French 19th century sculpture French neoclassical sculpture was handed down by Italian Canova and his students.

Many French sculptors have visited the French Academy of classical sculpture, and they have a great influence on French sculpture.

Before and after the French Revolution, Henry murcier tebatty (1771-1825) and Charlemagne antonvino karamanl (1776-1821), who studied at the French Academy in Rome, were more famous.

The general and allegorical images they created for the French government showed the influence of Canova’s artistic style.

After the failure, the Bourbon Dynasty was restored, and the national strength was weakened.

It became difficult for sculptors to get orders from the state as before.

Louis XVIII’s new government needed to proclaim the glory of the royal family in the past.

Regardless of their political views, sculptors must strive to restore the French style of the past.

In the French Revolution, all Royal horse riding statues were destroyed, and the restored Bourbon Dynasty was ready to restore them.

For example, the bronze statue of Henry IV was rebuilt by Francois lemott based on the original work of 1614.

In the first half of the 19th century, when neoclassical sculpture lost its vitality, romantic sculpture appeared and reached its peak in the 1920s and 1940s.

The center of the development of romantic sculpture is in France, but Germany and Britain have also been affected to some extent.

The greatest feature of romantic sculpture is that it emphasizes the expression of sculptors’ subjective emotions and the pursuit of the painting effect of sculpture.

The most important representative figure of romantic sculpture is Lude.

In the first half of the 19th century, in addition to Lude, there were some active romantic sculptors in France, among which the achievements of Bayer and portrait sculptor David dange and Breau, who were famous for animal carving, were the most remarkable.

Rude (1784-1855), a French romantic sculptor, was the son of a calcining workshop owner.

In his youth, he worked in his father’s calcining workshop and studied sculpture in the art school in his hometown ticho.

The enthusiasm of the ironworker’s labor was integrated into Lude’s later carving works.

At the age of 23, Lude came to study in the studio of Pierre Cartier, a famous sculptor in Paris.

After that, he won the Rome Prize twice, but failed to study in Italy due to lack of funds.

During the imperial period, out of his admiration for Napoleon, Lude worked around Napoleon for some time.

After the restoration of the Bourbon Dynasty, he went to Belgium to avoid for his own safety for some time.

After 12 years of exile, Lude returned to France.

He exhibited the plaster statue of the young fisherman of Napoli in the salon from 1830 to 1831, which aroused great repercussions.

Two years later, he completed the marble statue of this work.

This work is novel and original.

It is Lude’s original romantic work.

And the work that makes Lude famous forever — the high relief “Marseille” on the Arc de Triomphe in the French star square.

Originally, Lude was ordered to make a group of relief sculptures on the Arc de Triomphe with Napoleon’s triumph from Egypt as the theme.

He initially conceived four sketches: departure, return, defending the land and peace, but in the end, he failed to achieve it.

He only made departure, and the other three were made by other sculptors.

As a result, it seemed fragmented, which made Lude very dissatisfied, Angrily, the name “departure” was replaced by “Marseille”.

Lude’s famous high relief Marseille is a monument praising the French Revolution.

Its majestic momentum is very shocking.

The artist turned a stone wall into a heroic epic fantasy and woven it into a flame like artistic conception.

“Marseille” is placed on the Arc de Triomphe in the French star square.

It is a symbol of French love for freedom.

There are not many characters in Marseille.

There are six volunteers and the allegorical goddess.

It shows that under the guidance of the goddess, the volunteer army rushed to the front line without fear of hardship and death.

The composition of Marseille is unique.

Lude skillfully uses the techniques of association and echo, and the characters are half covered with each other.

In this way, all the characters are incorporated into a complex composition.

The characters have strong actions and different postures, but the structure is clear and rigorous.

Because the characters are interlaced and covered, the whole team seems to move, like an unstoppable stream of people pouring from the plane wall to the audience, making people feel upward.

In addition, it is worth noting that the details of all props in the sculpture, such as the eagle on the head of the long gun, the angry horse head, the lion claw on the soldier’s chest and the lion shaped three-dimensional pattern on the shield, are integrated with the characters, which increases the appeal of the sculpture and renders the atmosphere, which not only sets off the momentum of thousands of troops and horses, but also maintains stability, integrity and unity.

This sculpture is regarded by France as a national symbol and pride.

In the 20 years after the completion of Marseille, Lude also created Joan of arc (1852, now in the Louvre Museum), marshal Nier (1853) and other famous works.

