Kiev battle Kiev is the third largest city of the Soviet Union, and its strategic position is very important.
It is located at the intersection of Dnieper River and jesner River, with land, water and aviation extending in all directions.
It is not only a traffic fortress in the southwest of the Soviet Union, but also the only way for the German army to seize donetz industrial zone and gaocaso oil field.
On July 7, 1941, with the support of the fourth air force, the German southern group army group broke into the fortified area of the old Soviet border from the March, opening the prelude to the two-and-a-half month battle of Kiev.
According to the second order of the commander-in-chief of the group army lundstedt on June 30, his subordinate troops should take advantage of the unstable foothold of the Soviet army, break through the Soviet Army’s fortified area from wallensky new town to the Dniester River, and then surround and annihilate the left wing of the Soviet southwest front army around Vinica.
To this end, the group army group took the first armored group and the sixth group army as the main assault group, made a breakthrough from the area west of the middle reaches of the slouch River to the border fortification area of the front line of zhetomir and berdychev, and then depending on whether the southwest front army of the Soviet army withdrew over the Dnieper River, the main force of the first armored group either continued to move eastward or directed south.
The 17th group army was assigned to the Slovak dispatched army to serve as an auxiliary assault, advancing from the front line of the zbrucci River to the direction of proskurov and Vinica, and clamping down the heavy military group of the Soviet army in front with uninterrupted attack.
The 11th group army was assigned to the Romanian dispatched army to act as a side and rear assault, attack and advance from the vicinity of the prute River to the northeast region of Mogilev podolisky, then forcibly cross the Dniester River, go out of the venica region and join the 17th group army.
The German army’s face-to-face enemy was the southwest front army of the Soviet Union, under the command of general kilbonos.
The campaign began on July 7, 1941 and ended on September 26.
According to the main operations of the two sides, the battle is divided into three stages: the battle of the old border fortification area, the battle of uman and the periphery of Kiev and the encirclement war of Kiev area.
From the beginning of the campaign, the German army made use of its superior forces to attack and rush.
Although the Soviet army was at a disadvantage, it was extremely brave and tenacious in blocking.
Finally, according to the instructions of the German southern group army, on September 12, with the main force of the first armored group and the first division of the 17th group army, supported by the fourth air force, from the landing site near klemenchug on the left bank of Dnieper River, the German southern group army pushed Northwest through rubles, so as to meet with the southward troops of the second armored group as soon as possible.
On the 15th, the first and second armor clusters of the German army marching from north to South met in lohvica, completing the encirclement of the southwest front army of the Soviet army.
The officers and soldiers of the Soviet army, who were divided into small groups, continued to fight bravely.
On the 19th, the 37th group army of the Soviet army was ordered to abandon Kiev, and the sixth group army of the German army occupied Kiev, the capital of Ukraine.
On the 20th, general kirponos, commander of the southwest front army of the Soviet army, members of the Military Commission and the chief of staff and other senior generals were killed in the breakthrough.
On the 26th, the Kiev campaign, which lasted more than two and a half months, ended.
Kiev battle is one of the three major battles in the Soviet German battlefield.
The Soviet southwest front army and its friends and neighbors fought bravely in a vast area with a front of 300 kilometers and a depth of about 600 kilometers.
Combined with wing assault and front defense, they delayed the German attack for two and a half months, attracting the assault force on the south wing of the German central group army to go south, which won time for the Soviet army to strengthen the defense in the direction of Moscow.
However, due to the relatively weak military strength of the Soviet army and the lack of experience and means to fight against the armored motorized forces of the German army, the Soviet Army adopted the operational policy of passive guarding the city, and finally suffered a major defeat of losing troops and land.
In the early stage of the attack, the German army dispersed its forces and failed to annihilate the Soviet heavy army group to the west of Dnieper River.
After that, taking advantage of the favorable situation of encircling the Soviet southwest front army with three bread, the German army concentrated the inner wing forces of the two group army groups to fight together, quickly encircled and annihilated the main force of the front army, reducing the threat from the south wing of the central group army group, It created conditions for the southern army group to seize the Kharkov and Donets economic zone and go out of krimu and the Caucasus, but it lost the favorable opportunity to attack Moscow.
On July 3, 1941, the battle of biawestok Minsk was not over.
According to the established policy, the German central group army took the lead in pursuing Smolensk with the fourth armored group army.
By July 9, the battle of biavestok Minsk was over, and the group army entered the middle reaches of Dnieper River to the front line of West de Vina river.
Then the second and ninth group armies followed up also reached the front lines of Berezina River and West de Vina River respectively.
The German army tried to wipe out the rest of the Soviet army in the west, which avoided the encirclement of biawestok Minsk, and seized the land bridge leading to Moscow between Smolensk and its nearby Dnieper River and West de Vina River, creating conditions for driving straight into Moscow.
