While the United States is implementing the lease act to help people fight the fire, the conflict between Japan, a newly rising military power in the Pacific, and the United States has escalated.
By 1941, the Japanese army had launched an all-round war of aggression against China, pursued the southward strategy, and concluded an alliance treaty with Germany and Italy.
Article III of the treaty implies that the United States should not be involved in the Eurasian war.
In the eyes of Americans, this is a challenge to the “open door” and “equal opportunity” policies of the United States and its interests in the Asia Pacific region in an attempt to dominate the world.
In this regard, US President Roosevelt ignored the opposition of Congress and adopted a number of sanctions against Japan.
The contradiction between Japan and the United States has become increasingly acute and the conflict has intensified.
But at this time, Japan is deeply mired in China, and there are still many difficulties in using force immediately.
The United States has not made military preparations in the Pacific region and has decided to avoid an open struggle here and concentrate all its efforts on assisting Britain and strengthening itself.
Under such circumstances, both sides hope to seek temporary easing through negotiations in order to win time and step up war preparations.
Therefore, after the signing of the German Italian Japanese alliance treaty, the United States first sent Catholic priests de Laut and Walsh, who are closely related to politics, to visit Japan to guide the secret contact between the United States and Japan.
Subsequently, Japan’s Tadao Igawa and the military Minister of the Ministry of the army, Takeo iwasama, were ordered to go to the United States in early 1941 to further discuss bilateral relations with delaut and walshi.
During this contact, the two sides drafted a privately agreed Japan US negotiation plan, namely the draft Japan us understanding agreement, which can be regarded as the keynote of Japan’s negotiations with the United States.
On the basis of private threading, on April 16, 1941, US Secretary of state hull and Japanese ambassador to the United States Yoshiro Nomura started negotiations on behalf of the two governments on issues such as the China Japan war, Japan’s southward advance and the trilateral alliance.
In June 24, 1941, Japan formulated the plan on promoting the southern policy, preparing to send out the art of war as early as possible in the southern part of Indochina and the Dutch East India.
On July 21st, deputy secretary of state Welles summoned the Minister of the Chinese government, said: “Japan will occupy the southern French Indochina in recent days.
This action is a blatant breach of the spirit of dialogue between Japan and the United States in order to maintain peace in the Pacific.
” On July 24, President Roosevelt also warned Japanese ambassador to the United States Nomura that if Japan continued to push towards Dutch East India, it would lead to an all-out war in the Far East.
Roosevelt expressed the hope to exchange oil for the neutrality of Indochina and maintain peace in the Pacific.
However, in spite of the opposition of the United States, Japan sent troops stationed in the southern part of France, Indochina.
Therefore, on August 15, the United States announced a ban on all goods to Japan.
So far, all financial and commercial activities between Japan and the United States have completely stopped.
The negotiations between Japan and the United States have reached an impasse, and the relations between the two countries are on the verge of breaking off diplomatic relations.
Obviously, Japan’s military conquest while negotiating is unacceptable to the United States.
After the deadlock in Japan US relations, the Japanese government proposed to hold Japan US summit level talks in an attempt to break the deadlock and achieve diplomatic purposes.
However, the United States insists that there is no room for negotiation as long as Japan does not stop its military conquest.
In October 2nd, Hull addressed the Japanese government, and Japan only held the following conditions to guarantee its commitment: the summit of the US Japan side could hold a full withdrawal from China and French Indochina.
Abandon the special close relationship between Japan and China.
Abandon the substantive part of the three nation treaty.
On October 12, Japan held a five phase meeting.
There were differences between Jinwei and Hideki Tojo on how to expand.
Dongtiao did not give in to the garrison issue and advocated the cessation of negotiations.
Jinwei hopes to achieve its goal through negotiation.
On October 16, Jinwei resigned, Tojo formed a cabinet, and the Japan US summit came to naught.
Although the Japan US summit has not been realized, the door of the Japan US talks has not been closed.
In October 1941, the Tojo cabinet was established, and Dongxiang maode served as foreign minister.
By this time, the Japan US negotiations had completely become a smokescreen to cover their war intentions and a means to buy time.
On November 1, the joint meeting between the Japanese army base camp and the government decided to continue negotiations and strive to reach an agreement.