These works won great honor for Lu De, who won a gold medal at the 1855 World Expo.

In November of the same year, the 72 year old great sculptor died.

Antoine Louis Baye (1796-1875) was born in a metalworking family in Paris.

He learned from his father and had a strong interest in sculpture.

In 1815, he studied painting for some time in the studio of painter gro.

In 1818, he entered the Academy of fine arts and tried to win the Rome prize, but failed.

In 1831, he began to make small animal models for goldsmiths on jewelry.

At the same time, he spent all his spare time drawing sketches and studying animal anatomy in the Paris zoo.

In 1831, he exhibited his work tiger devours the Ganges crocodile in the salon and achieved success.

Then he shocked Sharon again with the lion tearing up the serpent in 1833.

His work is symbolic: the lion symbolizes the power of the people, while the giant snake represents the evil power of the Bourbon Dynasty.

The French government has ordered a bronze statue of this work for chuler park.

At that time, because the government was no longer the protector of sculptors, Bayer had to make a living by selling small bronze sculptures to private collectors.

Later, he established his own foundry.

In addition to the small bronze statues with Animal Themes, Bayer’s works also include “Theseus and Minotaur” based on classical mythology, the column foundation of “Napoleon controls history and art” on the “Bell Pavilion” of the Louvre Museum, and the “horse riding statue of Napoleon”.

David·David’d angers (1788-1856) was a portrait sculptor and badge sculptor.

David dange received strict academic training in his youth and was deeply influenced by Canova.

He has a firm belief in democracy and realism and pursues emotional expression in art.

The works are magnificent and heroic.

They mainly express national figures in the form of portraits, reliefs and bust, and often in the form of nudity.

As a portrait sculptor, Danzig believes that the appearance of a statue can reflect the soul of a person, and each portrait is a monument to genius.

His representative portraits include the statue of the heroine Marco pocharis (1827), the bust in Greek style, the relief of the triangular wall of the temple of sages in Paris, the motherland, the motherland born with freedom and history, and the eternal Changchun given to his great children (1837), which shows that a group of French people accept wreaths from their motherland.

A large part of the portrait carvings made by Dan Ge are bronze badges, with more than 500, mainly showing the works of artists and thinkers of his time.

In the hall of great men and sages, many important figures in the great revolution made by Dang re are preserved.

Dan Ge usually creates statues according to real people and uses materials only when he has to.

In order to create some portraits, he even has to visit abroad.

For example, when he made the portrait (1833), he personally visited Goethe’s hometown.

From mirabo to young Napoleon, for these long dead characters, Dante had to create according to some image materials.

James Pradier (1790-1852) was a Swiss, but his artistic career was spent in France.

He studied at the French Academy in Rome and was a representative of the Academy of sculpture.

He was a neoclassicist before the July Revolution and a romantic after 1830.

His works include “Three Beauties” and “the statue of Rousseau”.

His “sitting Turkish maid” is close to the style of ganagel’s painting.

August priault (1809-1879) is also a famous representative figure of romantic sculpture.

His works reflect various ideological trends in French society at that time, and his composition is full of drama.

In 1834, he exhibited the relief “massacre” in the salon.

Carpeaux (1827-1875) was born in a mason’s house.

He studied in Lude’s studio and later entered the Academy of Fine Arts in Paris.

At the age of 21, kalbo created his famous work, the capital carving with the theme of the holy people’s alliance.

In 1854, he won the Rome prize and stayed in Rome for five years.

He made an in-depth study of ancient sculpture and fell in love with the sculpture of the Renaissance.

During his stay in Italy, his artistic style changed.

He created the children of the fishermen of Naples and viconino and his children.

These works were popular in Rome, but they were ignored due to non academic interests after returning to Paris.

However, with the support of Princess marjordon, Carpo got the position of court sculptor, Thus, he had the opportunity to display his talents.

His decorative sculpture “the goddess of the flower” for the Louvre made him famous.

In his later period, kalbo wrote dance and four parts of the world.

“Four parts of the world” is a sculpture created by Karl Poe for the Central Park of the observatory in Paris.

The work is divided into two parts.

The lower part of the base is composed of eight turtles and seahorses, with vivid looks and solemn and elegant shapes.

The upper part of them is the main part of the work.

On the high pedestal stands four typical female human bodies representing the four parts of the world – Europe, Asia, the United States and Africa, that is, Europeans, Asians, Americans and African blacks, On their heads were huge celestial spheres.

