Marx (1818 ~ 1883) [biography] Karl Marx, founder of Marxism, great mentor and leader of the proletariat all over the world.
Born in Trier, Rhine, Germany on May 5, 1818.
His father, Henry Marx, was a lawyer and a Jew.
Her mother, henrieda presburg, is a housewife and Dutch.
From 1830 to 1835, Marx studied in Trier middle school.
He joined the law department of Bonn University in October 1835 and transferred to the law department of Berlin University in October 1836.
During the University, he first studied law, and then turned to history and philosophy.
He joined the youth school in 1837.
At the beginning of 1841, he wrote his doctoral thesis “the difference between Democritus’s natural philosophy and Epicurus’s natural philosophy”, which expounded the principle of dialectical unity of philosophy and life.
On April 15, 1841, he obtained the doctor of philosophy without reply.
Since 1842, he has written for the Rhine and later served as editor in chief, attacking the autocratic rule of the Prussian government.
In May 1843, Marx married his childhood girlfriend Yanni.
After the Rhine newspaper was sealed down, Marx and Yanni moved to Paris and joined the workers’ movement.
In 1844, he founded the German French Yearbook in Paris with Lugar.
In 1846, he established the Communist Communication Committee with Engels in Brussels and resolutely fought against the reformism of prudon and the anarchism of Steiner.
In 1847, he reorganized the just alliance with Engels, created the DD Communist alliance, the first political party of the international proletariat, and drafted the Communist Manifesto for the alliance.
He returned to Germany during the revolution in 1848 and led the German revolution.
After failure, he was persecuted and moved to London.
On September 28, 1864, he participated in the inaugural meeting of the first international in London, drafted the inaugural declaration, provisional articles of association and other important documents for the international community, and led the struggle against proudong, Bakunin, trade union and LaSalle.
As the organizer of the first International Congress and conferences, he has always been the international leader and soul, thus gradually establishing the leading position of Marxism in the International Workers’ movement.
In 1871, he enthusiastically supported the struggle of the Paris Commune in France.
In 1876, the first international announced its dissolution, followed by an era of extensive development of the working-class movements in various countries.
Marx made unremitting efforts to establish a mass working-class political party in all ethnic countries.
Died of illness in London on March 14, 1883.
[influence] Marx’s life is a revolutionary life.
He not only founded Marxist philosophy, political economy and scientific communism with his superhuman wisdom and amazing perseverance, but also personally participated in revolutionary practice, created a proletarian revolutionary party and guided the proletarian revolutionary movement.
The birth of Marxist philosophy stems from the criticism of Hegel’s legal philosophy.
In the critique of Hegel’s legal philosophy, Marx criticizes Hegel’s idealistic theory of state and law, and draws an important conclusion: it is not the state that determines the civil society, but the civil society that determines the state, that is, economy determines politics.
This is Marx’s first step towards historical materialism.
In February 1844, Marx published the introduction to Hegel’s critique of legal philosophy in the Yearbook of Germany and France, which expounded the historical mission of the proletariat and put forward the important idea that the old world must be criticized by weapons.
These views show his transformation to materialism and communism.
In the manuscript of economics and philosophy in 1844, Marx affirmed the decisive role of material production in social life, put forward the theory of labor alienation, criticized the capitalist system with “alienation”, exposed the opposition between wage labor and capital, and demonstrated the historical inevitability of the demise of capitalism and the realization of communism.
This is an important step taken by Marx on the road of establishing scientific communism.
In August 1844, Engels came to Paris from Manchester to meet Marx, and their great cooperation began from then on.
They jointly wrote the holy family, criticized the subjective idealism of the young Hegelian school, and further demonstrated the decisive role of material production in history.
He said the book “laid the foundation of socialism of revolutionary materialism”.
In 1845, Marx began to criticize the limitations of Feuerbach’s materialism and wrote the outline on Feuerbach, which focused on the role of practice in social life and human cognition.
Practice is the standard to test truth.
Engels called the outline “the first document containing the budding genius of a new world outlook”.
From 1845 to 1846, he co wrote German Ideology with Engels, further criticized Feuerbach’s intuitive materialism and idealistic view of history, criticized “real socialism”, and scientifically demonstrated that the production of material materials is the premise of social existence and development.
The book’s discovery of the dialectical relationship between productivity and production relations, a materialistic historical view, has laid a solid philosophical foundation for scientific communism.
At the beginning of 1847, Marx wrote the book “philosophy of poverty” for proudon’s “philosophy of poverty”, analyzed the contradictions of capitalism with materialist dialectics, exposed the exploitative nature of the employment labor system, demonstrated the antagonism and historical transience of the capitalist system, and discussed some basic categories of political economics.
This book enriches the content of scientific communism.
In order to establish a proletarian political party, Marx and Engels were invited to join the DD righteous alliance, a secret organization of German workers, in early 1847, which was later renamed the Communist alliance.
At the second congress of the alliance, he and Engels were entrusted by the Congress to draft the program of the alliance, which was the Communist Manifesto officially issued in February 1848.
The book uses the viewpoints of dialectical materialism and historical materialism to analyze the role of class struggle in social history, reveal the objective law of the emergence, development and demise of capitalism, and clarify that the proletariat is the historical mission of the gravedigger of capitalism.
It discusses the nature and characteristics of the proletarian political party and stipulates the party’s basic tasks and objectives.
The declaration is the first programmatic document of scientific communism.
In 1848, the bourgeois revolution swept across the European continent, and Marx directly participated in the revolution.
After the failure of the revolution, Marx and Engels focused on summarizing the experience of the 1848 revolution.
In 1850, Marx published the French class struggle from 1848 to 1850.
He summarized the history of France before and after the 1848 revolution with historical materialism, and expressed the role of class struggle and social revolution in promoting the development of history with the famous saying that revolution is “the locomotive of history”,The concept of “proletarian class dictatorship” was used for the first time, its content was clarified, and the idea of worker peasant alliance was put forward.
From the end of 1851 to the beginning of 1852, Marx wrote the 18th of Louis Bonaparte’s fog moon, which further developed the theory of proletarian revolution and proletarian dictatorship, and expounded an extremely important thought: all revolutions in the past made the old state machine more complete, but the machine must be broken.
Lenin said that this conclusion is the main basic thing in the Marxist theory of state, which further enriches the theory of scientific communism.
The 1950s and 1960s were the most difficult period in Marx’s life, but it was also a period when his political and economic system was becoming more and more mature.
In the original manuscript of capital, the economic manuscript from 1857 to 1858, Marx put forward the theory of surplus value for the first time, and completed the second great discovery after the great discovery of historical materialism.
At the beginning of 1858, he began to write a book “criticism of political economy” on the basis of this manuscript.
The book reveals the duality of commodities, the contradiction between the use value and exchange value of commodities, and finds the duality of labor condensed in commodities.
This discovery is “the hub of understanding political economy”.
On September 14, 1867, the first volume of capital was published in Hamburg.
The second volume and the third volume could not be completed due to his premature death.
After being sorted and supplemented by Engels, they were published in 1885 and 1894 respectively.
Capital has epoch-making significance and marks the establishment of the scientific system of Marxist political economy.
[Conclusion] Marx is undoubtedly the greatest thinker in human history.
His theory is not only regarded as a treasure for proletarian political parties all over the world, but also an important theoretical source in the field of philosophy and social sciences.
Marxism, with its scientific, revolutionary and practical nature, will always shine with new vitality and vigor.