At the same time, they made up their mind to start a war and made operational preparations.
On November 5, the pre imperial meeting made a decision to start war against the United States, Britain and the Netherlands.
The time is early December, and the negotiations with the United States will continue until December 1.
According to this decision, Dongxiang called Nomura and asked him to first put forward Japan’s case A.
on November 14, hull officially rejected the case a and advocated that all Japanese troops withdraw from China.
In November 20th, the special envoy of Nomura and Japan sent Hull to submit the second case.
The main contents are as follows: the governments of Japan and the United States mutually guarantee that they do not expand force in South Asia and the South Pacific outside the French Indochina, and the United States supplies the oil needed by Japan, and the United States does not set obstacles to the peace efforts between Japan and China.
A week later, hull told Nomura and laiqi that they could not agree to the Japanese case B, and handed them the draft of the basic outline of the US Japan agreement, including a 4-point oral statement and a 10 point Memorandum – “hull memorandum”.
The main points are: in order to sign new trade agreements and thaw funds, the following terms of exchange are put forward.
Japan and the United States agree to abide by the principles advocated by the United States.
The two countries propose that all countries concerned with the Far East should sign a non aggression treaty.
Japan, the United States, Britain, China and the Dutch will conclude a non aggression treaty.
Japan will withdraw all land, sea and air force and police forces from China and French Indochina.
Japan withdrew its recognition of the government and the “Manchukuo”, and Japan abandoned the Treaty of alliance between Germany, Italy and Japan.
After Japan accepts the above plan, Japan’s assets will be unfrozen, gradually implement MFN treatment, sign trade agreements with each other, and stabilize the exchange rate between the US dollar and the Japanese yen.
On November 27, after discussion, the Japanese side concluded that the hull memorandum was an ultimatum to Japan and Japan could not accept it.
The judge believes that the United States has made up its mind to fight Japan.
It is better to start first.
On the same day that the United States put forward the hull memorandum, Japan’s mobile forces set sail in concealment and rushed to the Pacific operational waters.
In order to achieve the greatest results as soon as the war begins, on December 2, deputy chief Ito of the military command asked not to interrupt the negotiations, while the deputy chief of the military command and the deputy chief of the general staff asked that the time for submitting the note be changed from 12:30 on December 7 to 13:00.
Accordingly, on December 6, the Japanese government called Nomura: first, the government had a careful discussion on the US proposal on November 26.
As a result, it decided to submit a memorandum to the United States.
Second, due to the long text of the memorandum, it is estimated that it will not be sent until tomorrow.
In view of the extremely delicate situation, we hope to be strict with the above matters for the time beingIncrease confidentiality.
Third, the time of submitting the memorandum to the US side will be notified by cable.
Washington received the first 13 parts of the memorandum to the US government from Tokyo at 11:50 on the 6th.
One paragraph says: “Through this negotiation, we believe that the intention of the US government is not only to collude with the British Empire to obstruct the Empire’s efforts to establish peace through the construction of a new order in East Asia, but also to make Japan and China fight with each other to safeguard the interests of Britain and the United States.
This makes the imperial government finally hope to adjust Japan US diplomatic relations and cooperate with the US government to maintain and establish peace in the Pacific Failed.
” After President Roosevelt read the first 13 parts of the Japanese memorandum, he smelled gunpowder: “this means war.
” Under the serious situation of war approaching, the United States got rid of the shackles of isolationism and neutrality and further pursued the alliance strategy.
Roosevelt and agreed that Anglo American unity should be above all else and must depend on each other.
The two countries must strengthen cooperation, including in the Asia Pacific region.
From January 29 to March 20, 1941, representatives of the US and UK staff held a joint meeting in Washington and adopted a plan, which stipulated that “if Japan launches an attack, the US and UK’s military strategy in the Far East is to take a defensive position.
Before Germany is defeated, the two sides will jointly take a containment war of attrition against Japan.
” Accordingly, the United States stipulates that the main task of the Pacific fleet is defense to ensure that Hawaii, the Philippines, Guam and Wake Island are inviolable.
