Section I Mohandas farmhand Gandhi (1869-1948), a famous celebrity in the east of the world and a famous leader of the Indian national independence movement, is known as “Mahatma”.
Gandhi’s thoughts and theories are commonly known as Gandhi doctrine.
Gandhi doctrine is not only the guiding ideology and theoretical weapon of the Indian national liberation movement, but also the guiding principle of the political life of India after independence.
Gandhi doctrine has an important influence not only in India but also in the world, especially in some countries in Asia and Africa.
It is an important heritage of the treasure house of human civilization.
Gandhi doctrine is extremely rich in content, including philosophical thought, social thought, political thought, economic thought and other fields, and its ideological system is also quite characteristic.
In recent years, many scholars at home and abroad have studied and written Gandhi and his theory, and their evaluation of Gandhi and his doctrine is also different.
Gandhi was born on October 2, 1869, in a noble family in bolbanda Tu state in southwest India.
Grandfather and father served as Prime Minister of the land state.
Gandhi studied primary and secondary school in Rajkot state as a teenager.
He entered shamadas University in bavernagar in 1887 and went to Britain to study law at the University of London in September the following year.
He was qualified as a lawyer in June 1891 and worked as a lawyer in Mumbai and Rajkot after returning home.
In April 1893, he was employed as a legal adviser to a commercial company established by Indians in South Africa, and arrived in Durban, South Africa in May.
On the way, he witnessed and personally suffered racial discrimination and insults from whites, and devoted himself to the activities of Indian expatriates against racial discrimination by the South African authorities.
In 1894, he was registered as a lawyer in the Supreme Court of natal, South Africa.
Initiated and organized by Gandhi, “natal Indian Congress” was established on May 20.
In order to make people know about Natal, he wrote two pamphlets: “appeal to the British in South Africa” and “the right of Indians to vote”, and led the natal Indian Congress to mobilize Indian indentured workers to participate in the tax fight.
In the summer of 1896, he returned home to pick up his family members, met with the press and leaders of the Congress Party in India, and called for the relief of the suffering of Indian overseas Chinese in South Africa, which received strong support.
The Boer War broke out on October 10, 1899.
Gandhi summoned 1100 overseas Indians to form an ambulance team to serve the British army.
Gandhi was rewarded and awarded a medal.
In December 1900, he returned to India with his family members and put forward the “appeal on behalf of Indian overseas Chinese in South Africa” at the 17th annual meeting of the Congress party, which was passed.
In December 1902, Gandhi went to South Africa to submit a petition for Indian overseas Chinese, calling for equal treatment for Indian overseas Chinese.
In 1903, he organized the British Indian Association and served as Honorary Secretary and legal adviser.
In 1904, the weekly India Forum was founded in South Africa to publicize the non violent resistance movement.
Later, he purchased 100 mu of land near Zhuangban, South Africa, and established an ideal village called “Phoenix Village”, which later became one of the bases for him to lead the non violent struggle in South Africa.
On August 22, 1906, the government of lantua, South Africa, announced the bill banning Indian immigrants (also known as the “black bill”), Gandhi rose up to lead the overseas Chinese to set off a non violent resistance movement, and changed the “negative resistance” to “uphold the truth” (Satya Graha).
On August 16, 1908, Gandhi led Indian overseas Chinese to burn more than 2000 immigration registration certificates in protest against the “black bill”.
In June 1909, he led a delegation to London to petition without result and began to form the idea of “Indian autonomy”.
In November, on his way back to South Africa, he wrote the book “Indian autonomy”.
In May 1910, he established a “farm” on 1100 mu of land near Johannesburg with Indian donations.
Soon a school was founded on the farm.
Gandhi stopped his lawyer business with an annual income of 5000-6000 pounds and devoted himself to serving the overseas Chinese and non violent resistance.
In September 1912, he donated all his private property (£ 5130) to the non violent movement.
On October 28, 1913, Gandhi led more than 2000 Indian expatriate miners to “March peacefully” from Newcastle to Johannesburg, demanding the abolition of poll tax, “black bill” and so on.
On January 21, 1914, Gandhi and Smurfs compromised and reached a temporary agreement: abolishing the sterling poll tax.
You can enter South Africa with an immigration permit stamped with your hand.
Recognize the legitimacy of Indian legal marriage in South Africa.
Gandhi agreed to end nonviolent resistance.
Gandhi’s victory in this struggle raised his reputation and made him famous in South Africa and India.
In January 1015, Gandhi returned home to fight for India’s autonomy.
In order to further understand the situation of the motherland, he traveled all over the country.
On May 28, the Institute of nonviolent resistance (also known as the Institute of truth and the monastery of truth) was founded near Ahmedabad.
On June 3, the emperor’s birthday, Gandhi was awarded the imperial Indian medal.
In February 1917, he held a mass meeting in Mumbai and asked the government to explicitly abolish the contract labor system and was accepted.
In April, running for chambalan indigo farmers in Bihar prompted the government to pass the chambalan agricultural reform law, reducing the exploitation of indigo farmers.
In February 1918, he organized a workers’ strike in Ahmedabad to demand higher wages and encouraged workers to stick to the struggle with a hunger strike.
In June, the British side announced the “draft constitutional reform of Montagu Elmsford”, which prompted Gandhi to change from “cooperation” with the UK to “non cooperation” and from “non violent resistance” to “non violent non cooperation”.
In February 1919, he established a non violent resistance Association in Mumbai to oppose the lorat act.
In October, he founded two publications, new life and youth India.
In September 1920, the Congress party held a special meeting in Calcutta and adopted Gandhi’s “non cooperation movement” and the resolution calling for autonomy.
From then on, the thought of non violent non cooperation has become the guiding principle of the Congress party for national independence, and also determined Gandhi’s leading position in the Congress Party.
From July to August 1921, under the leadership of Gandhi, cities across the country burned down British cloth, spun and woven by hand, dressed in native cloth, and boycotted the prince of Wales’ visit to India.
At the same time, student strikes, workers’ strikes and the non cooperative movement reached a climax.
On February 2, 1922, farmers in jorichola set fire to the police station and burned and killed the police in the United province.
Gandhi immediately instructed the Congress party to stop the non cooperation movement after hearing the news, and stipulated that the working policy of the Congress party was to promote the hand textile movement, strive to eliminate the “Dalit” system, strengthen the unity between India and Hui, expand national education, improve the status of women, and so on.
thisIs Gandhi’s famous “constructive program”.
On July 20 of the same year, Gandhi was imprisoned, where he wrote his autobiography – the story of my experience of truth.
From 1924 to 1925, Gandhi served as chairman of the Congress party.
In March 1930, Gandhi, 61, led 78 students of the truth college to start the famous Salt March.
They started from the school of truth in Ahmedabad, walked for 24 days and traveled 241 miles.
On April 5, they arrived at Dandi beach, boiled salt with seawater and called for refusing to buy “official selling salt”.
All parts of India have launched the struggle to destroy the salt law and resist foreign cloth, thus setting off the second non cooperation movement.
On March 5, 1931, Gandhi and British Indian governor Owen signed an agreement after many talks.
The agreement stipulates that the resistance movement will not continue to carry out, and social movements should be carried out within the scope permitted by law in the future.
The British and Indian governments promised to release political prisoners who did not use violence.
Refused to amend the salt law, but allowed the people to buy their own salt and sell it in their residential areas.
In September of the same year, Gandhi went to London to participate in the second round table meeting and asked for autonomy for India, which was rejected.
Gandhi decided to resume the non violent non cooperation movement.
In February 1933, he founded the weekly Harry Zhen to fight for the liberation of the “untouchables”.
On April 7, 1934, Gandhi decided to stop the non cooperation movement and implement the constructive program he put forward as early as 1922.
From 1940 to 1941, Gandhi served as chairman of the Congress party.
On March 11, 1942, the British government sent kripps to India to discuss issues such as the constitution of autonomy with Gandhi, who rejected the kripps plan.
In April, Gandhi put forward the slogan of “withdrawing from India”, that is, he put forward the demand for Indian independence for the first time.
On August 8, the Congress Party passed a non cooperation resolution according to Gandhi’s instructions, asking Britain to hand over power.
The next day, Gandhi was arrested, there was a great commotion across the country, and the colonial authorities imposed a bloody crackdown.
On February 10, 1943, Gandhi began a three week hunger strike to protest against government atrocities.
Gandhi was released on May 6.
In September 1944, Gandhi held talks with Jenna to try to solve the relationship between the Indian Congress Party and the Muslim League (hereinafter referred to as the India Mu relationship) and the future status of India, but no agreement was reached.
Gandhi opposed the partition of India and Mu and the establishment of Pakistan.
On September 2, 1946, the interim government headed by Jawaharlal Nehru was established.
Gandhi set four major tasks for the government: striving for independence, resolving sectarian conflicts, liberating the “Dalit” class and using earth cloth for clothes.
On April 15, 1947, Gandhi and Jenna issued a joint statement calling for an end to sectarian conflict.
On August 15, India declared its independence and the whole country celebrated, but Gandhi went on a hunger strike in Calcutta to commemorate the independence day with spinning.
In September, there was a large-scale sectarian conflict and vendetta in India.
Gandhi called on Hindus and Muslims to live in peace by means of hunger strike and lobbying.
On January 30, 1948, Gandhi was shot dead by a fanatical Hindu on his way to prayer in Delhi.
He was 79 years old.
Gandhi devoted his life to the cause of national independence in India.
He is the author of “young India”, “Gandhi autobiography” and so on.
He went on hunger strike 18 times in his life, was arrested 15 times, spent 2330 days in prison, and was 73 years old for the last time.
He practiced self-cultivation and austerity, lived a simple life, saved food and clothing, and dedicated all his property to the poor.
He didn’t want high officials and high salaries, and worked with the masses.
Gandhi’s sincere patriotism and noble integrity have been praised by the people of India and the world.
He has been deeply missed by the people of India and the world.
The core of Gandhi’s doctrine is his view of “truth”.
Gandhi’s religious philosophy, moral and ethical thought and his social and political thought are based on his theory of truth.
Without understanding Gandhi’s view of truth, we cannot understand his whole ideological system and various theories and policies related to the Indian national liberation movement.
As Gandhi himself said, “for me, truth is the supreme principle, which includes countless other principles.