In the second half of the 19th century, French realistic sculptors led by Rodin pushed French sculpture to a new peak and had a great impact on European sculpture.

Rodin, mayor and buder are known as the “three pillars” of European sculpture.

Their creation spans the century, but they are usually regarded as sculptors of the 19th century.

Behind the three most famous sculptors are a group of sculptors with outstanding achievements.

They also created many works full of artistic personality.

These sculptors include Daru, Peng Peng, crodale and so on.

Aime Jules Dalou (1838-1902) was born into a working family.

His father was a firm communist.

He was also a revolutionary artist dedicated to the ideal of communism.

Daru showed his artistic talent very early and was appreciated and instructed by the romantic sculptor kalbo.

He entered art school at the age of 15 and studied as a sculptor Joseph Dueler.

During the Paris Commune in 1871, he became a member of the commune Art Committee and worked with the famous realistic painter Courbet.

After the failure of the Paris Commune, he was sentenced to life imprisonment and fled to England.

His artistic creation in Britain was deeply loved by the British people and became a sculpture professor at the Royal Academy of fine arts.

During this time, he did not forget the ideal of the Republic and had been thinking of large monuments with the theme of the Republic.

When the voice of the French counter revolution gradually subsided and the Paris municipal government began to collect commemorative sculptures of the Republic, Daru sent his ideas and was affirmed.

In 1879, after the French amnesty, Daru returned to the motherland.

In 1899, he completed a large group sculpture “triumph of the Republic”, which was erected on the national square.

In 1883, Daru also created the relief Republic and sculptures showing the hero mirabo during the French Revolution in 1879.

In these works, Daru expressed his undying praise for the ideal of the Republic.

In addition, Daru also wanted to create a monument to workers, but he died before he finished it, leaving only a series of images of workers he conceived for the monument, such as sower, farmer, river dredging worker, foundry, etc.

Daru advocates Baroque art style, so his works have a dynamic grandeur and gorgeous and meticulous form.

His works are more traditional than Rodin’s works, so they are more easily accepted by people.

When Rodin was repeatedly opposed and scolded, Daru has always been popular.

French sculptor Auguste Rodin (1840-1917) is the most influential sculpture master in the history of European sculpture after Michelangelo.

He is a classical sculptorAt the same time, it opened a new road for modernist sculpture.

Rodin was born in a poor Christian family, and his early artistic career was full of hardships and ups and downs.

Rodin loved art since childhood and later entered the Paris School of Arts and crafts.

Here, his first teacher, Horace lecock, an ordinary art teacher, encouraged Rodin to be faithful to the real sense of art and not to follow the rules according to the academic dogma.

His teaching affected Rodin’s life.

During this period of study, Rodin often went to the Louvre to copy the master’s famous paintings, but because he had no money to buy oil paintings and pigments, he had to transfer to sculpture.

Lecock introduced him to the famous animal sculptor Bayer, which gave him a good basic training.

Three years later, Rodin applied to the Paris Academy of fine arts, but failed.

Since then, he has not been admitted twice.

This is a heavy blow to Rodin who aspires to become a sculptor.

Disappointed, Rodin entered the monastery to be a monk.

The abbot of Mingda thought Rodin was very talented and persuaded him to return to the secular world and continue his sculpture career.

In order to make a living when he was young, Rodin had to work as an assistant in the studio of the then academic sculptor Calier beles, make sculptures in the style of Calier, and then engrave the name of Calier and sell them.

This career lasted three years, which made Rodin’s hands more and more flexible and powerful.

After the Franco Prussian War broke out in 1870, Rodin came to Belgium, where he made architectural decoration and sculpture for a period of time.

Then he came to Italy with his savings.

Rodin in Italy appreciated the artistic style of Michelangelo.

Michelangelo’s creative spirit inspired Rodin’s long-standing creative impulse.

After returning to Belgium, he spent a year and a half writing the Bronze Age (1876-1877, plaster.

1878, bronze).

The sculpture is 175 cm high.

It was originally entitled “wounded soldier”.

The statue used to hold a stick in its hand.

Later, Rodin accepted the suggestion of others, removed the stick from the statue and renamed the sculpture the bronze age.

The bronze age is the early stage of mankind after the stone age.

This name makes this sculpture have the profound spiritual meaning of symbolizing the initial awakening of mankind and getting rid of ignorance.

The naked young man created by Rodin seems to have just woke up from his sleep.

His head tilts back slightly and his eyes are wide open, looking at the sky, with an innocent look.

