[synopsis] Martin Luther was born in elsburn, Germany in 1483.
He was a German religious reformer, linguist and founder of Christian Lutheran in the 16th century.
In 1501, Luther entered Alford university to study law.
In 1507, he joined ELFORD monastery and became a monk of the Augustine order.
He was familiar with Catholic theology, but also came into contact with the religious opinions of wilcliff and HUS, and gradually doubted the doctrine at that time.
In 1517, in order to resist Pope Leo X’s promotion of atonement vouchers, Luther wrote 95 outlines of the effectiveness of atonement vouchers.
The publication of this outline suddenly released the anger suppressed in people’s hearts and began the mass anti feudal struggle in the name of religious reform.
After that, Luther published a series of articles calling for religious reform, such as the book of Christian Nobility to the German nation, the prison of the church in Babylon and on Christian freedom.
The ideas he put forward in these articles reflect the requirements of the civil class for the establishment of a clean and thrifty democratic church, which is in line with the needs of the emerging bourgeoisie, It also catered to the wishes of secular nobles who tried to confiscate church property to enrich themselves and expand their independent status.
Therefore, Luther received the support of the bourgeoisie and secular nobles, and Lutheran was gradually formed.
With the further development of religious reform, Luther’s attitude began to change when the requirements of the lower class exceeded the interests of the civil class.
Especially after the outbreak of the peasant war in 1524, Luther began to become conservative.
But his influence was also weakening.
In 1546, Luther died in Wittenberg.
[Impact] although Martin Luther was born in a mine owner’s family, his family conditions are still good because his father is good at business.
When Luther was young, his mother gave him extremely strict religious education, and even instilled him with the religious thought of seclusion.
Because the whole society was shrouded in a strong religious atmosphere at that time, coupled with the strict religious education received at home and school, Luther formed a strong religious belief from an early age, especially the doctrine of “justification by faith” of Christianity, which was deeply believed and regarded as his code of action all his life.
After graduating from college, Luther could have been like others, either teaching young people or continuing his studies.
But instead of doing so, he abandoned his parents, friends and relatives and entered the monastery.
His move was completely unexpected to his family, but once Luther made up his mind, no one could make him change his mind.
In 1510 and 1511, Luther visited Rome twice.
Luther was very excited when he first arrived in Rome.
When he went to the suburbs of Rome, he also loudly paid tribute to the holy city of Rome in his mind.
But while visiting the places of interest in Rome, Luther also saw the corruption of the church.
The Pope and all the senior clergy are infatuated with luxurious houses and gold and silver treasures.
They are addicted to gambling, drinking and playing with women all day, and live a life of lights, wine and green.
The cruel reality made Luther realize that Rome, the holy city, had become filthy.
Luther declared angrily: the closer Christians get to Rome, the worse they get.
Who went to Rome for the first time, he went to find a liar.
The second time he goes, he will catch the habit of being a liar.
The third time, the man became a liar.
Luther did not consciously shape himself as the leader of religious reform.
He also accidentally stepped on the ship.
In 1517, Pope Leo x used the pretext of repairing St.
Peter’s Cathedral to sell atonement vouchers everywhere.
John Teicher, the Pope’s special envoy to Germany, said: “as long as the coin of the person who bought the atonement voucher falls into the money box and the ‘jingle’ can be heard, the soul of his dead family will rise from purgatory to heaven.
Buy, buy, the door of heaven is open now!” Luther was infuriated by Teicher’s shameless boasting.
After a fierce ideological struggle, on the evening of October 31, he pasted on the door of Wittenberg church the 95 outlines of the “effectiveness of atonement vouchers” he drafted, denounced Teicher’s despicable acts and called on people to discuss the function of atonement vouchers.
At this time, Luther had not thought of breaking with the Pope, and the central idea of his outline was not to deny the power of the Pope, but to correct the unreasonable phenomenon in Catholicism and oppose the nonsense of those who sold atonement vouchers.
However, the “95 theses” aroused the people’s dissatisfaction with the Holy See.
The theses soon spread all over Western Europe, which not only greatly reduced the number of atonement vouchers sold, but also triggered the people’s willingness to reform religion.
People at all levels of German Society dissatisfied with the social status quo and the Roman Church understood and explained the theses according to their own interests.
This was completely beyond Luther’s expectation.
While stunned, he repeatedly revealed his heart to the pope in various ways.
He never intended to damage the authority of the Holy See, so he asked the Pope to forgive his sins.
However, the fire of religious reform ignited by Luther burned more and more in Germany, seriously impacting the rule of the church.
So on June 15, 1520, the Pope signed the decree to abolish Lutheran nationality and burn Lutheran works, and asked Luther to be tried in Rome.
Luther was forced to break with the Holy See.
This year, Luther published the book of Christian Nobility to the German nation, the prisoner of Babylon of the church, and on Christian freedom.
Then Luther wrote the encyclical against anti Christianity against the Pope’s edict, took the holy see as an anti Christian, and publicly burned the Pope’s edict in protest.
In the Bible, Luther believed that everyone had the right to “explain his faith” in the Bible.
Oppose the power of the church over the secular power, and oppose the Pope’s intervention in the internal affairs of Germany.
Advocated the establishment of the Church of the German Empire and stopped paying tribute to the Holy See.
He advocated abolishing the Hajj system, allowing clergy to marry, banning the sale of atonement vouchers, simplifying mass ceremonies and reducing church festivals.
Luther translated the Bible in German, so that the German people can directly quote the sentences in the Bible to express their demands.
Luther’s translation was beautiful and smooth, which became the object of imitation at that time, and virtually promoted the formation of German language.
Heine, a German poet, once spoke highly of this: “Martin Luther created German because he translated the Bible.
” With the further development of religious reform, Luther’s attitude began to change when the requirements of the people at the lower level exceeded the interests of the civil class.
Especially after the outbreak of the peasant war in 1524, Luther fully expressed his opposition.
He declared in his article “peasant thugs against killing people and stealing goods” that “I only want pen and pen, who taught them to work hard with swords!” “Whoever can do it, whether secretly or publicly, should smash, strangle and stab them like mad dogs!” It is very clear that in the later stage of the religious reform, in the heroic era of Germany, Luther stood on the opposite side of the peasant movement and became the spokesman of the princes.
After the defeat of the German peasant war, Luther became more and more the servant of a servile vassal.
The people despised him more and more, painted tar on his door, pointed to his back and scolded: “this vassal’s domestic slave!” In the eyes of the people, Luther is no longer a hero’s name.
But in order to reward Luther, the princes gave him a large amount of property as a hereditary industry.
In 1546, Luther died in Wittenberg.
[Conclusion] times make heroes.
Martin Luther is a typical example.
But it was such a casual opportunity that Martin Luther became one of the best heroes in Christian history and even human history.
The success of religious reform has also directly promoted the emergence and development of capitalism in Western Europe, making mankind enter a new era.
Therefore, no matter what Luther’s later performance, his name always exists in the credit book of religious reform.