” He added, “I don’t claim to have invented any new doctrine or doctrine.
I just apply the truth we think to my daily life.
” However, Gandhi’s view of truth is not a materialistic view of truth, but a religious view of truth.
The truth in Gandhi’s mind is God.
He equated the idea of God with the idea of truth.
He said: “this truth refers not only to the truth of speech, but also to the truth of thought.
It is not only the relative truth we understand, but also the absolute truth – God.
” At first, he put God first and put forward the formula of “God is truth”.
He said, “if human language can give God the most complete expression, then my conclusion is that God is the truth for me.”. But then Gandhi declared that “truth is God” and put the word “truth” in the first place.
That’s why, he thinks, “I used to think in my heart that although God is God, he is the truth above all else.
But two years ago, I took a step forward and began to say, ‘truth is God, you will understand’ the exact difference between the two statements that God is truth and truth is God.
This conclusion was reached only after my unremitting pursuit of truth.”. In Gandhi’s view, “truth” can provide a common belief for believers of different religions and even non religious believers.
This concept has great power to unite various social forces.
By emphasizing that “truth is God”, we can unify people of different beliefs, nationalities and castes with the help of the appeal of “truth”, so as to achieve the purpose of national independence.
“I have never found a double truth associated with truth.
Even atheists do not oppose the necessity and power of truth.
Therefore, truth is God, which makes me most satisfied.”. The central content of Gandhi’s religious view of truth is humanitarian “love”.
He believes that the principle of truth is the principle of love, and there is no truth without love.
He said: “people have many attributes.
Love is the greatest.
People without love, although worshipping God is empty.
In short, love is the foundation of all religions.
” According to Gandhi’s view of truth, although people have different bodies, their nature is the same.
Human nature contains divine goodness, which is often hidden by selfish desires.
Once the goodness factor is awakened, even the wicked can be transformed into good people.
Therefore, Gandhi advocated that as long as people inhibit selfishness, hatred, jealousy, revenge and other malignant behaviors through self sacrifice and suffering, they can make themselvesIf you want to develop a factory in India, you might as well send the money to Manchester.
” “With Manchester cloth, we have only lost money, but if there is a Manchester in India, we have left the money flowing out, but we have changed our flesh and blood, because the moral foundation of our existence will be destroyed.
” “Poor India can still be free, but it is very difficult for an India who has become rich by immorality to be free again.
” Based on this understanding of modern industry and modern civilization, he concluded that the essence of the struggle for swaraji is to oppose modern civilization.
A bright, peaceful and peaceful India in the future lies in eradicating modern civilization and rebuilding a society based on spirit.
In this society, there is no longer the development of large industries.
At most, a limited number of large industries for the purpose of serving the society are allowed.
Gandhi believed that India’s future civilization should be found in history.
This civilization consists of three elements: the plough of farmers’ cultivated land, the hand spinning wheel of handicraftsmen, and Hindu philosophy.
From an economic point of view, the most important thing should be the hand spinning wheel.
Hand spinning wheel is not only a material weapon, but also a “spiritual weapon” against western civilization.
It embodies the moral “cooperative spirit” of ancient Indian rural communes.
Therefore, he strongly advocated “going back to the spinning wheel” and carrying out the family textile movement.
He believes that rural India is the real India, and the construction of rural areas is the foundation of the construction of India.
Handicraft industry and other rural industries should be vigorously restored, and the natural economy combining agriculture and handicraft industry should be taken as the foundation of future society.
He agreed with Tolstoy’s “bread labor law”, that is, everyone should obtain daily necessities from agriculture or other manual labor to achieve economic justice and equal distribution.
Capitalists and landlords should voluntarily give up their property and only become the trustee of the property.
The poor and the rich enjoy the same economic rights.
In terms of political system, Gandhi’s basic idea is to establish a federalism based on village communities, and implement the division of small organizations in all localities.
In an autonomous republic like Gandhi, there is no political power and no army, which makes India a “enlightened anarchy” that is actually stateless and non violent.
Although there are police in the country, they only perform non violent functions.
Everyone does not interfere with the exercise of their own sovereignty.
Gandhi was most worried about the fear that India would become an oligarchy after independence.
In particular, he did not want to see the establishment of a one party dictatorship or a new centralized bureaucratic government.
In his view, the state eliminates individuality, which is the root of human progress, so the state is the greatest scourge.
Under the guidance of this thought, he is eager to establish a new political power on the basis of rural village communities.
Minimize the central power and implement the maximum decentralization of power.
Villages became autonomous entities of small republics.
In this entity, everyone participates in physical labor without exploitation, equality and fraternity, and is equal regardless of gender, caste, religion and occupation.
If someone violates these principles, he must be subjected to nonviolent resistance.
In 1946, Gandhi’s disciple Narayan Agarwal drafted a Gandhi style liberal constitution.
The constitution was drafted in accordance with Gandhi’s vision.
According to this constitution, the social economy is mainly carried out separately by various localities, and each village can handle its own affairs independently.
Gandhi firmly opposed imitating the national political system of Britain.
He believed that the British parliamentary democracy was hypocritical and selfish, and even said that the mother of this system was “an infertile prostitute”.
He said that British parliamentary democracy is not true democracy, but fascist imperialism in a clever disguise.
If India’s future national system imitates Britain, it will perish.
Dominions such as Canada and South Africa are just the British economy without British people, not autonomy.
In connection with the above thought, Gandhi also had the so-called socialist thought.
He said that his view of truth must be embodied in socialism.
In his later years, he publicly declared himself a “first-class socialist”, and even said that he was a socialist when he was in South Africa.
In fact, the socialism advocated by Gandhi is similar to the thoughts of Pluto, Ruskin and Tolstoy, the advocates of anarchism in the 19th century.
It is humanitarian socialism.
He believes that socialism is love for and identity with the poor.
The purpose of socialism is to serve the poor.
On July 2, 1947, Speaking at the Delhi political conference, he said: “I am also a socialist.
Almost 50 years ago, when I was a lawyer in South Africa, many people also called themselves socialists.
If I were a socialist, they were not as good as me.
I often work with workers as part of my career.
This is true socialism.
I always see myself as a worker and a farmer Faithful servant.
” He stressed that without the cooperation of the poor, the rich could not accumulate wealth.
He believes that workers and capitalists should depend on and help each other, so as to form a cooperative society.
Gandhi sympathized with the plight of workers, but also believed that the social status of capitalists should be respected.
His creed is “not to exterminate capitalists with nonviolence, but to exterminate capitalism with nonviolence.
” Gandhi’s socialist thought is based on the British “property entrustment theory”.
He believed that landlords and capitalists must regard themselves as wealth trustees for their own interests and the interests of workers and peasants.
In other words, landlords and capitalists are entrusted by the gods to manage property, and landlords and capitalists are the guardians of farmers and workers respectively.
They should manage all private property for the benefit of their guardians, and as guardians, farmers and workers should not infringe on their guardians’ property.
He believes that the rich should voluntarily give up their property.
A rich man should not have a fortune of rupees more than his neighbor.
He did it, handed over all his property and swore to be poor.
“I have long ago given up my desire for wealth to show that I hope everyone will do the same.
But what advice should I give to those who are already rich or who are unwilling to give up their desire for wealth? I can only tell them that they should use their wealth for public affairs,” he said (III) the theory of Non Violence and the struggle strategy of adhering to truth and non cooperation.
Another important thought and law of Gandhi is the theory of Non Violence and the resulting “firm treatment of truth” and “contradiction”The struggle strategy of “fight”.
“Non Violence” comes from the ancient Sanskrit word “ahimsa”.
“Ahimsa” often appears in ancient Indian Jainism or Buddhist classics.
Its common meaning is not to kill or hurt others’ feelings, which is advocated as a religious commandment or moral code.
Gandhi’s theory of non violence is the inheritance of this religious commandment and gives it new significance.
As Gandhi himself said, “although my principle of non violence is the result of my study of the world’s most important religious beliefs, it is no longer attached to the authority of those religious classics.
It is a part of my life”.
In other words, Gandhi introduced his principle of non violence into the political field, thus developing the moral code in the original religious sense.
Gandhi believed that non violence and truth are intertwined.
In fact, the two are inseparable.
They are like two sides of the same coin.
Rather, it is like the two sides of a smooth metal cake without any mark.
Who can say which side is positive and which side is negative? Non violence is the means, and truth is the end.
The reason why means are used as means is that it is always within our ability, so non violence is our highest obligation.
If we pay attention to using this means, we will be able to achieve our goal sooner or later.
Although Gandhi regarded the relationship between truth and non violence as the relationship between end and means, he emphasized the importance of means.
He said: “some people say, ‘means are means after all’, while I say, ‘means determine everything’.
Means are also ends.
There is no barrier between means and self.
The creator gives us the ability to control means (although it is very limited) But it doesn’t give us the ability to control our purpose.
The actual regulation of the purpose is strictly proportional to the means we use.
There is no exception to this consistent relationship.
” What I am most concerned about is the means and its continuous application.
I know that as long as we pay attention to means, the goal will be achieved.
In Gandhi’s view, “truth” as the highest moral criterion of the universe is innate and cannot be changed by people, while “Non Violence” can be adjusted and controlled by people.
As long as people continue to use non violent “means”, they can reveal the truth and realize the highest moral criterion of the universe.
Gandhi asserted that “means is everything”.
Non violence is the basic law of mankind and the code of action that people must abide by.
People must go all out to implement it and cannot violate it at any time.
Gandhi tried to absolutize the principle of “Non Violence” and solve all social problems by means of “Non Violence”.
The starting point and core of Gandhi’s Non Violence theory is love.
In Gandhi’s view, non violence and love are synonymous.
He believes that non violence and love are human nature, just as violence is the law of beasts.
We should love all people and not make enemies of anyone.
We believe that all people have inherent human nature.
We should curb evil with love, repay good for evil, and oppose material power with spiritual power.
He said that the positive significance of non violence is to consciously endure suffering.
This is not to persuade obedience to the will of bad people, but to oppose the will of the autocratic devil with his whole spirit.
Therefore, Gandhi took the principle of non violence as the basis for his policies and activities for autonomy.
In his view, nonviolence is the most powerful weapon at the disposal of mankind.