In view of the defeat in the border war, the Soviet army began to deploy the second echelon of strategy along the middle reaches of the West German Vina River and Dnieper River at the end of June to firmly defend the Smolensk region and prevent the German army from attacking the capital Moscow.
Timoshingo, commander in chief of the Western Front Army and commander of the Western Front Army of the Soviet army, will come from the reserve team of the base camp and be incorporated into the Western Front Army.
He will start from north to south along the line of the two rivers, and transfer some regiments of the Western Front army defeated or weakened by the German army in the border war to the rear to rest and supplement.
In order to increase the defense depth in this direction, the Soviet army launched the 24th and 28th reserve group armies on the front lines of neridovo and Bryansk, 210-240 kilometers east of the main defense areas of the Western Front Army, and successively established reserve front army, central front army and reserve front army behind the Western Front Army.
However, before the start of the Smolensk campaign, only 37 of the 48 divisions transferred from the rear to the western front army reached the front line from idrica to the south of jalobin and occupied the position, failing to establish a stable defense in depth.
On July 6, 1941, the fourth armored group army of the German central group army, supported by the second air force, forcibly crossed the Dnieper River and launched the battle of Smolensk.
The battle lasted about a month.
The Soviet and German sides fought a series of fierce battles and repeated battles in the vast area of more than 500 kilometers in front and more than 200 kilometers in depth “this ancient Russian city that once became a terrible obstacle on the road from the army to Moscow” and its vicinity.
In the Smolensk campaign, the German army relied on the Soviet Army’s unstable foothold and incomplete defense system, relying on strong armored forces and close coordination between infantry and TanzaniaSecond air force.
The assault power of the German northern army group was significantly weakened, and the hope of conquering Leningrad was even more slim.
In view of the failure of many strong attacks on Leningrad, the German army had to adopt the policy of focusing on long-term blockade and supplemented by military attack.
Under such extremely deteriorating conditions, the army and people of Leningrad shared a common hatred of the enemy and would rather die than surrender.
Under the unified leadership of the government, they strengthened air defense and anti shelling struggle while launching anti siege struggle.
Moscow battle on September 30 and October 2, 1941, the German central group army group successively launched the battles of Bryansk and viyazima, and the Moscow battle began from then on.
According to the operational nature of the Soviet army, the campaign was divided into three stages: defense, counter offensive and general offensive.
The Soviet defense stage was from September 30 to December 5, 1941, the Soviet counter offensive stage was from December 5 to January 7, 1942, and the Soviet general offensive stage was from January 8 to April 20, 1942.
The battle was fierce and cruel from the beginning.
The German attacks have repeatedly put Moscow in a state of crisis.
However, the German commanders in the front-line operations realized that the German offensive capability would soon be exhausted.
Therefore, they requested to “retreat to a short and easy defensive front and make full preparations for garrison, supply and defense in advance, so that they can occupy it in a very short time as soon as the time comes”.
However, both the German Army General Command and Hitler disagreed with bock and others.
Hitler did not consider the withdrawal, but only agreed to stop the attack when bock repeatedly requested that the contemporary expensive offensive was hopeless to win.
In order to ease the tension in the northwest of Moscow, the headquarters of the Soviet supreme command transferred the first group army and the 20th group army to the right wing of the Western Front Army.
The 16th and 30th group armies were also strengthened and carried out anti raids in the red POLYANA and klukovo regions.
By early December, the German attack was stopped.
In the direction of narovminsk, on December 3, the fourth German group army was attacked by the fifth and 33rd Soviet group armies and was forced to retreat to the positions north of Kubinka, golizino and south of narovminsk.
On December 5, bock ordered the third and fourth armored group army groups to disengage from the Soviet army and withdraw to the line east of Istra and klin in in the following days.
The attempt of the German army to break into Moscow from the northwest and North was shattered.
In the direction of Tula, on December 5, the 50th group army of the Soviet Army cooperated with the left-wing corps of the 49th group army to carry out anti assault in kostrovo and levikino regions, restoring Tula’s contact with Moscow.
The second German armored group army was forced to retreat southward to the upper reaches of the Don river, the shate River and the UBA line.
The last German attack on Moscow was a complete failure.
So far, the Soviet defense phase of the Moscow campaign ended.
From December 5 to 6, 1941, the Soviet army launched a historic counter offensive in Kalinin, Tula and yeletz.
By early January 1942, the Soviet counter offensive in the strategic direction of the West had all ended.
The area liberated by the Soviet Army eliminated the danger of Tula being surrounded.
The attacking Soviet army went out to the front lines of lerev, Rama River, Ruza River, borovsk, mosalisk, berev and verhoviye.
38 German divisions were severely damaged and the assault group attacking Moscow was defeated.
The German army retreated 54 kilometers to 250 kilometers, and the attempt to attack Moscow from the north and South was completely smashed.