The former king’s “invitation”
— the British invasion of Afghanistan in 1839
Afghanistan is located between West Asia, Central Asia, South Asia and East Asia, and its strategic position is very important. Since ancient times, it is not only the channel of East-West trade, but also the “Avenue of conquerors”. The Hindu Kush mountain, with an average altitude of more than 3500 meters, is a major obstacle between central and South Asia. Afghanistan’s special geographical location and terrain make it the traffic hub of South Asia, Central Asia and West Asia. It has always been a battleground for strategists.
since the 18th century, Afghanistan has been plunged into a protracted feudal separatist regime and civil war, and its national power has declined. In 1834, dost Muhammad, the former chief of the barek Chayi ethnic group, won the civil war and became the ruler of the country. Based in Kabul (the capital of Afghanistan), he reunited the divided country.
just at this time, British and Russian colonists broke into Afghanistan.
in the early 19th century, the British colonists aimed at Afghanistan in order to establish a sphere of influence from North Africa to India. The ambitious tsarist Russia also coveted Afghanistan in order to go south to the Indian Ocean and win the access to the sea. The two major forces of the north and the South continue to collide in Afghanistan. In order to compete with tsarist Russia for control of Central Asia, the British colonists did not hesitate to send troops to Afghanistan again and again. They launched three wars of aggression against Afghanistan from 1839 to 1919. However, under the tenacious resistance of the Afghan people, the invaders were beaten to death and suffered a shameful defeat.
in order to prevent Russia and France from going south, Britain is committed to establishing a buffer zone including Afghanistan and Central Asian Khanate. In 1809, Britain and India sent a delegation headed by mon elfenton to Afghanistan for the first time to seek to establish a defense alliance with it. In June, the two sides signed a contract stipulating that no European shall enter Afghanistan except Britain. However, King shuga Shah, who contracted with Britain, was soon overthrown and fled to India in 1813. Britain did not give up. From 1829 to 1835, it continued to carry out military espionage against Afghanistan in an attempt to buy dost Mohammed and make him an alliance with Britain, so as to achieve the purpose of controlling Afghanistan.
in 1826 ~ 1828, Russia sent troops to defeat the Iranian army, annexed alminia, directly threatened Afghanistan, and sent special envoy vitkevich to Kabul (the capital of Afghanistan), which deceived the trust of dost Mohammed by hypocritical means. From then on, the leader of Russia fell to Afghanistan.
Britain was very unwilling, and then stepped up war preparations under the guise of “Russian threat”, determined to send troops to Afghanistan, overthrow the pro Russian government in Afghanistan and support the puppet regime. In order to achieve this goal, at the end of 1838, the British colonists used a figure they had identified more than 20 years ago – shuga Shah, the former king of Afghanistan who was exiled to India. After the British colonists found shuga Shah, they gathered more than 30000 British and Indian mercenaries. Led by “envoy and Minister” McNaughton, assistant Beth and commander-in-chief John keanni, they launched the first war of aggression against Afghanistan on the pretext of Afghanistan’s refusal to conclude an alliance with Britain against Persia and Russia, and in the name of being “invited” by King shuga Shah.
in April 1839, more than 30000 British troops arrived in Quetta after a long journey, and then crossed the hojak pass to invade the southwest of Afghanistan; The British army forced another way through the Khyber Pass to cooperate with the main battle of the British army. The Afghan army has only 15000 people, which is far less than the British army in terms of quantity and equipment. The British army soon captured Kandahar and Ghazni and marched under Kabul. Dost Mohammed refused to ask Russia for help and had to flee to Bukhara for refuge. Britain immediately established a puppet regime in Kabul. In order to fight back against the British invading army, the Afghan people rose up and launched a guerrilla war against Britain. Relying on favorable terrain, guerrillas in all localities flexibly attacked the enemy, attacked British posts, cut off the enemy’s traffic supply lines and recovered important towns. Under the heavy blow of the Afghan guerrillas, the morale of the British army was low and terrified all day.