It is more powerful than the most destructive weapon skillfully designed by people.
Gandhi applied his theory of Non Violence to the struggle of self-government, which is the so-called “saty agalaha”, which means the struggle strategy of “adhering to the truth”.
He regarded the struggle strategy of “adhering to the truth” as generally feasible and can be applied by anyone on any occasion.
It can be used by individuals and groups.
It can be used in both political and family affairs.
Its universal application shows that it is eternal and invincible.
Men, women and children can use it.
Anyway, He regarded truth as a panacea to solve all social problems.
As early as South Africa, he put forward the slogan of “adhering to truth” and carried out non violent resistance movements, such as submitting petitions to the colonial authorities, setting up non violent struggle bases – Phoenix Village and Tolstoy farm, burning immigration permits, leading people to March peacefully and demanding the cancellation of the black bill Later, he returned to India and applied it to the practice of the national liberation movement.
Gandhi regarded the “non cooperation movement” and the “civil disobedience movement” led by him, hunger strike “and” prayer “as the form of” upholding the truth “.
Later, people collectively referred to these forms of struggle as the” non violent non cooperation movement “.
As mentioned earlier, before 1919, Gandhi’s autonomy thought did not require the immediate end of British rule, but the pursuit of their own spiritual perfection.
He believed that ending British rule and obtaining autonomy was a long process, in which a basically cooperative attitude should be adopted towards British rule.
For example, he supported the British side in the British Burmese war in 1809 and the anti British uprising of natal Zulu people in South Africa in 1906, as well as during the first World War.
He once sent an Indian rescue team to serve the British army and even won a British medal.
He hoped to win the favor of Britain and give India autonomy after the war.
He held a negative attitude towards the extremists’ practice of ending British rule with a negative resistance line from 1905 to 1908.
However, after the British side announced the “Montagu allmsford Reform Act” in 1918, because the British did not allow India’s autonomy, Gan was determined to change from “cooperation” to “non cooperation”.
In the past, the non violent resistance movement was actually “small opposition, big cooperation”.
From 1918 to 1920, Gandhi’s fundamental attitude changed, which marked the final formation of Gandhi’s thought of Non Violence and non cooperation.
Under the guidance of Gandhi’s new thought, there were national scale non cooperation movements in India from 1920 to 1922, 1930 to 1934 and 1942.
The content of non violent non cooperation movement is very rich, and the content of each movement also has various changes and differences.
It involves military affairs, justice, social security, administration, parliamentary elections, daily life, commerce, education and many other aspects, and has penetrated almost all fields of Indian social life.
Taking the first non cooperation movement as an example, Gandhi formulated a detailed struggle program and strategy for this movement, and successively put forward four point construction program, seven point program and eleven point programPoint program and several supplementary provisions.
Among them, there are national education and cultural measures (such as striking classes, giving up all medals and titles issued by the British government, zoning according to national language, promoting national language, cultural education for children, etc.). There are measures to revitalize the national economy (such as boycotting foreign goods, not buying British cloth, hand spinning movement, encouraging self-production, etc.). There are legal measures (such as boycotting the court).
There are military measures (such as not being a policeman, not joining the army, especially not serving in Mesopotamia, etc.). Gandhi strongly advocated the abolition of the “Dalit” system and the promotion of Indo Muslim unity in and after various non violent and non cooperative movements.
India’s “untouchables”, or “untouchables”, accounted for 16 (50 million) of India’s population at that time.
They are engaged in the dirtiest and most tiring work.
They are subject to inhuman discrimination in religion, law, marriage and economy, and have no social status.
According to the principle of his love, Gandhi has been calling for the abolition of the “Dalit” system.
In a speech in 1915, he attacked the “untouchables” in Hinduism and said: “according to the results of my study of Hinduism, it is certain that real Hinduism will never allow the existence of untouchables.
If there are Untouchables in Hinduism, I will openly oppose Hinduism”.
Gandhi changed the name of “untouchables” to “Harijan” (God’s voters), founded the “Harijan newspaper” and established organizations to serve Harijan in many places.
Gandhi believed that people should be equal without distinction between high and low.
The existence of “Dalits” is a “pollution” to Indian society.
He pointed out that if we abolish the Dalits, it will not only remove a stain of Hinduism, but also have a significant impact on the world: “I oppose the existence of the Dalit class and the uncleanness of mankind, so this matter has important value, which is more than striving for Indian independence in the political sense.
” Under the advocacy of Gandhi’s thought, a movement to improve the social status of “Dalits” was launched in India in the mid-1930s.
December 18, 1932 was designated as India’s “day against inaccessibility”, and November 8, 1933 was designated as “day for inaccessible people to enter the temple”.
Gandhi himself practiced it.
He recognized lesmei as his adopted daughter and used his photos to raise funds for the Dalits.
From 1932 to 1933, Gandhi went on hunger strike twice to abolish the Dalit system, and finally gave the “Dalits” the right to enter the temple.
Gandhi’s Thought on the unity of Hinduism and Islam is also very valuable.
Hindus account for more than 80% of the country’s population and Islamists account for more than 15%.
The sectarian dispute between the two major believers was exacerbated by the provocation of the British colonial rulers.
Gandhi advocated that Hindus and Islamists should not be hostile to each other and kill each other, but should unite against the British colonial rulers.
Gandhi looked for evidence from religious theory and said that he believed that Islamists were sincere believers.
The mutual opposition and hatred between the two sects denied the existence of God and became non believers.
If the two major sects cannot shrink, India will not be independent and all people in India will not be able to live freely.
In order to unite the majority of Islamists, Gandhi supported the kirafa movement organized by Islamists, so as to integrate the kirafa movement and the national liberation movement of the Congress party, and Hindus and Islamists fight for the liberation of their motherland side by side.
In order to prevent religious conflict, Gandhi visited Bangladesh and Bihar from 1046 to 1947 and delivered speeches everywhere.
He repeatedly stressed that Hindus and Islamists should not be enemies.
Their common enemy should be the British colonial rulers, not the two major sects themselves. III. The role and influence of Gandhi doctrine the evaluation of the historical merits and demerits of Gandhi doctrine must be specifically analyzed with its historical background and its role in practice.
At the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century, the reformers of the Congress Party pursued the strategy of political begging and local improvement, which could not adapt to the development of the objective situation at that time.
The petty bourgeois Democrats or radicals led by Tillac raised the banner of striving for national autonomy and led the national liberation movement from 1905 to 1908.
They have played a positive role in promoting the development of Indian national independence movement.
However, they failed to fully implement their program and fully mobilize and organize the masses.
When the climax of India’s national independence movement came again after World War I, both moderates and radicals in the National Congress party were charged with the important task of leading national independence to the climax.
India’s revolutionary situation needs a theory and program that can point out the direction and sail smoothly to the other side.
Gandhi doctrine came into being under such historical conditions.
Gandhi’s contribution to theory, program and strategy is embodied in the following aspects: 1 Gandhi’s thought of Non Violence and non cooperation armed the Congress party at a loss, provided a new theoretical weapon for the Congress Party and the national independence movement, and made the Congress Party obtain new vitality.
In September 1920, the Calcutta special session of the Congress Party adopted the resolution proposed by Gandhi to carry out the non violent non cooperation movement, which established the status of Gandhi and his thought in the party, thus creating the so-called “Gandhi era in Congress politics”.
In December of the same year, the Congress Party’s Nagpur annual meeting adopted the new party constitution drafted by Gandhi, which further strengthened the position of Gandhi and his thought in the party.
The new party constitution stipulates the purpose of the Congress Party: “if possible, achieve autonomy within the British Empire.
if necessary, break away from the British Empire and achieve autonomy.
The means to achieve this goal will still be peaceful and legitimate.
” The party’s annual meeting also reorganized the National Congress Party and adopted a resolution to include workers, farmers and handicraftsmen in grass-roots organizations.
Since then, the Congress Party organization has taken on a new look, changing from a loose urban middle-class organization to a mass bourgeois party.
As the leader of the British Communist Party PAM Dodd said: “the new program and new policies launched by Gandhi marked a great progress of the national assembly.
The national assembly has now become a prominent political party leading the people in the struggle against the government and for the realization of national freedom.
Since then, the National Assembly has gained its position as the central point of the national movement.”.2. Gandhi’s thought, especially the thought of Non Violence and non cooperation, made the workers and peasants invest in the national independence movement and became a great force to publicize, organize and attract the masses to participate in the independence movement.
As Nehru said, “he changed the face of India and made a humble manThe nation whose knees and hearts call away has gained self-esteem and backbone, built the strength and consciousness of the masses, and made the Indian problem a world problem.
” Roman Roland commented: “Mahatma Gandhi awakened his 300 million compatriots and shook the British Empire.
” The reason why Gandhi’s thought of Non Violence and non cooperation can become a powerful ideological weapon to attract and mobilize the masses and play an important role in practice is that: (1) India is an ancient country with popular religion, 85% of the people believe in Hinduism, and religious thought has long been immersed in their spirit, Almost all aspects of Indian social life are marked with religious morality.
It can be said that understanding religion is a key to understanding Indian society.
Gandhi, who was born and brought up by religious thought since childhood, was well aware of the role and power of religion in Indian society.
Gandhi seized this key and used it as a tool to support the Indian national liberation movement, attract millions of farmers and small handicraftsmen, and stimulate their religious enthusiasm and feelings of nationalism and patriotism, which is suitable for India’s national conditions.
Although this practice has negative aspects that are not conducive to the improvement of the masses’ consciousness, it is always many times better than shouting radical slogans and actually breaking away from the masses, giving up or external to the anti imperialist struggle.
(2) Britain was the number one imperialist power in the early 20th century.
It was not only economically advanced, but also ranked among the best in the world militarily.
Almost all kinds of anti British armed struggle and violence, including the Indian Uprising in 1857, were suppressed by Britain’s powerful military forces.
The Indian Communist movement and organizations were also destroyed again and again by the British colonial authorities in the 1920s and 1930s.
This situation has to force Gandhi, the leader of the national movement, and others to find another way out.
They have to consider that the implementation of violence will not only drive away British colonial rule, but also weaken and even bury the mass base and effective strength of the national movement in vain.
“Non Violence” is a strategy with the least danger and the greatest effect.