The naked young man’s body is perfect and symmetrical, his body and legs are smooth and beautiful, and his body is elastic, like real breathing and blood flow, full of vitality.

The sculpture posed a powerful challenge to the stale academic sculpture with amazing authenticity.

Because the sculpture was so real that when it was sent to the official Salon Exhibition, the jury thought that the sculpture was a mold turned from a real person.

They made a ruthless mockery of Rodin and moved the sculpture out of the exhibition hall.

But the storm finally passed.

Rodin’s sculpture was re exhibited and acquired by the French government.

This event also made Rodin a famous figure in France.

After the bronze age, Rodin created John the Baptist (now in the Rodin Museum in Paris, 1878).

In this work, Rodin’s artistic style is more mature.

This sculpture shows the biblical account of John the Zealot and the victim.

Rodin believes that the human body is the symbol of life.

He portrays John as a naked image.

John is the disseminator and creator of the gospel of God.

His naked body does not make people feel blasphemous.

Instead, people feel all his loyalty and sincerity in John’s naked body.

John’s body was thin and strong, and the ups and downs of his tight muscles caused the effect of light and shadow.

He opened his mouth, waved his arms and strode towards his legs in front.

It seems that he has inexhaustible enthusiasm and vitality under the support of unswerving faith.

In this sculpture, Rodin no longer paid attention to the accurate depiction of human body details as in the bronze age, but began to use the rough “stroke”, that is, the “plastic mark” of sculpture, as a means of modeling.

John the Baptist is more natural and unrestrained in sculpture than the bronze age.

In 1880, the French government commissioned Rodin to do decorative carving for the bronze gate of the French arts and Crafts Museum.

When Rodin conceived this work, he first thought of Giberti’s bronze relief gate “the gate of heaven” for Florence Baptistery.

He decided to create a sculpture of hell on earth, the gate of hell, with the theme of hell in Dante’s divine comedy.

Rodin began to write the gate of hell at the age of 40.

Until his death in 1917, he thought he didn’t finish the work well.

In the 27 years after he accepted the task, Rodin devoted his main energy to the creation of this work.

He works sixteen or seven hours a day, sometimes longer.

The French government allocated him a sum of money and a large studio.

Rodin rented two other studios.

He worked in three studios in turn in order to create several works at the same time.

The gate of hell inspired Rodin’s boundless imagination.

In the process of completing this creation, he also reached the highest level in sculpture skills.

Rodin created countless statues for the gate of hell, including some of Rodin’s famous works, such as the thinker, the three shadows, the kiss, Adam, Eve and so on.

The gate of hell has become a big stage to show Rodin’s sculpture art.

Before “the gate of hell”, the architectural decoration sculpture usually divides the composition evenly according to the story of the sculpture, and the layout is more regular.

Rodin takes the gate of hell as a big composition, and only shows a theme of Hell: “you come here and give up all hope!” Looking at the whole sculpture, 187 human bodies are intertwined like wind and rain, and people who fall into hell are crowded in every corner of the gate.

The plane of the whole gate is crisscrossed with high relief and shallow relief, which form a complex and changeable shadow under the light.

It makes the whole gate look gloomy and full of uncontrollable terror.

Above the lintel of the gate of hell are three male human bodies with the same shape and drooping heads, which are called “Three Shadows” (the “Three Shadows” was later made into a bronze group with a height of 192 cmTheir vision leads the viewer’s vision to “hell”.

The banner under the lintel is the entrance to hell.

The sinners who are about to be driven into hell are making the last painful struggle.

In the center of the banner is a man larger than the size of the surrounding human body.

He holds his cheek in his hand and is lost in thought.

He is called the thinker (the thinker was later made into a bronze statue 200 cm high).

Under the banner, the middle seam of the gate naturally divides the composition into two parts, but the two parts are integral in content, depicting countless evil souls falling into hell, struggling in pain and despair.

All the people on this gate are naked.

Rodin believes that only the human body can most effectively express people’s thoughts and emotions.

In the more than 20 years of writing the gate of hell, Rodin has also completed works such as Hugo Memorial, Balzac, the righteous people of Calais, omeel and so on.

In addition, he also created portraits for some contemporary writers, artists, politicians and scientists.

In these portrait sculptures, Rodin once again showed his keen observation and superb skills.

He used classical techniques to show the portrait characters full of personality.

However, Rodin’s sculptures are obviously different from those of the school of classical sculpture.

His works are more simple and without any affectation.