In addition, in order to reduce the pressure on the British forces in the Malaysian defense line, the fleet will use submarines to destroy Japan’s maritime traffic lines and take containment actions in the Marshall Islands and Caroline Islands.
This strategic decision of the United States is based on the rainbow combat plan as a prerequisite.
As early as 1939, the United States formulated the “Rainbow 1” operation plan limited to “hemispheric defense”.
Then the “Rainbow 2” plan was formulated: it envisaged that Britain and France would fight with the axis powers, and the United States would “safeguard the interests of democratic countries in the Pacific”.
Subsequently, the “Rainbow 3” plan to send a fleet to recover the Philippines was formulated.
On June 7, 1940, the United States formulated the “new rainbow 4” plan.
The plan points out that Japan has violated the interests of the United States in the Far East.
Under this situation, the United States will defeat its aggression against the American continent, the United States, the Aleutian Islands and the American territories and waters east of Midway Island alone.
After the introduction of the “new rainbow 4” plan, Secretary of naval operations stark proposed four schemes to President Roosevelt, of which the fourth scheme was particularly exquisite.
The plan points out that the United States should take Britain as an ally to take an offensive in the Atlantic and a defensive position in the Pacific.
The plan was endorsed by the army chief of staff Marshall and, together with the Secretary of naval operations stark, proposed to the Secretary of the army, the Secretary of the Navy and the president.
In May 1941, the joint meeting of the US Army and Navy approved the operation plan of “Rainbow 5”.
It stipulates that the task of the navy in the Pacific region is to cover the maritime traffic lines of the allies, support the British Navy east of 155 degrees east longitude and south of the equator, defend strategic places in the Pacific such as Midway Island and Guam, contain the enemy from the Malaysian defense line, attack the enemy’s maritime traffic lines, and support the Allied forces in the Far East to prepare to control the Caroline Islands and the Marshall Islands.
In the Far East, the army defended the Philippines, while the Navy supported the ground and air forces defending the territory of the allies and attacked Japan’s maritime traffic lines.
The rainbow plan, especially the rainbow 2, 3 and 5 plans, embodies the basic contents of the US war plan against Japan.
It is a concrete embodiment of the military strategy pursued by the United States in the Second World War.
On January 27, 1941, US ambassador to Japan Joseph Gru reported to US Secretary of state hull that the Japanese armed forces attempted to use all military means to sneak into Pearl Harbor on a large scale.
“Although the plan seems incredible, he heard the same news from many sources,” he said The US State Department copied the important information sent back by Ambassador Gru to the Department of the army and the Department of the Navy, and the Department of naval operations timely transmitted it to the Pacific Fleet.
By the beginning of 1941, the United States had been on high alert to Japan.
On the basis of the preparations already made, the United States also made a safe and sound preparation according to the strategy of jointly containing Japan formulated by the Joint Chiefs of staff: on July 26, 1941, Douglas, who had retired as a military adviser in the Philippines, was recalled in order to prevent the Japanese army from advancing southward and strengthen its defense forces in the Philippines, And was appointed commander in chief of the newly formed US military in the Far East.
By December, the US military in the Far East had 130000 ground troops, including 12000 US troops, 12000 Philippine troops and 110000 militia.
More than 140 aircraft, including B-17 bombers and fighters.
The US Navy’s Asian fleet in the Philippines has 3 cruisers, 13 destroyers, 16 submarines and 6 torpedo speedboats.
After the Japanese occupation of Indochina, the United States stepped up its strategic preparations so that the total force of the US active forces reached 2 million 70 thousand.
Among them, there are 35 army divisions and 1.
37 million people.
More than 6000 land and Navy aircraft and 270000 aviation troops.
The navy has 17 battleships, 8 aircraft carriers, 18 heavy cruisers, 19 light cruisers, 165 destroyers, 106 submarines and 430000 Navy personnel, including 9 Pacific Fleet battleships, 3 aircraft carriers, 12 heavy cruisers, 9 light cruisers, 67 destroyers, 52 submarines and more than 200 carrier aircraft.
Put the attack against Japan on the top agenda of the government.
The troops were required to fight at the first order.
In order to win the war, the State Council held a special military working meeting on November 7.
At the meeting, Secretary of state hull stressed: “the situation is extremely severe.
