in today’s North Korea, the situation of internal and external difficulties is very similar to the Li Dynasty under the rule of Xing Xuanjun and min Fei. In addition to the specific differences of the times, the problem facing North Korea is a replica of the last years of the Li Dynasty – as a small country, how to survive in a treacherous and changeable environment with strong neighbors?

article is taken from the 14th issue of south wind window in 2010. Author: the ancient and Modern Enlightenment of Princess min.

a country, large or small, strong or weak, has no support inside and no allies outside, and its prospect is dangerous. Reform at home and opening to the outside world are the way for North Korea to survive.

the political career of minfei, the empress of the Ming Dynasty of the Lee Dynasty a hundred years ago, may provide some useful enlightenment for the real North Korea.

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are powerful politics: although they were harmed by them, they drowned in them. Empress Ming Cheng of

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was the title of posthumous title after North Korea’s “independence” in 1897. Her surname is min, her name is Ci Ying, and she is generally called Princess min in history.

Princess min was born in 1851 in an aristocratic family with the surname min in Lizhou, Gyeonggi province. Lixingmin family is a famous family in Korea. It flourished at the beginning and middle of the founding of the country, but it was involved in the party struggle during the suzong period. The elite of the family were persecuted and their luck was low. Gangu hall has only imperial concubine min and her adopted brother min shengho. Min shengho was the uncle of Emperor Gaozong Li Xi, who was involved in the “imperial concubine selection”.

in the Lee Dynasty of Korea at that time, the relatives were in power for many years. Anton Kim and fengrang Zhao fought endlessly. Because Xianzong and zhe Zong had no descendants after their death, Li Xicai, who came from the Royal branch, was made king by Zhao Dafei (Empress Dowager). Li Xi’s father, Xing Xuanjun Li Gang Ying, aimed to eradicate the relatives and rebuild the royal authority, After taking advantage of Zhao’s influence to hit Anton Kim, she planned to take the opportunity of her second son Li Xida’s marriage to end Zhao Dafei’s hanging curtain and listening to politics, so she chose Princess min, who is of the same family as her wife and has a down-to-earth family, as the queen to make herself a real Regent.

when minfei first entered the palace, she was not welcomed by Gaozong. The night in the deep palace is cold, and the rigorous Princess min completely spends her time by reading books. Among these books, her favorite is Chinese classics such as Zuo Zhuan, which makes her gradually get into politics. In 1868, Li Guiren gave birth to lin’er. Xing Xuanjun, who had been living at the bottom of the society for a long time, didn’t care that his eldest grandson came from a humble maid of honor. In addition to being happy, he also planned to make him a son of the world. This is not in line with the patriarchal clan system. Only one example is that concubine Zhang Xi illegally overthrew empress Renxian, the predecessor of concubine min, but Xing Xuanjun insisted. Her father-in-law’s deliberate indifference finally drove minfei to the road of power. First, she tried to establish the style of mother in the world in the palace. Over time, Gao Zong, who had long been bored with the shallow Li Guiren, finally moved to minfei. In addition, she also frequently contacted people outside the palace to cultivate power. Of course, these are completed through min clan relatives.

compared with min Fei’s deep understanding of human nature, Xing Xuanjun is quite extreme that there is no fish when the water is clear. In order to maintain an open-minded image, he takes talents as the basis and ignores his origin, but he often ignores his close relatives. This includes his younger brother xingyinjun and his eldest son Li zaimin, not to mention his wife and younger brother min shengho. They were all courted by concubine min. In 1871, Xing Xuanjun, who was full of differences between China and foreigners, strongly opposed western medicine to operate on the first child of Princess min, resulting in the premature death of the prince. Princess min and Xing Xuanjun went to war in an all-round way. When the great Confucian Cui Yixuan wrote to Gaozong for the second time and criticized Xing Xuanjun by name, and the party members of Xing Xuanjun asked to kill Cui, Princess min and Princess Zhao joined hands to promote Gaozong’s request for substantive paternity. After the overthrow of Xing Xuan Jun, Li Xing min became the fourth door valve of the Korean Dynasty to implement the “potential Dao politics” of his relatives, and held power together with Zhao. Later, the minfei group suppressed the Zhao family in fengrang on the issue of China’s diplomacy and the canonization of the son of God (that is, the last king chunzong), and finally led to the retirement of Zhao Dafei, thus controlling the overall situation of North Korea.

water overflows when the moon is full. The rapid rise of minfei group makes it difficult for every minshi ethnic group to themselves, and corruption is emerging one after another. At first, Princess min had great ambition to follow her father-in-law to implement the new deal and form a new army. The Min people naturally fish in troubled waters. The arrogance and indulgence of minfei group made the people’s resentment boiling, which led to the outbreak of Renwu army rebellion in 1882. Xing Xuanjun took the opportunity to fight back, put Gaozong under house arrest and forced concubine min to run away.