on November 2, 1841, an uprising broke out in Kabul, guerrillas from all over the country launched a joint counter offensive, and the angry citizens of Kabul rushed to the predetermined target with various primitive weapons. The rebel army fought bravely and irresistibly, and occupied the whole city of Kabul that night. The next day, the rebel army attacked the British stronghold outside the city. The British colonial army exclaimed that “all residents of Afghanistan have taken up arms against us”. Until November 9, the rebels captured all the strongholds between Kabul and Bala ` xisar fortress, and then killed British Minister McNaughton. The British army was forced to agree to withdraw from Kabul. The remnants of the British army, 16000 accompanying personnel and their families were ambushed by the rebels many times on the way to Jalalabad. Finally, only one seriously injured military doctor ran back to Jalalabad and reported the destruction of the British army. Since then, the anti British armed forces surrounded Jalalabad and Kandahar, recovered Ghazni, and the British puppet regime completely collapsed.
the battle of mewand in the war of resistance against Britain in Afghanistan
the British colonists were unwilling to lose, so they increased reinforcements, first solved the siege of Jalalabad and Kandahar, and then attacked Kabul from the East and south. In September 1842, after a bloody battle, the Afghan army took the initiative to withdraw from Kabul due to the great disparity of strength. After the British Army reoccupied Kabul, they burned, killed, looted and retaliated wildly. But the Albanian people did not give in, and the struggle against Britain rose even higher. Fearing another disastrous defeat, the British Army hurriedly withdrew to India on October 12 after rescuing the hostages. The first British Afghan war, which lasted three and a half years, cost British colonists more than 30000 people and 150 million pounds. As a result, the Afghan people won a complete victory.
after 36 years, Britain launched the second war of aggression against Afghanistan in 1878. In the 1870s, imperialists stepped up their struggle for colonies. After tsarist Russia successively occupied the three khanates of Bukhara, hokhan and Shiva in Central Asia, it sent stoleitov toThe military delegation headed by the Afghan army went to Kabul in an attempt to persuade Afghan King Hill Ali Khan (1863-1879) to form an alliance with Russia. After hearing the news, the British asked Hill Ali Khan to receive the British delegation headed by general Chamberlain, but Hill Ali Khan refused. On this pretext, Britain launched a second war of aggression against Afghanistan.
in November 1878, when the British invaded Afghanistan, Hill Ali Khan asked Russia for help, but he was rejected and died of worry and anger. His son yegub Khan gave up resistance and signed the gundamak treaty with Britain in May 1879. The treaty stipulates that Afghanistan’s foreign relations are controlled by the British, the British have stationed officers in Kabul, and part of Afghanistan’s territory and several important mountain passes belong to India. This humiliating treaty aroused great indignation among the Afghan people. In September of the same year, a popular uprising broke out in Kabul. Soon, the uprising spread all over the country. In 1880, with the encouragement and support of Russia, Abdul Rahman Khan, the nephew of hill Ali Khan, returned to Afghanistan from Central Asia and organized troops to advance to Kabul. Eager to escape from Afghanistan, Britain negotiated with Abdul Rahman Khan, recognized him as king and promised him a lot of money and arms. Abdul Rahman Khan recognized the main provisions of the gundamak treaty, that is, the British controlled the foreign relations of Afghanistan, and the British troops withdrew from Afghanistan in November 1881.
in 1919, Omani nurahan succeeded the king, declared that Afghanistan was completely independent internally and externally, and wrote to the British governor of India to ask Britain to recognize Afghanistan’s independence, which was unreasonably rejected by Britain. In May of the same year, the third anti British war in Afghanistan broke out, and the Afghan army and people won on most fronts. Due to the outbreak of non violent and non cooperative movement in India at that time, Britain was eager to end the war. In June, the two sides concluded an armistice agreement. In August, the peace treaty was signed in Rawalpindi, and Britain officially recognized the independence of Afghanistan.
the three anti British wars in Afghanistan from 1839 to 1919 were just wars to safeguard national independence and national sovereignty. In this war, the world’s most powerful colonial empire was defeated again and again by a weak and backward country, which is rare in world history. It eloquently proves that any powerful country is doomed to failure if it wants to conquer a nation with strong vitality, strong national consciousness and tenacious resistance spirit by force. It also set an example for the colonial and semi colonial national liberation movement. Of course, Britain’s unjust war of colonial expansion in Afghanistan is bound to fail.