We cannot predict when and where we will be attacked by Japan’s armed forces, so we must always keep on alert.
” On the seventh day after the meeting, Kimmel, commander of the US Pacific Fleet, issued an order to the troops to prepare for the enemy’s attack.
During the last month of Pacific peace, on November 25, Roosevelt held a supreme military conference at the White House.
Hull, Stimson, Knox, Marshall and stark attended the conference.
Roosevelt said at the meeting: Japan could start a new conquest by surprise attack anytime, anywhere.
Safeguarding our national security is in the hands of the army and navy.
Meet the Japanese attack as planned.
Although the preparations in all aspects, including the president, seem good, in diplomatic and military activitiesMany mistakes can still be seen in the urgent agenda of the movement.
On November 15, the United States intercepted a telegram from Tokyo to Japanese consul hido in Honolulu, which ordered him to report the situation of “port ships” twice a week, but this intelligence clue was not transmitted to Pearl Harbor.
On December 3, Roosevelt chatted with Harry Hopkins when Lieutenant Colonel Kramer arrived with the latest intercepted intelligence in his pocket.
The content was that Japan officially rejected the 10 point proposal of the United States.
The president felt that the situation was serious, but he rejected Hopkins’s proposal that the United States launch an attack first.
He believes that the United States is a democratic country, a peaceful country, a peaceful nation and has a glorious history.
Roosevelt wanted to call Admiral Stark, but when he learned that stark was watching the student prince at the national theater, he felt that there was nothing new in the first 13 parts of the Tokyo final communique, which was not worth calling the Secretary of naval operations in public.
For the same reason, General Marshall was not alerted.
December 7, the last day of the war.
At Massachusetts Avenue, the telegraph operator of the Japanese embassy is waiting for Part 14 of the most important memorandum to the US government formulated by Japan after US Japan negotiations in Tokyo.
Ambassador Nomura will hand over the telegram to the US side.
On Constitution Avenue, a few blocks to the south, the duty officer of the Naval Intelligence Service was also anxiously waiting for the same message.
However, due to tragic negligence, important materials that could have proved that Japan was about to launch an air attack on Pearl Harbor were placed in lieutenant colonel Kramer’s “to-do” file.
That afternoon, a new Japanese expert of the Naval Intelligence Group, Mrs.
Dorothy eJes, began to translate the secondary telegram sent to China by the Japanese consul general in Honolulu with low-level code.
The contents of the telegram showed that they showed great interest in the movements of pearl harbor ships, which aroused Mrs.
She showed the intercepted piece to her boss, who was busy deciphering and translating the long telegram and delayed listening to her report.
In the last few hours of December 6, the American people, as in the past, spent a day of toil and were ready to go to sleep.
At this time, thousands of Japanese troops are preparing on 169 ships and more than 2000 aircraft to burn the Pacific before dawn.
From Hawaii West to Wake Island, Guam, Hong Kong, the Philippines, Malaysia.
If viewed from a high altitude, on the 6000 mile ocean where the Japanese carefully planned to launch an attack, it is like a gradual spark, igniting the most frightening scene in the history of human war.
In this scene, the United States was first listed as the target of destruction is Pearl Harbor.
Pearl Harbor is located in the south of Oahu Island in the Hawaiian Islands.
It is the largest naval base of the United States in the Pacific region, and its strategic position is very important.
Pearl Harbor forms a vertebral shape with Guam and Manila Bay, and is inserted into the Western Pacific Ocean, which is the main obstacle for Japan to move southward.
It’s a long story.
Japan’s battle plan against Pearl Harbor began when Japan and the United States were on the negotiating table in early February 1941.
At that time, Japan entrusted the task of formulating the battle plan for attacking Pearl Harbor to Major Lieutenant General Harada.
After accepting the mission, Yuantian Shi carefully analyzed the enemy situation and believed that three conditions must be met for the success of the attack operation: that is, calling all six large aircraft carriers.
Select the most capable commanders and pilots with the highest training level.
Keep it strictly confidential to ensure that you are unprepared.
The plan was soon implemented under the organization of Yuantian Shi.