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during the exile of minfei, together with Fengtu Zhao, asked for help from China. Although she regained power, her strength was weakened and her control over the situation was insufficient. Within the regime, around the theme of saving the country and striving for survival, it has divided into the old school with the elders as the core and the civilized school with young officials as the main body. The growing differences between the two factions led to the outbreak of Jiashen coup in 1884. With the support of Japan, the civilized faction formed a pro Japanese government, announced its separation from China and was ready to follow Japan’s reform. There is an essential difference between the reform of the civilized faction and the original “New Deal” of minor repair and compensation in the old system. In addition, most of the senior officials killed during the coup were members of minfei group and Fengtu Zhao family. Minfei once again asked for help from China. Although the Kaihua party was calm, North Korea fell under the control of China and Japan.

in order to check and balance Princess min, the Qing Court released Xing Xuanjun, who had been detained before, and returned home. However, the general trend of Xing Xuan Jun is gone, and he can’t shake Lixing min’s half. Taking China’s westernization movement as a model, minfei group launched the second round of new deal and opened the road of modernization. While the country is making progress, the self fattening of minfei group has also increased the national burden. In 1894, the peasant uprising of the Dongxue party broke out in quanluo Road, the granary of North Korea, and then quickly swept the country. Taking this opportunity, China and Japan each sent troops to intervene, which eventually led to the outbreak of the Sino Japanese War, China’s defeat, Japan’s occupation of the whole territory of Korea, and Min’s power ministers were deposed and exiled one after another. Li Xing min’s Shi Dao politics actually came to an end in 1895.

sixth sense diplomacy

Princess min had fought with xingxuan monarch for nearly 30 years and had not encountered any danger. Even in times of war and coup d ‘é tat. Finally, she died at the hands of the Japanese. In other words, she died of diplomatic blunders.

for a long time, North Korea has only two neighbors, China and Japan, and its foreign affairs are simple. enterIn modern times, Westerners with white skin and blue eyes poured in. The first westerners who came to North Korea were Dutch, but they often appeared in the era of great colonialism. Like China and Japan, North Korea follows the national policy of closing the country, leaving a gap in the curtain corner than China and Japan. North Korea’s closure can be described as 100%. Even Catholicism, which flourished later, came from the Chinese.

the attitude towards Westerners was tough in the era of Xing Xuanjun. In the view of Xing Xuanjun, Westerners are no different from animals and animals, which is different from the civilized state of Korea. In reality, his wife’s status as a Catholic was his biggest political injury, so after he came to power, he decisively ordered to crack down on Catholicism and executed tens of thousands of believers, including many French missionaries. The move drew retaliation from France. In 1866, the French army invaded, but was repulsed by the Korean army familiar with the local geography. Afterwards, Xing Xuanjun proudly erected a monument to write: foreign aggression, non war peace, Lord and betrayal. Later, in i871, the U.S. military sent troops to retaliate for the merchant ship incident of Shemen, which was also repulsed by the North Korean army. However, the victory of the Korean army was largely due to the convenience of home combat, which showed a clear gap with the Western military. The dizzy Xing Xuanjun didn’t think so and continued to implement the lock-in policy.

after minfei came to power, in order to highlight the progress of Bixing Xuanjun, she tried to show her open-minded side. Of course, reality also forces North Korea to open its doors. In 1876, North Korea and Japan signed the Jianghua Island treaty and established diplomatic relations with Japan; After obtaining the permission, they successively established diplomatic relations with the United States, Britain, France, Russia and Germany. Li Hongzhang’s permission is based on his consistent diplomatic thinking of controlling foreigners with foreigners, but it is objectively beneficial to the modernization of North Korea. After the

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doors were opened, min Fei’s understanding of overseas was still limited to superficial. Although she also advocated learning from Japan to carry out civilized reform, to a large extent, she was in opposition to Xing Xuanjun. After the Renwu military revolution in 1882, relying on China to send troops, minfeicai regained power. Worried that Xing Xuanjun was being used by Japan, China first set out to forcibly detain Xing Xuanjun, which won the favor of Princess min and tended to be pro China. However, the good times did not last long. In 1884, the pro Japanese Kaihua faction launched a Jiashen coup, and many members of minfei group were killed. Minfei began to be vigilant against Japan. In order to contain Japan, China sent a permanent representative to North Korea to control internal and foreign affairs, which undoubtedly made minfei angry with China, but people had to bow their heads under the eaves.

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