(3) since the British rulers carried out the provocative policy of “divide and rule” against the two major Hindu and Muslim sects, the sectarian struggle has intensified since the 20th century, and the large-scale violent conflict has intensified.
Gandhi was well aware that this sectarian conflict did great harm to the anti British independence movement and was the great enemy of the Indian people to unite against Britain.
In his view, advocating violence is undoubtedly adding fuel to the fire and fuelling sectarian conflict.
On the contrary, advocating non violence can weaken sectarian violence and mobilize millions of people of the two major sects to fully participate in the national movement.
Although this was counterproductive, Gandhi’s subjective intention could not be denied.3. Under the guidance of Gandhi’s thought, especially the thought of Non Violence and non cooperation, the Indian people carried out non cooperation movements again and again, and waged a barehanded and non violent struggle with the powerful armed British colonial rulers.
At the same time of this non violent struggle, the broad masses of workers and peasants also continue to break through the shackles of Non Violence and carry out violent armed struggle.
Such as mopura uprising in 1921, Peshawar uprising in 1930, saulapur uprising and Chittagong uprising, naval uprising and trengana armed uprising in 1946, etc.
The confluence of this non violent and non cooperative movement and spontaneous violent struggle constituted a huge attack on the British colonial economy, which shook the foundation of British rule in India, and finally forced it to peacefully transfer its political power to the Indian asset class in a dignified way and withdraw from India obediently.
India’s path to independence is special.
Under the favorable international situation after the Second World War, it was achieved by taking non violent discord as the main form of struggle, contrasting and cooperating with the spontaneous violent struggle of the masses.
Although we cannot simply say that India’s independence is the result of the thought of Non Violence and non cooperation, it is a fact that Gandhi’s thought plays a significant role in the process of India’s independence.
Therefore, it can be said that without the guidance of Gandhi and his thought, India could not quickly obtain independence in 1947.
In this sense, India’s independence is the victory of Gandhi doctrine, especially nonviolent thought.
In the mid-1950s, the prime minister affirmed that the paths for Asian and African countries to achieve independence were different.
China was completed through long-term armed struggle under the leadership of the Communist Party of China, while India took another path under the leadership of Gandhi and Nehru.
Although the roads were different, they all achieved the same goal through different paths and achieved independence and liberation.
While fully affirming the positive aspects of Gandhi doctrine, we should also see its weaknesses and limitations.1. All aspects of Gandhi’s doctrine are permeated with religious thought.
Not only his philosophical thought (view of truth) is religious philosophy, but also his political and economic thought (autonomy, non violence, etc.
) has a strong religious color.
He immersed his political thought and the political movement under his guidance in the holy water country of religion.
Gandhi believed that politics cannot be separated from religion, and politics without religion is just a zombie to be burned.
He said: “all my life originates from the religious spirit, and my political actions and all other actions come from my religion.”. He even thought he was in a political cloak, but deep down he was a devout religious activist.
Of course, Gandhi’s doctrine is not equal to religiosity, and Gandhi cannot be regarded as a religious man in a temple.
Gandhi was a nationalist leader who used religion to serve political struggle.
Gandhi doctrine is another form of religious nationalism.
In this regard, Gandhi developed the religious politicization and political religiosity of his pioneers such as Tillac and W.
gosh, and the religious nationalism tradition of using religion to promote politics.
This kind of religious nationalism plays a positive role in stimulating the people’s patriotic enthusiasm and mobilizing the people to join the national movement.
But in the long run, the awakening of the people’s true national consciousness and the improvement of class consciousness can only do more harm than good.
Of course, the masses drank poison to quench their thirst for a while due to religious emotions, which played an encouraging and stimulating role.
However, once the masses accept this strong national and religious sentiment, they will ignore everything else.
That is, if religion is above everything or replaces everything, the political struggle will be seriously weakened.
This kind of religious nationalism is undoubtedly the dross and dregs that should be discarded in the development of India today and in the future.
It is the spiritual tumor of India’s social progress and prosperity.
In particular, it should be pointed out that the religious nationalism advocated by Gandhi does more harm than good to the unity of the two major sects in India.
Gandhi advocated the unity and unity of Hindu and Muslim sects all his lifeHis work is undoubtedly commendable.
He believes that the prescription of non violence can prevent violent conflicts between sects.
But the religious foundation of Gandhi’s religious nationalism is Hinduism.
Even when Gandhi called for unity between the two religions, he still appeared as the leader of Hinduism, not as the Nationalist leader of all India and detached from a certain religious prejudice.
This will naturally alienate the majority of Muslims, thus deepening the rift between the masses of the two major sects.
Contrary to Gandhi’s subjective desire, it not only could not eliminate the sectarian conflict, but also encouraged the sectarian sentiment, which was convenient for the British to intervene in the contradiction between nationality and religion.
Finally, it had to lead to the partition of India and Pakistan in 1947 and Gandhi’s assassination.2. Gandhi’s theory of non violence is theoretically contrary to the Marxist theory of violence.
In practice, it is harmful to the in-depth development of the struggle between workers and peasants.
Gandhi regarded non violence as truth and violence as sin, which is untenable in theory.
Violence, in Marx’s words, is the midwife of every old society pregnant with a new society.
It is a tool for social movements to open up their own roads and destroy rigid and dying political forms.
Even Nehru believes that violence has played a great role in world history.
Today, it is still playing an equally important role, and may continue for a long time.
Although violence is bad, it cannot be considered immoral in itself.
Gandhi regarded non violence as the only means of struggle.
As a way of mass struggle, especially in India, non violence is indisputable.
As mentioned above, it is also of positive significance.
The problem is that Gandhi absolutized “Non Violence” and limited the national independence movement to the limit of non violence.
In 1922, the first disobedience movement was stopped because of the jorichola incident in which the masses broke through the non violent frame.
In 1930, because of the outbreak of a series of violence, the second non cooperation movement was announced to stop.
“I would rather welcome even a total failure than the damage to the principle of non violence, rather than a dubious victory by a tiny breach,” he said It is clear that Gandhi’s nonviolence is both against the British and against the revolutionary violence of the people.
In his 1930 letter to the British governor, he said: “my purpose is to launch that kind of (Non Violence) against the organized violence of British rule and the unorganized violence of the growing violent faction.”.3. Gandhi’s vision of the future of Indian society has a strong utopian fantasy.
While criticizing the evil of the western capitalist exploitation system, Gandhi also strongly cursed the machine production of Western civilization and large industry, advocated the restoration of the natural economy combining agriculture and handicraft industry, advocated the ancient village autonomy system in India, and claimed to promote socialism with equal wealth and so on.
The combination of this ideology and religious thought constitutes an important feature of Gandhi doctrine.
This undoubtedly reflects the narrow consciousness and subjective desire of the old-fashioned small producers who are being divided and bankrupt.
At that time, India’s low-level small producers accounted for a considerable proportion in Indian society.
Because they were politically discriminated against and economically on the verge of bankruptcy, they strongly demanded political freedom and economic equality, and dreamed of a peaceful and peaceful ideal society without exploitation and strife.
So Gandhi designed such a society for them.
However, this is completely utopian and does not conform to the wishes of the development law of Indian society.
Using this thought to guide India’s politics and economy after independence will inevitably bring bad consequences.
Fortunately, Nehru, as Gandhi’s successor, abandoned Gandhi’s conservative Utopian ideas and replaced them with new ideas, which made India obtain significant political and economic development after independence.
From the above analysis, we can see that Gandhi’s system not only reflects the interweaving and integration of religion and politics, but also reflects the coexistence and mixing of bourgeois thought and small production thought.
It has a dual character, both in line with the requirements of the bourgeoisie and not in line with the requirements of the bourgeoisie.
This reflects the extreme complexity and imbalance of India’s diversified society.
However, we cannot simply attribute the essence and mainstream of Gandhi doctrine to the ideology of small production or other nondescript ideology.
From the leading aspect of Gandhi doctrine, that is, from the characteristics of the times, from the main practice of its society and the actual consequences, Gandhi doctrine is mainly the ideology of the Indian national bourgeoisie.
Like the national bourgeoisie in other countries, the Indian national bourgeoisie has the characteristics of revolution and compromise.
Under the situation of the world revolution and the upsurge of the Indian national movement after the October Revolution, and out of its own desire to develop capitalism, this class, on the one hand, led the Indian people to carry out a tortuous and complex struggle against British colonialism, but often showed harmony and wavering in the face of powerful enemies.
On the other hand, they used the strength of workers and peasants and mobilized them to carry out the anti British struggle, but they were wary of the upsurge of the workers and peasants movement and tried to limit its development.
Gandhi’s strategy of Non Violence and non cooperation is the product of this class interest and class characteristics.
However, as the ideological system of the national bourgeoisie, Gandhi’s doctrine is still positive and progressive in the leading aspect.
Section I Nehru doctrine Jawaharlal Nehru (1889 ~ 1964) is a famous leader of the Indian national liberation movement, the founder of the Republic of India, a great statesman and world-famous thinker of honey voice international.
Nehru’s thought is broad and profound, involving politics, economy, history, philosophy, society and many other aspects.
Some foreign scholars are used to calling Nehru’s thought “Nehru doctrine”.
As far as Nehru’s political thought is concerned, it includes not only the nationalist thought of opposing British colonial rule and striving for national independence before India’s independence, but also the socialist and democratic thought of safeguarding national independence and developing national economy after India’s independence.
It includes not only various strategic thoughts guiding the founding of India, but also the diplomatic thought of advocating peaceful coexistence and implementing the non aligned policy in international affairs.
Nehru’s political thought has played a role far beyond the scope of India and has an important and far-reaching impact internationally, especially in the third world.
His political ideas are not only being used by India’s current leadersInheritance and development, and has also become an important and valuable spiritual wealth and heritage of the people of the East and the world. I. Nehru’s life story Nehru was born on November 14, 1889 in a Brahman family (Kashmir origin) in arahabad City, United Province, India.
His father, mortilar Nehru, is a well-known moderate leader in the Congress party.
In 1905, Nehru went to England to study at Harrow public school.
He entered Trinity College of Cambridge University in October 1907.
After graduating from Cambridge in 1910, he entered the inner palace law school in London to study law.