At the same time, Japan has also carried out the following two crucial tasks: first, the Naval Intelligence Department has also begun to actively collect and investigate the activity intelligence of US Pacific ships.
second, the troops have entered targeted training.
In July 1941, Japan’s pre imperial conference adopted the outline of imperial national policy, which decided to “refuse to fight against Britain and the United States”.
In August, the “Z” plan to attack Pearl Harbor entered the stage of in-depth discussion and demonstration.
In September, the Japanese Navy ordered the full implementation of wartime establishment and organized joint fleets to start a series of combat training in various places.
On November 24, according to the instruction of Yamamoto 56, the ships involved in the war were assembled and made final preparations for the long voyage.
On the 25th, Yamamoto issued an order to set sail to the South cloud mobile force.
At 6 a.m. on the 26th, the ship of Nanyun mobile force lifted its anchor and left the port, quietly disappeared on the choppy North Pacific, and sailed extremely secretly to the standby sea area of 42 degrees north latitude and 170 degrees west longitude, waiting for the final order – attack.
At 6:00 a.m. on December 7, the Nanyun mobile force received the order of attack.
The green light on the flight deck of each aircraft carrier was on, and the aircraft flew off the aircraft carrier one by one.
After only more than ten minutes, 183 aircraft, including 43 fighters, 49 horizontal bombers, 40 torpedoes and 51 dive bombers, flew off the deck for the first wave of attack, Guided by the pilot’s signal light, quickly form a formation, then fly around the ship and rush to Pearl Harbor.
At this time, the US Pacific Fleet has 8 battleships, 2 heavy cruisers, 6 light cruisers, 29 destroyers, 5 submarines and 30 auxiliary ships anchored in Pearl Harbor.
There are 262 planes parked at the onshore airport.
The remaining two aircraft carriers, eight heavy cruisers and 14 destroyers were transporting aircraft on Wake Island, Midway Island and conducting exercises on Johnston island without any alert.
Dive bombers from Japanese flying commandos entered along the valley.
Only three panicked civil aircraft pilots over sugarcane fields and pineapple plantations in Oahu Island first found this situation.
When they were suddenly involved in the vortex of the diving aircraft, they felt bad, but they had to run for their lives and hurried to the wilderness.
The Japanese concentrated their forces on attacking military airports and warships.
The first batch of 18 dive bombers attacked the rows of fighter planes and bombers with wing tips next to nose tips at Hickam airport, an army base south of Pearl Harbor, severely damaged the seaplanes on Ford Island, destroyed the hangar, and threw the torn aircraft and hangar fragments into the air.
In the face of such a sudden attack, few people in the Pacific Fleet were aware of what was happening in the first few minutes.
The first “97” torpedo plane rushed over the last warship of the fleet, Nevada, and tore the flag to pieces with machine guns.
The stunned flag bearer then raised several stars and stripes, but all of them were smashed.
The first torpedo drilled into the stern of the ArizonaField.
At 10:00 sharp, all Japanese planes withdrew from Pearl Harbor.
But the death and destruction did not end.
On this day, everyone was involved in the fight against the fire on the floating battleship.
The small boat avoided the burning sea and rescued the survivors covered with oil from the water.
Doctors at the Oahu naval hospital are trying their best to rescue countless wounded.
Japan’s attack on Pearl Harbor has achieved unimaginable great results.
In just over an hour, the Japanese army dropped 40 torpedoes and 556 bombs of various types, totaling 144 tons, sank and injured more than 40 US ships and destroyed 260 aircraft.
The death toll of American officers and soldiers was as high as 2403, of which 1000 died on the ship Arizona.
Nearly 2000 people were injured and 18 warships were seriously damaged and finally scrapped.
Only 43 aircraft can still fight.
188 planes were blown up at the airport and another 159 were damaged.
Japan’s price was the loss of only 29 aircraft and crew, as well as five pocket submarines.
This is much smaller than Yamamoto expected.
A huge black smoke curtain hovering thousands of feet high blocks the clear sky of Pearl Harbor, symbolizing the victory of Japan and the tragedy of the United States.
A Japanese staff officer wrote proudly in the diary of this day: “the enemy is not on guard, fast, fast, fast!” “Yankees, you know, the dagger of 30 years of hatred is revenge on your chest today.