The sculpture itself has not been carefully processed, and has maintained the traces of rough kneading and carving.

Rodin believes that this is a unique formal beauty of sculpture.

In the past, it can create an unpredictable light and shadow effect and enhance the richness of people’s feelings about sculpture, Therefore, Rodin often deliberately emphasizes it.

Balzac is the last great statue of Rodin.

The sculpture was ordered by Rodin in 1891, the president of the French Literary Association.

In order to create this sculpture, Rodin personally visited Balzac’s birthplace, found models similar to Balzac’s image, and made 17 10 foot tall Balzac statues based on them.

However, Rodin was not satisfied with these works.

He delayed the submission of the works.

After nearly two years, he created more than 20 statues of Balzac, and finally determined the image of Balzac.

In this final sculpture, Balzac is dressed in a sloppy Pajama style robe and has loose hair like a lion.

His surface is uneven, but there are emotional light and shadow changes on such a surface.

Balzac’s arms hung low in his long sleeves and had no hands.

Rodin had carefully shaped Balzac’s hand, but because his hand was so excellent that it made some noise, Rodin did not hesitate to cut off that hand.

Rodin abandoned the aesthetic principles of classicism and did not repair the cut “wound” on the sculpture, so he shaped Balzac’s statue.

In the Taiping era, Luo is good at decorating sculptures, but is not good at pastel sculptures.

Rodin broke this suffocating artistic atmosphere.

He attached importance to the expression of the characters’ unique character and expressed the characters’ soul, thought and passion through body shaping.

Through the movement of human body, it shows people’s internal vitality.

The surface of his sculpture fluctuates, retains active and changeable plastic marks, and strengthens the drama and literariness of sculpture.

Camille claude1864-1943, a female sculptor, was Rodin’s student and lover.

She showed outstanding talent in her youth and created David and Goliath.

In 1884, Claudel entered Rodin’s studio as an assistant.

She made the hands and feet of several women for the characters in Rodin’s the gates of hell, and for estash St Pierre in Rodin’s the righteous people of Calais and the man on the right.

In addition, she has independently created Paul claudelle at the age of 16 and the bust of Louise de massali.

From 1888 to 1892, she also created the bust of Rodin, which was “full of distress”.

After claudelle broke up with Rodin in 1898, she tried to get rid of Rodin’s influence and created some works with different styles, such as wave (1887-1903).

Despiau (1874-1946) was a student of Rodin.

From 1904 to 1907, he worked as Rodin’s carving assistant in Rodin’s studio.

He was good at portrait sculpture.

His early works included bolette and the girl in the clothes.

These works attach importance to the characterization of characters and are good at capturing the vivid expression of characters in an instant, from which we can see the great influence of Rodin on him.

But in the mature period of despio’s artistic style, he pursued rigorous and concise modeling style.

His portrait of a woman portrays a young girl.

Her big eyes are slightly surprised, and her lips slightly bite constitute an expression of innocence and joy.

The sculptural treatment of the whole work is refined without exaggeration and affectation.

Francois pompon (1855-1933) was a famous animal sculptor in France.

He first studied carving with a stonemason, so he was good at stone carving.

He also studied in several sculpture studios and worked as Rodin’s assistant, mastering superb carving skills.

He often goes to the zoo to observe the habits of animals, trying to create a dynamic and vivid image of animals.

Peng Peng often uses hard straight lines to highlight the texture beauty of stones.

He eliminates subtle ups and downs and the depiction of object details, and uses large blocks and straight lines to structure the image, resulting in a vigorous, clear and holistic artistic effect unique to modern round carvings.

His masterpiece white bear portrays a strong and alert white bear who staggers and seems to be looking for prey.

The sculptor Aristide mailloi (1861-1944) was a sculptor who was later than Rodin but was as famous as Rodin.

Mayor was infatuated with weaving tapestries in his early years, but his eyes were greatly damaged due to overwork, resulting in temporary blindness, so he had to start sculpture art.

At that time, he was 40 years old.

But it was in sculpture that he achieved great success.

When mayor was engaged in sculpture, Rodin had a great influence in the sculpture industry, but Mayor gradually established a style different from Rodin with his own exploration.

Rodin expresses his poetic passion in inspiration in various unbalanced dynamics of the characters, while mayor achieves fullness and quiet harmony by establishing the quality center of sculpture.

He emphasized the stillness and eternity of the human bodyIt introduces the principles of architecture into sculpture, so as to innovate the sculpture art.