He obtained the qualification of lawyer in 1912 and returned to the country in the same year as a lawyer of the arahabad high court.
Soon he joined the Congress Party United provincial local organization and attended the Congress Party’s bankopol annual meeting as a representative of the local organization.
In 1916, Nehru and Gandhi met for the first time at the Congress Party’s Lucknow annual meeting.
Since then, the two established a close friendship.
Nehru was deeply influenced by Gandhi.
In 1917, Nehru actively participated in the activities of the self governing League (soon incorporated into the Congress party), a group established by tirak and others, gave up his position as a lawyer and devoted himself to the cause of national liberation.
He has been a member of the National Committee of the National Congress Party since 1918.
In 1919, he joined the Congress Party Amritsar tragedy investigation committee.
In 1920, he participated in the non violent and non cooperative movement led by Gandhi and served as vice chairman of the alahabad County Committee of the Congress party.
In December 1921, he was arrested for the first time in the non cooperative movement.
From 1923 to 1925, he served as mayor of arahabad autonomous city, and from 1924 to 1926, he served as general secretary of the Congress party.
In May 1926, he visited Switzerland, Italy, France, Britain and the Soviet Union in Europe.
In February 1927, he attended the oppressed National Congress held in Brussels on behalf of the Congress party, and was elected as the honorary chairman and member of the Executive Committee of the anti imperialist alliance.
In November of the same year, he visited the Soviet Union and participated in the commemoration of the 10th anniversary of the October Revolution.
In December, the resolution on striving for India’s complete independence proposed at the Madras annual meeting of the Congress party was adopted.
In 1928, he was appointed general secretary of the Congress party again and was elected chairman of the All India Trade Union and leader of the All India independence alliance.
In 1929, he was elected president of the Congress party at the Lahore annual meeting of the Congress party after being recommended by Gandhi.
He was reappointed in 1936, 1937 and 1946.
He visited China in September 1939.
In July 1946, the Congress party accepted the proposal of the British governor and organized an interim government according to the election results of the constitutional assembly.
On September 2 of the same year, Nehru became deputy prime minister of the interim government and Minister of foreign and federal relations.
On August 15, 1947, the Indian autonomous region was established, and Nehru served as prime minister.
On January 26, 1950, the Indian constitutional assembly approved the entry into force of the Indian constitution.
Nehru served as the Prime Minister of the Federal Republic of India until his death, a total of 17 years.
During this period, he successively served as ministers of foreign affairs, atomic energy and national defense, as well as the chairman of the International Development Commission, the head of the national unification Commission, the chairman of the International Fund Committee and the head of the International Commission.
From 1951 to 1954, he served as chairman of the Congress party again.
When Nehru was Prime Minister, he implemented Western parliamentary democracy in the political system and guided democratic socialism.
According to Nehru’s socialist thought, India implements the mixed economic system of public and private economy, and vigorously promotes the planned economy.
Nehru personally served as chairman of the planning committee.
The first five-year plan began in 1952.
Under the guidance of Nehru’s thought, India’s industry and agriculture have made good achievements.
Industry has established its own system, the self-sufficiency rate has been greatly improved, the land reform has been implemented in agriculture, the land ownership of big landlords has been basically abolished, and the development of agricultural capitalism has been promoted.
In diplomacy, we advocate the non aligned policy.
In 1954, Nehru and Chinese Premier Zhou Enlai jointly advocated the five principles of peaceful coexistence with historical significance.
In April 1955, Nehru led the Indian delegation to attend the Asian African Conference held in Bandung.
In July 1956, Nehru, Tito and Nasser held a summit summit on bunioli island off the coast of Croatia, Yugoslavia, emphasizing the idea of non alignment.
In September 1961, Nehru, Tito and Nasser jointly initiated the convening of the summit of heads of state and government of non aligned countries with the participation of 28 countries in Belgrade, becoming one of the founders of the non aligned movement.
On May 27, 1964, Nehru died of illness at the age of 75.
His main works include Nehru’s autobiography, a glimpse of the world, the discovery of India and after independence.
Nehru devoted his whole life to the cause of national liberation and the establishment of a new state in India.
During his leadership of the struggle for national independence in India, he was imprisoned nine times and spent nine years in prison.
He is known as the “incarnation of sacrifice”.
After independence, Nehru made unremitting efforts to consolidate India’s political independence and develop the national economy, with outstanding achievements.
He was deeply loved by the Indian people.
Together with Gandhi, he was known as the “father of the Republic of India”. Dr. s. ladakrishnan of India said: “he is one of the greatest figures in our country.
He is an unparalleled and outstanding politician.
He has devoted his whole life to the cause of human freedom”. II. Nehru’s political thought system (I) nationalism thought the primary basic thought in Nehru’s political thought system is nationalism.
His nationalist thought was formed as early as when he studied in Britain, and gradually matured and developed.
After the Russo Japanese war in 1905, nationalist thought filled his mind.
In 1912, after studying abroad and returning home, he decided to devote himself to the cause of national independence.
At that time, he claimed to be “a pure nationalist”.
From then on until his death, Nehru has always regarded nationalism as his guiding ideology of the most important and priority.
In 1927, Nehru, as a representative of the Congress party, pointed out at the oppressed National Congress held in Brussels: “the Congress Party must be nationalist, which is based on nationalism”.
In 1933, he further realized that “nationalism is naturally the most powerful force in Asia.
A country under foreign rule must first consider nationalism”.
In 1936, he added, “as far as India is concerned, as far as India’s current position is concerned, I really like nationalism.
Socialism will eventually have to push forward nationalism as a political cloak.
This is the common ground between socialism and nationalism, both of which are in favor of political independence.
” Nehru’s nationalist thought roughly includes the following three contents: 1 The British rule made India suffer the most.
India must be baptized too much to get it.
At the same time, the old positions are still preserved, such as the executive, legislative, commercial and industrial departments, and the civil service of India.
The princes still live in the palace and sometimes appear in gorgeous clothes or carnival costumes, so that the subjects are deeply impressed by all the glittering jewelry they wear.
On the one hand, landlords demanded special protection, on the other hand, they oppressed their tenants.
Usurers used their money bags to bind landlords and tenants.
The lawyer gets legal fees as usual.
God still lives in heaven.
Their entire political and economic foundation is based on the continued existence and stability of the British Empire.
Nehru believes that India cannot be just a vassal of any country or group of countries.
Its freedom and growth will greatly change the face of Asia and the world.
That inevitably led to a belief in complete independence and its liberation from the shackles of Britain and its empire.
The so-called dominion status – even when that status is close to independence – seems to be an absurd restriction and hinders full growth.
The meaning of dominion status is that a home country should be closely connected with its vassal countries.
Everything of them has a common cultural background, which seems to be completely inapplicable to India.
“Nehru asserts that Indian freedom and British imperialism are two irreconcilable things.
” neither martial law nor all the sweet words in the world can reconcile them or combine them.
Only by expelling British imperialism from India can we create conditions that allow real cooperation between India and Britain.3. Seek to consolidate political independence, realize “Indian humanization” and develop national economy.
Nehru advocated “fundamental reform” of the old state institutions, including military institutions and civil service system, before India’s independence.
He is determined to “fundamentally change the spirit and nature of various departments and state institutions”.
These old institutions, he said, have many tangible and intangible ties that bind India “to the British economic system.
” “India’s freedom requires not only the withdrawal of British troops and the abolition of various departments, but also the elimination of the dictatorship that inspires them and depresses their salaries and privileges”.
Those imperial organs are “very wasteful luxuries” maintained with money.
Nehru believes that “among those who have served in India’s civil service or other imperial organs, many Indians and foreigners will be needed by the new order and will be welcomed by it.
” However, “before the real establishment of the new order, the Indian civil service and similar institutions like those now must be completely eliminated.
” The new India must have those sincere and capable staff to serve it.
Under the guidance of Nehru’s thoughts, after India’s independence, it reorganized the national army and reorganized the former military leadership (at the beginning of independence, the commander-in-chief of the three Indian armed forces were all British, with another 10000 British officers.
India had only a few brigadier generals and no division commander), and implemented the separation of the three armed forces, The president of India served as the supreme commander of the three armed forces (in the past, the commander in chief of the army and commander of the Navy and air force), training and using a large number of Indians as middle and lower level officers.
Senior officers were gradually replaced by Indians.
By the late 1950s, officers at all levels had basically completed the “humanization of India”.
In terms of the civil service system, the Indian administrator system has been established, and a large number of Indian civil servants have been trained and recruited.
Indianization has been reflected in the civil service system.
This greatly strengthened India’s independence and gradually got rid of the British control over the Indian army and government institutions.
Nehru regarded India’s economic independence as an important part of national independence and regarded it as a necessary condition for India’s complete political independence.
Before India’s independence, Nehru pointed out that without high industrialization, no country can have political and economic independence.
An industrially backward country, even if it maintains political independence, has no real name, and its economic control will fall into the hands of others.
“Today, if a country’s industry is underdeveloped, it will not be truly independent and can not resist aggression.”. India, with a cultural history of 5000 years, is a slave country because of “backward technological progress”.
He believes that although Europe has lagged behind in many aspects for a long time, it is ahead in technology, so it is easy to dominate the East.
If Eastern countries want to catch up, they must achieve economic independence.
After independence, Nehru further realized that without economic autonomy, political independence could not be maintained, and economic autonomy could not be achieved without its own basic industry and heavy industry.
Based on the above considerations, Nehru formulated the strategy of developing India’s national economy shortly after the partition of India and Pakistan.
After a three-year recovery period, the planned economy began to be implemented.
In 1950, the National Planning Commission, chaired by Nehru, was established to plan India’s economic development.
Nehru is determined to make India “take off” and become a “big country” through economic development.
He meets with all the members of the Planning Commission once or twice a month, and participates in all important decision-making meetings to formulate development plans.
He is personally responsible for revising important chapters of the five-year plan, which reflects his nationalist thought of attaching importance to economic independence.
Of course, Nehru’s nationalist thought has its negative side, which is omitted here.
(II) democratic thought Nehru’s democratic thought and his nationalism complement each other and are deeply rooted.
When he studied abroad in his early years, he was deeply influenced by the western bourgeois democratic thought, especially the British bourgeois democratic thought, and took great interest in the British parliamentary democracy.
