the air force and tank forces to enter combat readiness.
On September 25, the French government announced that if Czechoslovakia was attacked, France would fulfill its obligations under the French Czech treaty to provide assistance to Czechoslovakia, and announced partial mobilization on September 27.
Under the pressure of opposition at home and abroad, Chamberlain also had to issue a “warning” to Hitler: the French government has informed us that if the Czechs refuse the memorandum and Germany attacks Czechoslovakia, they will fulfill their treaty obligations to Czechoslovakia.
If the French army turns to war with Germany, we feel obliged to support them.
The situation in Europe is tense again.
In the midst of tension, on the one hand, Hitler wantonly attacked, abused and threatened Czechoslovakia and its leaders, and brutally limited that the Czechoslovak Government must accept Germany’s request before 14 p.m. on September 28.
On the other hand, he shook the olive branch against Britain and France with ulterior motives, claimed that Germany did not want to fight with Britain and France, thanked Chamberlain for his efforts to strive for peace, and reiterated that this was his last territorial claim in Europe.
After Chamberlain returned from Germany, he still insisted on giving way to Hitler.
“No matter how much we sympathize with a small country under the pressure of a strong neighbor, we can’t recklessly drag the whole British Empire into a war just for its sake,” he said Therefore, he called Benes twice and asked the Czech side to accept the “certain limited occupation” of Sudeten Germany by the Germans.
He also threatened: “if this plan is not adopted, it will be replaced by force invasion and force dismemberment.
” Under such delicate circumstances, German Fascist friends came out to save the scene.
Italian president Mussolini proposed to convene an international conference with the participation of Britain, France, Germany and Italy.
On September 28, Hitler agreed to the proposal and issued an invitation.
On the 29th, Chamberlain flew to Germany for the third time to discuss the scheme of dismembering Czechoslovakia with daradi, Mussolini and Hitler in Munich.
On the same day, the Soviet government also put forward a proposal to immediately convene an international conference to discuss measures to prevent aggression and avoid a new war.
However, in the eyes of both Britain and Germany, they are deliberately excluding the Soviet Union from participating in the settlement of European political problems.
The negotiations between the leaders of Britain, France, Germany and Italy in Munich were basically one-sided, and the agreement was made in full accordance with Hitler’s requirements.
As a party country, Czechoslovakia’s representatives, although also called to Munich, have been excluded from the meeting.
One of the representatives of Czechoslovakia, Dr.
masarik, later wrote in his articleThe chapter described the situation at that time: at 22 p.m. on September 29, the British representative Sir Horace told us the main points of the new plan and handed us a map indicating the areas to be occupied immediately.
I raised an objection, to which he said categorically twice that he had nothing to add to what he said.
He paid no attention to our opinions on those places and regions that are of great importance to us.
Finally, he went back to the meeting.
Four hours later, the representative of Czechoslovakia received the agreement reached by the four countries. Dr. masarik wrote in his article: a Frenchman explained to us in a very rude manner that this is a judgment that has no right to appeal and cannot be changed.
In the face of the Munich agreement, the representatives of Czechoslovakia were very clear that the Czechoslovak Republic defined by the 1918 border no longer existed.
When Prague is making a painful announcement, Britain, France, Germany and Italy are a scene of jubilation, and people are immersed in a cruel and short-sighted joy.
Just as Chamberlain commented on Dejie: let you make a choice between war and disgrace.
You have chosen disgrace, and you will have to fight in the future.
Less than half a year after the carnival, Hitler tore up the agreement and launched the Second World War.