The composition of the work is full of rhythm, and abandons any analytical observation, so as to make the overall image carry out a comprehensive and coordinated layout around a calculated central axis.

Although mayor studies objective objects and ancient sculpture images, the statue images have a static nature and have the characteristics of formalism.

From the Mediterranean (1902-1905), mayor began to create a series of immortal works.

Based on numerous clay works, the Mediterranean was finally completed in stone carving, and several bronze replicas were cast in plaster molds.

Mayor’s creation progress is usually very slow.

He always has to modify and polish his works countless times to strive for perfection.

Most of his sculptures are marked with two dates, one is the date when he began to create, and the other is the date when he thought it was completed.

The two dates are usually far away, sometimes even decades apart.

During this period, mayor often created many exercises and variants, and constantly made changes to his works, sometimes even fundamental changes.

Due to the adoption of this creative method, mayor’s works have almost no masterstroke and improvisation effect, but rely on some conventional methods and patiently pursue a unique work in line with the artist’s temperament according to certain principles.

Another feature of mayor’s sculpture creation is that he never pursues addition in sculpture and always subtracts.

He always says to use the least words to express the most meaning.

For example, there is no swan in his traditional theme Rita created in 1900.

This sculpture only suggests the theme of the work through the figure’s body posture.

Mayor has created a series of Monument sculptures.

His works in memory of the revolutionary bronki, freedom in bondage and the monument to Cezanne are among them.

Mayor’s monumental sculptures are also expressed in naked and semi naked female bodies.

This technique was difficult to understand at the beginning and was opposed.

It was believed that such creation would weaken people’s respect for the memorial.

However, mayor obtained the real Memorial characteristics of the monument with the elegant words created by the human body by increasing the preciseness and power of metaphor and the sincerity of emotion.

As an outdoor sculptor, mayor pays attention to making the surface of his sculpture not too shiny, so that the natural light and shadow will affect the volume of his sculpture.

In his 60s, mayor traveled to central and southern Europe.

After visiting ancient Greek and Roman sculptures, mayor strengthened his determination to go down his own road.

After that, he created a series of sculptures named after the natural scene, such as spring, Mediterranean, summer, night, air, mountain, river and so on.

These works show that the sculptor’s inspiration comes from the eternal nature.

The female body and curly and surging hair become the symbol of nature, and the female body becomes an endless treasure house for mayor’s metaphor and symbol.

This symbolic technique makes mayor surpass the shape and the typical.

For the female body, mayor is more interested in the simplicity of the beautiful carcass of young girls, because he has a deep love for those youth who have not experienced the hardships of life.

Almost all of mayor’s works are figures and statues, but he pays less attention to the expression of personality and pays more attention to the generalization of general spirit.

He successfully uses the technique of reducing details to obtain strength.

His works are balanced, plump and quiet.

There are no changes in the outline, but only simple and vivid geometric forms.

“I have only a few main parts, which is too much.

I’d rather have only two parts like the ancient primitive artists.

” Mayor’s works in his later years were more concise.

Emile Antoine Bourdelle (1861-1929), whose father was a joiner, learned carpentry from childhood and was good at wood carving.

In his youth, he was famous in his hometown for his good at wood carving.

As a teenager, bueder lived in the mountains and grew up in the living environment of workers, forming a simple peasant temperament.

At the age of 15, bueder entered the Toulouse School of fine arts and was admitted to the Paris National Academy of fine arts with excellent results eight years later.

However, bueder dropped out of school because he couldn’t stand the dead academic teaching.

After dropping out of school, buder fell into poverty.

After the introduction of sculptor Daru, he entered Rodin’s studio and became Rodin’s student and assistant.

He stayed in Rodin’s studio for 15 years.

However, due to their differences in art, they finally had to.

Buder said that Rodin knew how to make the marble like the muscles of a living person beating.

He was a great anatomist of genius, but buder himself wanted to synthesize and retain the architectural feeling he developed when making furniture.

He thought he was an architectural sculptor.

Rodin doesn’t want to make sculptures without models.

He needs to inspire inspiration from reality, while budel wants to remove the burden of reality and say what he wants to say as freely as possible.

Buder emphasizes the application of the constituent factors in architecture to sculpture: like architecture, through scientific and careful design, all parts are integrated to form a whole.

So that the lines, volume and weight of sculpture modeling can form a three-dimensional symphony in space.

Therefore, buder’s sculpture is not improvised, but through the accurate research, analysis and understanding of the object, and then through the brain and hand to synthesize it.