In his autobiography, he admitted: “personally, I am deeply influenced by Britain in thought, so I can never be completely separated from it.
At the same time, in any case, I can’t get rid of the ideological habits I developed in British schools and universities and the standards and methods used in general evaluation of other countries and life.
” He always stressed that he believed in the bourgeois democratic tradition.
“Most importantly, I firmly believe in freedom, equality, personal dignity and human spiritual liberation, so I firmly follow the democratic way of life,” he said.
Nehru’s democratic thought is the same as that of the western bourgeoisie.
He said: “the meaning of democracy is people’s freedom, equality, fraternity and sovereignty”, “the expression of democracy is that everyone represents himself”, “that is, people can give full play to their personality”, “it must be from the perspective of individualThink from the perspective of happiness and suffering “.
Nehru summarized democratic thought into political democracy, economic democracy and ideological democracy.
The main contents of his democratic thought are as follows: 1 Advocate the implementation of parliamentary democracy.
Nehru once criticized British parliamentary democracy in the 1930s.
At that time, he believed that parliamentary democracy had become “notorious” and that “parliamentary democracy itself is a democracy with great limitations and does not interfere with the development of monopoly and centralization of power”.
However, he did not fundamentally deny parliamentary democracy at that time.
He just believed that “the failure of parliamentary democracy is not because it ran too far, but because it did not run far enough.
It is not democratic enough because it did not establish economic democracy, and its method is slow and clumsy, which is not suitable for a rapidly changing era”.
That is to say, if a parliamentary democracy is implemented according to Nehru’s democratic thought, it is the ideal democracy.
In fact, when he studied in the UK, he imitated the British Parliament and formed the “machilles Association” to talk about Democratic Politics: he believed that “the theme of human history is progress, and parliamentary democracy is the best means of human progress”.
Because “parliamentary democracy includes a peaceful way of action, that is, to accept a certain decision peacefully and change the decision in a peaceful way.
” He believes that there is no other form of democracy other than parliamentary democracy for extensive discussion, debate and agreement.
“And it should be accountable to the people for what it does.
Parliamentary democratic government can ensure the public interest to a greater extent than other forms of democratic government”.
Under the guidance of Nehru’s parliamentary democracy thought, India established parliamentary democracy shortly after independence and denied the “autonomous federal system” proposed by Gandhi.
On January 26, 1950, the constitution embodying India’s parliamentary democracy came into force.
It declared India a “Sovereign Democratic Republic”, implementing the separation of powers and the responsibility cabinet system.
The parliament is divided into the federal house (upper house) and the people’s house (lower house).
The federal house is elected by the legislative assemblies of various states.
13 of them are re elected every two years, and the people’s court is directly elected by voters for a term of five years.
The president is the head of state, but the real power is in the hands of the prime minister.
The Council of Ministers headed by the prime minister is accountable to Parliament.
The Indian parliament is elected every five years, and eight general elections have been held since 1952.
Despite the ups and downs of India’s political situation, the Indian parliamentary democratic system has not changed.
It is said to be “the largest democratic country in the world” and the “democratic window” of the East.
This is an important legacy left by Nehru to modern India.2. Strongly opposed the land system of the crown princes and big landlords of the land states.
Another important content of Nehru’s democratic thought is to oppose various systems of pre capitalism, especially the system of the crown prince of the land state and the land ownership of the big landlord (chaimingdar).
He once completely denied and exposed these two systems.
Before India’s independence, there were 554 feudal states distributed in various regions of India, accounting for 25% of India’s total area and 14% of its population.
They are different from the British Indian regime.
Each land state can legislate by itself, implement its own financial privileges and administrative system, and have direct relations with the British King beyond the governor.
Nehru pointed out that the Indian state “represents a type of extreme dictatorship in the world”.
The people there are extremely backward and poor, in sharp contrast to the luxury in the prince’s M palace.
How much wealth the country has is filled into the palace of princes.
There is no democracy there.
Even newspapers are banned from entering the country.
Princes enjoy the protection of special laws and are not allowed to criticize.
Even the slightest criticism is severely suppressed.
Gatherings and social activities are not allowed, and social sages are prohibited from entering the country.
Nehru believes that this monarchy system is a huge obstacle to India’s future progress, and it leads to division and sectarianism due to the deliberate encouragement of British colonial rulers.
Therefore, in order to completely change this feudal separatist regime and consolidate national unity, the Indian government headed by Nehru took a series of measures in the early stage of independence.
In 1956, the adjustment of various states was basically completed and the Tu state was completely abolished.
The states were basically merged into the new provinces and states according to language.
The princes lived on the annual salary of the Indian government.
They actually existed in name only.
Before independence, India’s land system was an extremely decadent and backward feudal land system cultivated by British colonialism.
Among them, chaimindar system, that is, large land ownership, was the most representative.
The land of this system accounted for half of India’s cultivated land.
Nehru has gradually realized the importance of land issue to India since 1920s.
In 1920, he personally visited the countryside and realized that chaimingdar (the big landlord) was actually the “pet” of the British government and a parasitic class.
Because the British government gave them a special upbringing (or did not give them upbringing), these people have become completely useless people for the whole class.
Landlords in other countries have at least done something for tenants, while landlords and land tax collectors in India have not done anything for tenants and have completely become parasites on the land and people.
“As a class, these people have degenerated physically and intellectually and should have perished long ago.
They can continue to exist only with the support of the British government.
He further pointed out that India’s land system has collapsed before us, which hinders production, distribution and large-scale rational operation”, “This system must be thoroughly reformed”.
For all classes in rural areas, the need for autonomy of nationalism means the fundamental reform of the land system.
This reform will relieve or reduce their burden and enable landless farmers to obtain land.
Nehru believes that the land issue is the most prominent and overriding issue in India.
All the political issues we are discussing are just the social and political context of the land issue.
The land issue is the key to India’s basic economic, social, political and cultural issues.
Nehru believes that “India urgently needs land reform, including the abolition of intermediaries between farmers and the government, and the rights of these intermediaries should be redeemed with an appropriate amount”.
Under the leadership of Nehru, after independence, India gradually implemented the reform of abolishing chaimingdar’s tenancy and stipulating the land ceiling, among which abolishing the land ownership of chaimingdar’s big landlords was the most effective.
The land reform abolished the land rent collection right of 3.
59 million intermediaries (chaimingdar), and 92.
4% of them were intermediariesThe land reform law has been implemented in the region.
Before the land reform in the early days of independence, less than 15% of the rural population occupied 85% of the land, of which less than 2% of the large landlords accounted for 70% of the total land, while the poor farmers accounted for only 15% of the rural population.
After land reform, by the early 1970s, nearly 50% of the people owned 80% of the land, of which the most were small and medium-sized landlords with 5 ~ 10 hectares, while large landlords with more than 20 ~ 50 hectares accounted for only 1% of the farmers and 13% of the land.
Although Nehru’s land reform did not fundamentally change India’s feudal land relations, and farmers basically did not obtain land, it greatly promoted the development of Indian agricultural production and the growth of capitalist factors.3. Oppose sectarianism and advocate the separation of politics and religion and secularism.
Non sectarianism or secularism is considered to be one of the main contents of Nehru doctrine and is known as one of the four spiritual pillars of the Congress Party (the other pillars are nationalism, socialism and parliamentary democracy).
India is a multi-ethnic, multi religious and multi surname country.
Ethnic contradictions, religious conflicts and caste discrimination have seriously affected India’s political and social life.
As early as the 1930s, Nehru repeatedly opposed sectarianism.
“Sectarian leaders on both sides of India and Iraq represent a small reactionary group of the upper class, and these people use the religious enthusiasm of the masses to achieve their own goals,” he said After independence, Nehru further advocated non sectarian ideology, opposed all religious, racial and caste discrimination, and made all religions, castes and ethnic groups coexist peacefully.
The specific contents can be summarized into the following three points: first, freedom of religion and separation of politics and religion.
Nehru believes that “every religion and belief should have full freedom and equal respect, and every citizen of it should enjoy equal freedom and opportunities.
” The state protects all religions, and does not pro one religion but alienate other religions.
The state itself does not declare any religion as a state religion, nor does it allow religion to interfere with political and economic life.
He believes that organized religion will not play a major role in politics.
In the future, religion will become a personal affair and will not be used for political purposes.
The combination of religion and politics in the form of sectarianism is a very dangerous combination.
Second, the caste system is an obstacle to the development of Indian society and should be abolished.
Nehru made it clear that the caste system is reactionary, binding and an obstacle to development.
Within its scope, there can be no equality of status and opportunity.
Nor can there be political democracy or economic democracy.
“Strictly speaking, a caste dominated society is not secular.
” Therefore, Nehru and his government have taken various measures to limit the caste system.
The Congress Party Constitution stipulates that all Party members do not believe in or perform any form of caste system, but believe in a unified society without class or caste differences.
The Indian Constitution also stipulates that all citizens are not affected by race and caste.
Third, it emphasizes the protection and consideration of the interests of minority groups, especially backward castes and tribes.
Nehru believes that the realization of secularist ideals largely depends on the attitude towards minority groups.
He wants people to remember that the interests and welfare of minority groups are their sacred beliefs.
If they do not have this belief, they will not only damage the country, but also themselves.
The Indian constitution expressly provides for active care and care for scheduled castes and backward tribes, reserving seats for them in parliament, establishing “scheduled caste areas” and “tribal areas” and their commissioners, and submitting reports to the president on their situation on a regular basis.
(III) socialist thought if nationalism is the core of Nehru’s political thought, socialism is its “shell” or “political coat”.
Nehru carried out the program of bourgeois nationalism under the slogan of building a “socialist type society”.
He proposed socialism based on the belief that national independence and solving social problems cannot be separated.
He said, “a central issue of our times is how to combine democracy with socialism.
” He believed that socialism was the only key to solving the social problems of the world’s colonies.
In his view, India can develop its own political, economic and cultural undertakings only if it gets rid of the shackles of colonialism, but political freedom can not bring economic independence at the same time.
It needs to choose its own path of economic development.
Nehru advocated that socialism is “middle and democratic socialism”.
The so-called “socialism in the middle” means neither taking the American Road nor the Soviet road.
Nehru said that the socialism to be established in India is a kind of socialism generated from Indian thought and must be suitable for Indian conditions.