Through this analysis and synthesis, the modeling beauty in line with the specific art form is retained, and a beauty that sublimates the reality is created.

“You can’t do things with your impression.

Do things with what you have in your heart.

What you feel today is often different from what you feel tomorrow.

You should grasp the essence,” budell said So budel sometimes doesn’t need a model.

He can achieve the expected goal without being bound by the real model.

Buder’s creative law is: “moving – Science – creation”.

Buder emphasizes the importance of sculpture deformation, but his deformation has never gone beyond the scope of image realism.

His sculptures are easy to understand and closely related to reality.

“Things that are disconnected from nature cannot move people’s hearts,” he said Buder’s sculptures do not depict the pleats and limbs of the characters in detail, but only focus on the key physical turns, and minimize the “strokes”, so that his sculptures have a simple beauty without carvingSkye also created many excellent works.

Bo Yi Orlovsky (1793-1837) was the most famous sculptor of this time.

He came from the Academy of Fine Arts in Petersburg and studied sculpture.

His “Kutuzov Memorial” and “Buckley de Tori Memorial” successfully expressed the dignity and pride of the Russian military commander.

The two monuments and statues erected in Petersburg made Orlov famous.

Other sculptors who took the Patriotic War of 1812 as the theme were terebiniov and.

Selebeniov decorated the naval building with relief “God of glory” and decorative belt “building a naval fleet in Russia”.

Tolstoy created a historical sculpture of the Patriotic War composed of 21 medals. P.K. klott (1805-1867) was also a famous Russian sculptor in the early 19th century.

His four horse training group sculptures were placed at both ends of the anichekov bridge on Neva street, with spectacular momentum and attention.

This sculpture uses the combination of classicism and realism to show that the four young people are Taming Wild Horses, and the shapes of riders and horses are solid and full of vitality.

Klott’s work has a strong national aesthetic feeling, which can be comparable to the famous horse carvings all over Europe.

Vitali (1794-1855) was also an artist specializing in decorative sculpture.

His representative works include fountain carving in Moscow theater square (1835), Moscow Arc de Triomphe carving (1830), decorative carving in Moscow Kremlin’s gaiorkiyev hall and so on.

The marble round sculpture Venus (1852) created by him in his later period has beautiful posture and exquisite skills.

It is considered to be the last masterpiece of Russian classical sculpture.

In Russia in the second half of the 19th century, the content of large-scale sculptures closely related to urban construction was strictly controlled by the government, which can only express the content of praising the rulers, while some small indoor sculptures are full of life.

Antokolsky (1838-1913) showed his outstanding artistic talent in his early years.

He once attended the Petersburg Academy of fine arts, but his creation was closely related to the touring exhibition school at that time and had the spirit of realism.

His early work “tailor” (1865) in high relief shows an old tailor sticking his head out of the window and threading through the light.

The image is very moving.

In the 1970s, antokolski created a series of statues of historical figures, including Ivan Leidi (1871), Peter the great (1872), etc.

Ivan Leidi shows a tsar with superhuman willpower and arrogant self-esteem.

He is facing the aging of life.

He sits on the throne and falls into painful meditation.

His heart seems to be experiencing a fierce struggle.

Before antokolsky, it seems that Russian sculptors have not shown such a complex psychological and mental state of the characters in their sculptures.

This sculpture made antokolsky one of the most outstanding sculptors in Russia.

In 1874, antocolsky lived in Rome, Italy and Paris, France for a long time.

During this period, he created a series of images of thinkers who felt heavy mental pain in the face of harsh reality.

Such works include the coming of Christ (1874), the death of (1876), Spinoza (1882), Mephisto (1883), etc.

After the 1980s, antokolski began to create historical themes again.

Completed the yelmark Monument (1881-1891) to commemorate the 300th anniversary of the Russian people’s hero yelmark’s expedition to Siberia.

He also created some statues of historical figures, such as the chronicler Nestor (1889), the Cossack warrior yermak (1891), and the scholar Jaroslav (1888).

Antokowski’s student genzbulk (1859-1939) also created portraits for famous figures of his time, such as stasov, Tolstoy, Tchaikovsky, napravnik, Lebin and yaloshenko.

Kaminsky (1838-1913) created the children – sculptor (1866), the widow with a baby (1868) and the first step (1872), which are all based on people’s daily life.

The modeling technique is simple and lively, including sincere feelings for life.

The representative works of the sculptor cherov (1838-1916), who grew up in the countryside, are also works with the theme of rural life.

In the sculpture “farmers in disaster” (1872), he portrayed the father and son of farmers whose houses were burned down by the fire and squatted on the ruins.

The characters are real and the works are very infectious.

In addition, cherov’s excellent works also include “by the well”, “naughty little girl” and so on.

Ivanov (1828-1903) is also good at custom carving.

The bathing boy (1854) created by him creates the image of a lovely boy, vividly depicts his immature body that has not yet begun to develop, and conveys the sculptor’s true feelings about life.

During this period, mishenk (1835-1896) was also engaged in Monument carving.

His works include the monument to the 1000th anniversary of Russia (1859), the monument to yekaterina II (1873), etc.

“1000 years of Russia” stands in Novgorod.

Around the ball symbolizing Russia’s great power, it has created outstanding figures in various fields of Russia in the past 1000 years.

Among them are politicians, militarists, scholars, poets, musicians and artists.

The form of the monument to yekaterina II is similar to that of the monument to the 1000th anniversary of Russia, which is up to 15 meters high.

It stands in the street garden in front of the Alexandria Theatre (now Pushkin Theatre) in St.

Petersburg.

The statue of Ekaterina II stands at the top of the monument, and the lower layer is the nine great figures of 18th century Russia.

Mishenk’s representative works also include the monument to hemelinitz (1869-1888) in Kiev.

Sculptor opekushen (1838-1923) is also good at Monument sculpture.

His masterpiece Monument (1880) is also an excellent work in the history of Russian sculpture.

This sculpture combines the realistic technique of realism with the strict form of classicism to shape the image of a poet in meditation.

In addition, opekushen’s representative works include the memorial of Bell (1886), the memorial of lemontov (1889), etc.

19th century sculpture from other European countries(Thomas Crawford 1813-1857) is one of the most important neoclassical sculptors in the United States.

He has been commissioned by American officials to create large-scale sculptures for many times.

The statue of Orpheus, the statue of Beethoven and the progress of American civilization are his representative works.

William Wetmore story 1819-1895 created a series of group sculptures of ancient heroic women, including the statue of Silby and Cleopatra.

These works won him great praise at the Paris World Expo in 1862.

From 1920s to 1990s, under the influence of Italian sculpture in Europe, American Sculpture circles took neoclassical style as the mainstream.

However, the requirements of American sculpture are mainly in the creation of hero memorial sculpture, so American sculpture has attached great importance to realism from the beginning.

Especially in the 1860s, after four years of civil war in the United States, heroes’ memorial statues were set up everywhere.

Under such a situation, sculptors paid more attention to the realism of their works.

In addition to the several American sculptors who studied in Italy mentioned above, there are also some sculptors who grew up entirely on the land of their own country.

William Rimmer (1816-1879) is a sculptor who grew up in Boston and is good at creating bronze statues.

He is a very talented sculptor with the reputation of “American Michelangelo”.

His representative works include fighting the lion, the dying man and horse.

The sculptor Erastus Dow Palmer (1817-1904) was a neoclassical sculptor who worked as a carpenter in his youth and later became a self-taught talent.

He is good at making low relief figures.

His most famous work is white captives.

John Quincy adams1830-1910 was a realistic sculptor.

Ward is also the first artist in the United States to explore the creation of sculpture with realism.

His sculpture works have serious and profound connotation, strict composition, simple and general character modeling.

He has created sculptures for many cities in the United States.

The Indian hunter, which he created in 1864, was the first urban sculpture in New York City’s Central Park.

His main works include the statue of General Thomas in Washington (1878), the statue of Washington in front of the US Treasury (1883), the bronze statue of Simon Kenton (1884), and the statue of Henry Ward Beecher (1891).

In 1903, ward also worked with the sculptor Bartley to complete the decorative sculpture of the gable of the New York stock market.

Sugustus Saint Gaudens (1848-1907) was a realistic sculptor like ward.

He studied at the Paris School of fine arts and lived in Italy for some time.

He has created a large number of excellent works for the United States.

Among them is the statue of Admiral Farragut (1881), erected on Madison Square in New York City, which has become a model of American monument sculpture.

In 1887, he created the “Lincoln Memorial” set up in Chicago square.

Then he completed the “general Logan” and the “General Sherman” at the entrance of Central Park in New York, as well as the “Lincoln sitting” on the front of Chicago lake.

In 1891, St.

Gordon created the monument to Mrs.

Henry Adams.