This Indian type of socialism is “a middle way taken in the contradictory practice of Communist and capitalist countries”.
In his view, both types of countries have disadvantages.
Therefore, he believes that the entire application of the views and methods of the United States and the Communist Party is harmful to India and can only take the middle socialist road.
The so-called “democratic socialism” means building socialism peacefully by means of so-called democratic methods and relying on democratic forces.
He said that socialism is not only a way of life, but also a “democratic method”.
He stressed that all problems can be solved by using democratic methods.
On the contrary, all methods that leave democracy will fail.
In today’s India, any attempt to abandon democratic methods will lead to division, so there is no hope of immediate progress.
The middle and democratic socialism he advocated is an attempt to reconcile capitalism and socialism, integrate each other, take their strengths and eliminate their weaknesses.
In his article “basic methods”, he wrote: “many ideas of socialism are gradually absorbed by the capitalist system, so the distance between them is narrowing day by day”.
“The democracy produced by capitalism has undoubtedly alleviated its disadvantages, and now it is actually not the capitalism of a generation or two ago”, “capitalism itself has developed some socialist elements and stored its own characteristics at the same time”.
In short, Nehru believes that today’s capitalism has gradually “socialized”, absorbed the “advantages” of socialism and overcome the disadvantages of capitalism.
He pointed out that western capitalist countries are economically unequal and there is a wide gap between the rich and the poor, but politically they are not the peopleMaster.
Communist countries are economically democratic, but politically authoritarian.
Therefore, he combined the parliamentary democracy of the West with the socialist economic method of the east to form a middle and democratic socialism suitable for the characteristics of India.
Based on the above basic ideas, Nehru has vigorously advocated the establishment of a socialist society since the 1950s.
In December 1956, Nehru further declared in his article “our socialist economy”: we are trying to build a new type of Socialism – an intermediate road between the Orthodox practice of communism and capitalist countries.
Through this socialism, we lead the people towards a new world of prosperity.
Since then, the Congress Party government has carried out a large-scale so-called “Socialist Movement” in China, and various reform activities in industry and agriculture have also been painted with the color of socialism.
India’s goal of establishing a “socialist type society” and the name of “democratic socialism” have been written into the Congress Party constitution.
As for the specific content of Nehru socialism, according to his own words, it is “difficult to answer accurately” and “not fixed”.
From the perspective of India’s socialist practice after independence, it mainly includes the following three aspects: 1 Implement a planned economy and establish public enterprises.
Nehru once wrote in his article “basic methods”: “socialism is a means to an end, not the end itself.
” The main difference between socialism and capitalism is its method.
“Here, the” means “or” method “he refers to first refers to” planning “.
In March 1950, a national planning commission chaired by Nehru was established to formulate various economic plans, and a five-year plan has been implemented since 1951.
The premise of its planned economy is to establish a mixed economic system, including public and private economy.
The public economy has been expanding mainly by means of nationalization and new enterprises, so that the government implements both stimulating and controlling policies on enterprises in terms of licenses, import and export substitution, product supply and demand policies, and brings the activities of enterprises into the track of national plans.
In the public sector, the government allocates funds to various departments in accordance with the economic development plan.
In the private sector, the government intervenes and affects its investment direction and scale through corresponding policies and decrees, so that its development funds are mainly invested in the departments specified by the government.2. Establish various types of cooperatives in rural areas.
Nehru gave play to the idea of establishing cooperative organizations in rural areas in his autobiography written as early as 1936.
He believes that the principles of socialism and cooperation are the “antitoxin” to deal with capitalist Western civilization.
In the middle and late 1950s, he strongly advocated the establishment of various types of cooperatives in India.
He was very interested in China’s cooperative movement.
At the end of 1955, he specially sent an investigation team to China to understand the reasons for the rapid development of agricultural cooperatives.
In July 1956, delegations were sent to inspect rural China.
Nehru has repeatedly said that some of China’s experience in rural cooperation can be applied to India.
He said that we should do what China can do.
To this end, Nehru formulated a set of agricultural development strategies with rural development plans and cooperatives as the core (after Nehru’s death, the plan was actually abandoned).
In January 1959, he said, “our goal is to establish a township Council, a cooperative and a school in every village in India.
The cooperative will be responsible for purchasing fertilizer, seeds and selling products.
” In fact, according to Nehru’s request, cooperatives were established in rural India.
Most of them are credit cooperatives and supply and marketing cooperatives, and only a small part are production cooperatives.
However, most of them were controlled by landlords and rich peasants, and the poor peasants received little benefit.3. Advocate social justice, social equality and poverty eradication.
India is one of the poorest countries in the world.
Solving the problem of inequality between the rich and the poor and eradicating poverty is the biggest social problem faced by Nehru and his government.
As early as the 1920s and 1930s, Nehru deeply felt the extreme inequality of wealth distribution in Indian society, and was determined to establish a fair and equal society of social wealth.
He regarded this issue as an important part of striving for economic democracy.
In 1955, Nehru further pointed out that “there is no democracy for a hungry person or a poor country.
Voting itself has little significance for those who are hungry and poor.
These people are more concerned about food than voting” and “serious inequality must be eliminated”.
Nehru believes that only socialism can bring “justice” and “happiness” to the people of the whole country and distribute social wealth reasonably.
He pointed out: what do we mean by talking about socialist life? We mean a society where opportunities are equal and everyone can live a good life.
We should pay attention not to let the material wealth produced domestically fall into the hands of a small number of very rich people, but to distribute it among the poor people.
The election manifesto of the National Congress Party in January 1957 declared that the socialist type society is a perfect society in which all people have freedom, happiness and equality.
Nehru even said that socialist society is a society without class and caste.
Under the guidance of Nehru’s thought, the Indian government takes “poverty eradication” and “unemployment eradication” as important contents and slogans in each five-year plan.
However, due to various reasons such as India’s social system, this good wish has not been truly implemented in practice.
(IV) non aligned thought non aligned thought is the concentrated reflection of Nehru’s nationalist thought in international affairs.
It occupies a prominent position in Nehru’s political thought.
Nehru’s thought of non alignment began to emerge on the eve of independence.
On September 7, 1946, Nehru pointed out: our purpose is to avoid the political blocs of major powers that are hostile to each other as much as possible.
According to research, the term “non alignment” was first used in the United Nations by Indian Foreign Minister K.
Krishna Menon from 1953 to 1954.
However, the meaning of “non alignment” used later is not the alliance of different military powers in the original narrow sense, but has broad significance, and has actually been used as the “general summary” of India’s foreign policy.
In this regard, Nehru explained that since independence, the dual policies guiding us have been the policy of formulating Democratic plans for domestic development and gradually but mutually reinforcing in foreign relationsWhen inappropriately called “non aligned” policy.
Because, strictly speaking, the non aligned policy represents only one aspect of our foreign policy.
We have other positive goals, such as promoting the disintegration of colonial rule, racial equality, peace and international cooperation, but “non alignment” has become a summary discussion on the policy of friendship with all countries and non intervention in military treaties.
Since Nehru put forward the non aligned policy at the beginning of independence, after the practice in the 1950s, his non aligned thought has been continuously enriched and developed, thus forming a relatively complete ideological system of India’s non aligned foreign policy, which is mainly summarized as follows: 1 Advocate non collectivization, that is, not to participate in any military group or military alliance between any countries, especially not to intervene in the imperialist camp and the socialist camp.
The reasons for this are: (1) in Nehru’s view, if you join a military group instead of another group, it will not ease but exacerbate the conflict between them.
He believed that when any member state of the alliance was attacked, the whole alliance would regard the attack as an attack on itself, and other Member States would give full help in accordance with the treaty.
The result was a large-scale war.
And war will bring destruction to all countries involved, not just one country.
What India needs after independence is a peaceful and constructive international environment to realize its own industrialization.
Nehru believes that if the world’s resources are used to improve human life, rather than mostly used or wasted on the purpose of war or war preparation, the whole world is likely to prosper.
(2) Nehru believes that the non aligned policy is conducive to attracting foreign investment to the greatest extent, striving for foreign aid and meeting various needs.
At the same time, it can reduce the dependence on individual countries and be independent of major countries.
A country cannot sacrifice its self-esteem in order to receive assistance.
Otherwise, no one will respect you.
You may get some small profits, but in the end, you can’t even get some small profits.
(3) It can consolidate India’s political and diplomatic independence.
Nehru pointed out: “what does independence consist of? It is mainly composed of external relations, which is the touchstone of independence.
” “Once external relations are not in your own hands but subject to others, you are not independent.”.2. Maintain friendly relations with all countries, whether aligned or non aligned, and implement the five principles of peaceful coexistence.
“Our policy remains not only to be independent of the National Alliance, but also to try to make as much friendly cooperation as possible,” Nehru said In September 1959, Nehru said in his speech to the Bharatiya Janata, “Panchshila, or the five principles of Peaceful Coexistence – they do not become principles because they are embodied in the treaties between India and China – they themselves are the principles of true international relations.
We have always believed that these principles are correct, even if the world denies them, we still adhere to them.
” The reason for this is that: (1) Nehru believes that any country has its own strengths and weaknesses, which can not be affirmed or denied, but should learn from each other and learn from each other.
He said: “in this world, good and bad are intertwined.
We cannot divide the nation into goats and sheep, and then condemn or agree with them.
” (2) because the ties between countries in the world have become increasingly close, adopting an isolationist attitude is tantamount to dividing the land into a prison and binding itself in a cocoon.
Long before independence, he said, “the future in my mind is India’s close cooperation with other countries in the world politically, economically and culturally.
” “There is bound to be a new era of world cooperation” (3) all countries maintain a friendly attitude towards India.
Nehru pointed out: “fortunately, when we became an independent country, we did not have a background of hostility to any country.
So we treat the whole world on the basis of friendship.
We have no reason to hate any group and put ourselves at a disadvantage.”.3. Support the oppressed nations in their struggle against imperialism and colonialism.
This idea was clear before independence.
He believes that things in the world, especially those of oppressed nations, are linked.
It is impossible for each oppressed nation to solve the problems of a certain country and nation alone.
“The Indian problem is linked to other problems in the world,” he said.
“The problems in China, Abyssinia, Spain, Central Europe, India and elsewhere – whether political or economic – are different manifestations of world problems.
These problems can be fundamentally solved only if the fundamental world problems are solved.
” Therefore, he strongly advocated that all nation states should stand on the same front to resist the common enemy and “completely eliminate imperialism”.
After independence, Nehru continued to adhere to this idea.
Special emphasis should be placed on supporting the anti imperialist and anti colonial struggle of Asian and African countries and nations, and persisting in opposing all imperialist and colonial exploitation by any country or nation, fascism and all other trends that oppress the human spirit.
Promote world peace, support freedom and racial equality of all countries, and end imperialism and colonialism.4. Non alignment is not a neutral policy, but an active and flexible policy serving India’s national interests.
In the early days of independence, Nehru pointed out that non alignment does not mean maintaining an equal distance between the two groups.
“When I say that we are not allied with any major power group, it obviously does not mean that our relations with some countries cannot be closer than those with others.
” Nehru pointed out, “I have always opposed calling our policy a neutral policy”, “Although we are not aligned, we still tend to one aspect or another.
Of course, when we want to have a tendency, we will have a tendency, because our policy is an independent policy.
This is not a negative policy, but a positive policy based on the world situation and our own views on the situation.”. He also said that non alignment does not rule out war.
“As long as we can avoid it, we will not participate in the war.
but if the choice of participating in the war is in front of us, we will join the party in line with our interests.
” While focusing on the main contents of Nehru’s non aligned thought mentioned above, we can’t help but point out that Nehru still has its negative side and deviates from the non aligned policy in his foreign policy.
This can be reflected in his book the discovery of India.
“In the future, peaceFriendship has enabled them to communicate with each other.
India has obtained technical, financial and industrial assistance from both sides for its two five-year plans.
Second, Nehru’s non aligned thoughts and policies have made positive contributions to promoting world peace.
First of all, this is reflected in the unique international environment in which India was surrounded by dangers and its sword was pulled and bent after the Second World War.
Neither join the imperialist camp nor the socialist camp.
This in itself is the maintenance of world peace.
If India joins a certain camp, the tension in the world will undoubtedly worsen.
Because India’s international status is not an ordinary small country.
Secondly, India and China jointly advocated the five principles of peaceful coexistence in 1954, which had a great impact on all countries in the world.
It has long been accepted by many countries in the world and has become the basic criterion for dealing with the relations between countries.
It is also the basic guiding principle for the establishment of a new international political order and a new international economic order today.
Third, Nehru’s non aligned thought has been accepted by all non aligned member states.
It can be said that Nehru’s non aligned thought has laid the ideological foundation for the non aligned movement to a great extent.
Nehru’s non alignment thought was first put forward in the world, and soon formed a set of more systematic theories.
In fact, the first summit of non aligned countries held in Belgrade in 1961 was mainly based on Nehru’s non aligned thought (of course, Tito and Nasser’s Thought).
The purpose of this meeting is basically consistent with Nehru’s thought, and even the formulation is very similar.
The role and influence of Nehru’s non aligned thought, Egyptian President Nasser once clearly pointed out: “my visit to India (referring to Nasser’s visit in 1956 – citation note) This is a turning point in my political understanding.
I understand and acknowledge that the only sensible policy for us lies in active neutrality and non alignment.
When I returned home, the reception praised this policy, which made me believe that it is the only policy that can attract the broadest support of the Arab people.
Nehru concluded that many countries, including most newly independent countries in Asia and Africa, have accepted similar views on international affairs.
In this regard, India may have influenced their thinking to some extent.
” The philosophical basis of Nehru’s political thought is bourgeois pragmatism.
This is the characteristic and limitation of Nehru’s political thought.
Nehru himself said: “I am not infatuated with these ‘doctrines.
When considering the problem, I want to say: China’s scheme should be a very practical scheme.
I want to forget the’ doctrines associated with it.
” This shows that the various “doctrines” mentioned by Nehru, such as socialism, secularism, nonalignment and democracy, are not absolutely invariable principles.
They can be flexibly changed according to the practical needs of the Indian bourgeoisie, and everything is subject to practicality and needs.
If this important feature of Nehru’s political thought is clarified, it is not difficult to understand why there are often obvious gaps and considerable contradictions between his theory and practice, good ideas and cold reality, a large number of remarks and several or distorted actions.
The contradiction between socialist theory and practice advocated by Nehru is enough to explain the pragmatic philosophy of this limitation of his political thought.
Nehru once said to the socialism he preached repeatedly that India will move forward along the special road of democracy.
It has a great degree of socialism, but it is not a dogmatic socialism, but a practical and practical socialism.
“He repeatedly stated,” as far as India is concerned, as far as India’s current position is concerned, I really like nationalism Socialism eventually had to push nationalism forward as a political cloak.
“Obviously, in Nehru’s political ideological system, nationalism, that is, safeguarding India’s national interests, is the basic starting point of his thought, while socialism is only used as a” political coat ” “It can be worn and changed, and can be worn and taken off at any time as needed.
Although we cannot rashly say that Nehru’s socialism is purely hypocritical or fake socialism, at least we can say that he does not take socialism as a goal, but as a way to serve the development of Indian capitalism.
His socialism has a considerable element of pragmatism.
For this reason, in the more than 40 years since India’s independence, situations that do not conform to or even deviate from the basic contents and basic principles of Nehru socialism have appeared from time to time, such as shouting every year to eradicate poverty, eliminate unemployment and achieve social equity.
In fact, poverty and unemployment have remained the same, or even increased, and the polarization between the rich and the poor has intensified.
The Indian government has explicitly ordered “fundamental transformation” of India, land reform and agricultural cooperation.
But in fact, there has been no fundamental change in India’s ownership.
Land is still owned by the rich, poor farmers are still brutally exploited by landlords and agricultural capitalists, and cooperatives are almost occupied by landlords and rich farmers.
Although Nehru’s non aligned policy has made undeniable achievements, it also has great limitations.
This limitation, as mentioned earlier, is highlighted in the deviation or even deviation from the non aligned thought from time to time.
For example, the small countries in South Asia are afraid of India from time to time because they have repeatedly taken bad or even hostile actions against their neighbors and small countries.
This situation is by no means accidental, which is caused by Indian bourgeois nationalism and pragmatism.
In Nehru and the Indian bourgeoisie, the most important thing is to safeguard India’s national interests, that is, to safeguard the narrow national interests of the Indian ruling class.
In this regard, Nehru bluntly pointed out in December 1947: “no matter what kind of foreign policy we formulate, the art of guiding a country’s foreign affairs lies in discovering what is beneficial to our country.
We can talk about international goodwill and explain what we say.
But in the final analysis, the function of the government is to serve the interests of the country it rules.
” Nehru’s thought runs through all aspects of Indian foreign policy like a central nerve.
Around this axis, we can not only do many feats that are beneficial to our country and countries around the world, but also do some unjust acts that are only beneficial to our country and harmful to other countries.
Looking at the content of Nehru’s political thought, on the whole, its weaknesses and defects are secondary compared with his progressive positive thought.
His political thought is the precious heritage and spiritual wealth of the Indian people and the people of the world.
Second, Gandhi’s opposition to modernization and big industry is still influential in India today.
Gandhi’s Retro thought is well known.
He publicized everything against the West.
He believed that the development of modern civilization was the general source of all the disadvantages of modern western society and the hotbed of world turmoil, aggression, oppression and war.
Modern civilization is an evil anti religious civilization based on materialism, which is the civilization of the devil.
Large machine production makes workers become slaves of machines and makes India miserable.
India must no longer follow the old road of western industrialization.
A beautiful, peaceful and peaceful India in the future lies in eradicating modern civilization and rebuilding a society based on spirit.
In this society, there is no longer the development of big industry.
Gandhi’s ideas were not adopted by his successor Nehru.
It is fortunate that India has followed the path of Nehru industrialization after independence.
However, Gandhi’s above-mentioned anti big industry thought has a deep influence in today’s Indian society, especially among Indian political parties and the broad middle and lower classes.
The people’s Party established in 1977 and the people’s party rebuilt later take Gandhi doctrine as the central creed.
The party’s constitution, election declaration, policy statement and documents all claim to “abide by Mahatma Gandhi’s political philosophy and not steal”.
In terms of economy, “oppose monopoly and concentration of economic power”, and advocate focusing on the development of small enterprises and rural industry.
The Bharatiya Janata Party, which has revived in recent years, particularly advocates Gandhi doctrine.
The core of its five principles (nationalism, democracy, non sectarianism, Gandhi doctrine and politics based on value) is Gandhi doctrine.
The party claims to oppose economic concentration and advocate Gandhi’s “decentralization”.
The popular party and the socialist party, which are influential in India, are generally the same.
They crown everything with Gandhi’s economic principles.
Most of these political parties have been or are in power, which has a certain impact on the development of India’s modernization.
Third, India has long emphasized the principles of self-reliance and protection of its own industry in the process of modernization, which has stifled the rapid development of modernization.
Shortly after independence, Nehru advocated the establishment of a socialist society in India and gave priority to the development of heavy industry and basic industry in order to achieve economic independence.
India’s “Five Year Plan” document clearly states that “an important purpose of developing heavy chemical industry is to enable India to end the import of means of production as soon as possible.
In this way, India’s capital accumulation will not suffer losses when it is difficult to import means of production.
Therefore, heavy industry must develop as soon as possible”.
To this end, in the 1950s, it implemented the alternative import strategy, received industrial project assistance from the Soviet Union, the UK and the Federal Republic of Germany, and built a large number of heavy chemical industries.
In the 1960s, it achieved self-sufficiency in most industrial products.
However, once the goal is achieved, it is not allowed to import again in principle, regardless of production cost and product quality, and a thick Great Wall has been built for domestic industry to protect.
The result is that “once a relatively advanced industry, it has been in an environment without competition for a long time, and the distance between the level of technology and equipment and the international advanced level is becoming larger and larger.
The export of industrial products is lack of competitiveness, and its share in the world market is relatively reduced.
In the domestic market, the emperor’s daughter is not worried about getting married, and industrial production has no ability to update technology and equipment”.
This situation is in sharp contrast to the economic development strategies of some countries and regions in East Asia, such as Japan and the “four little dragons”.