Tsarist Russia entered the first world war with a population of 180 million.
In most battles, the Russian army suffered losses and retreated one after another.
The soldiers were miserable and grew tired of war.
Many soldiers joined the anti war movement and sympathized with or tended to the revolution.
From the war to the beginning of 1917, tsarist Russia was unable to make ends meet.
It was maintained by abusing money and borrowing a lot, causing serious inflation.
In addition to military industry, the output of civilian industry and agriculture decreased significantly.
The people in the vast cities are in a state of hunger and semi hunger.
Peter grad is in danger of running out of food at any time.
The imperialist war and serious economic crisis promoted the awakening of the people.
In 1916, the total number of strikes in Russia exceeded 1 million, and many people fought under the slogans of “down with war” and “down with autocracy”.
The landlords and landlords seized a lot of grain and the means of production, and expelled them.
Under the harsh national oppression and war mobilization, the oppressed peoples of Central Asia launched an uprising in July 1916, starting from khozhan city in fergan province and developing to Tashkent, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, and persisted until after the revolution in February.
In some places, a large number of soldiers carried out Anti War struggle, and the whole regiment or even the whole division army refused to carry out the attack order.
The influence of the Bolshevik party in the army is expanding day by day.
Not only the masses of workers, peasants and soldiers rapidly tend to be revolutionary, but also the ruling crises within the Russian ruling group occur frequently.
Tsar Nicholas II and the queen placed their trust in superstitious and trusted swindler Rasputin and allowed him to control most of the power of the royal family.
In early 1916, they appointed Pro German figures as chairman of the Council of ministers and foreign minister, which intensified the struggle within the ruling group.
Later, the Czar was forced to change the chairman of the Council of Ministers again, and Rasputin was assassinated.
Bourgeois leaders once planned to kidnap Nicholas II, force him to abdicate and establish another czar.
Although the palace coup plot has not been realized, it fully shows that the autocratic rule of tsarist Russia has come to an end.
The serious economic, political and social crisis led to the intensification of social contradictions, and the revolutionary storm finally came.
On March 10, 1917, 250000 workers in Petrograd held a general political strike against hunger, imperialist war and czar.
The Czar government ordered the shooting to suppress the demonstrators, arousing stronger resistance.
On the 11th, the Weibao District Committee of the Bolshevik party decided to turn the strike into an armed uprising.
On March 12, the uprising swept the whole city, and soldiers were transferred to the revolutionary camp in batches.
Ministers and generals of the Czar Dynasty were caught by the insurgents.
On March 15, Nicholas II was forced to abdicate.
The Romanov Dynasty, which ruled tsarist Russia for more than 300 years, fell.
Therefore, the revolution took place in February of the Russian calendar, commonly known as the “February Revolution”.
The February Revolution was a bourgeois democratic revolution.
During the revolution, Petrograd established a new political power institution, the workers, peasants and soldiers represented the Soviet, but the bourgeoisie established the Russian interim government with the support of the Mensheviks and the social revolutionary party, forming a situation in which the two political powers coexisted.
The interim government suppressed the revolutionary forces internally and continued the imperialist war externally.
It is an anti people and counter revolutionary regime.
The contradiction between the proletariat and the bourgeoisie has developed into the main contradiction of Russian society.
The transformation from democratic revolution to socialist revolution is the inevitable trend of struggle and development.
At a time when the Bolshevik movement led by the Czar was booming, the Czar did not realize that the era of Czar rule was dying, and still sent a large number of Russians to the battlefield despite the strong opposition of the people.
On July 1, 1917, 200000 Russian troops attacked rumberg occupied by the German army.
The vanguard is the most elite Cossack cavalry brigade.
The Russian army made a successful start and soon captured 17000 Germans, and more than 1000 more in the next few days.
However, the German and Austrian troops quickly received the support of the reserve army.
From July 7, they used a large number of field artillery to counter attack on a broad front.
As a result, the whole Russian army retreated and the attack failed completely.
In just 10 days, more than 60000 people were killed and injured.
This was the last large-scale attack launched by the Russian army against the German army in World War I.
Strongly advocating the launch of this attack is the interim government’s head of the army and Navy, Kerensky, who is the sworn enemy of the Bolsheviks.
His wishful thinking is: if the attack wins, his prestige will be greatly improved.
If the attack fails, the Bolsheviks can be blamed for inciting soldiers to oppose the war, resulting in the loss of the war.
Now, the attack failed.
So klensky played a new trick: under the pretext of replenishing the front-line forces, he ordered some troops in the capital that he thought were unreliable to be transferred to the front-line.
As a result, the soldiers in the capital could no longer stand it.
On the afternoon of July 16, two soldiers suddenly broke into the meeting place of the municipal Party committee of Petrograd in Bolshevik and issued a statement to the presidium, saying: we are the representatives of the first machine gun regiment in the capital.
Our regiment has decided to launch an uprising tonight to overthrow the interim government, and has sent representatives to factories and regiment headquarters.
I hope the Party Central Committee and the municipal Party committee will immediately organize a team to lead the armed uprising! The two representatives were received by.
As a member of the CPC Central Committee at that time, he was responsible for guiding the work of the petersgrad municipal Party committee and for the work of the Pravda, the organ of the CPC Central Committee.
He was soberly aware that the army and other provinces were not ready to support the capital uprising.
If they were launched suddenly, they would certainly be brutally suppressed by the interim government.
Therefore, he explained to the two deputies and hoped that the members of their regiment would act in accordance with the decision of the Party Central Committee and not launch an uprising rashly.
Unexpectedly, the two representatives did not listen to Stalin’s advice at all and said angrily, “it is the resolution of the whole regiment to overthrow the interim government, and we will never violate it!” After that, he left the meeting angrily.
Stalin knew that the situation was very serious.
Just then Lenin left the capital temporarily due to illness and could not get his instructions immediately.
Therefore, he sent someone to inform sverdlov, member of the Party Central Committee, of the emergency situation, and sent someone to report to Lenin at the same time.
After various persuasions and explanations, the soldiers preparing to launch the uprising finally accepted the instructions of the Party Central Committee: hold a large-scale peaceful demonstration the next day.
The next morning, Lenin returned to the capital ill.
He said he fully agreed with the decision of the Party Central Committee to change armed into peaceful demonstrations.
The next morning, thousands of workers and soldiers lined up on the streets.
They held high “peace! Bread! Freedom！” The slogans and flags began to march in an orderly manner.
Nearly 500000 people took part in the demonstration.
The interim government brazenly dispatched troops to suppress the demonstrators, searched and killed revolutionaries, and carried out white terror throughout Russia.
At 14:00 p.m., when the parade passed a busy intersection, suddenly there was a clear sound of gunfire.
First there was a sound, followed by the sound of “crackling” shooting.
Suddenly, a large number of people fell to the ground, and the orderly team immediately became chaotic.
With the scream of people, infantry with guns and cavalry with sabers rushed fiercely towards the unarmed masses.
In an instant, the streets were dripping with the blood of workers and soldiers.
At the same time, prepared government troops appeared everywhere and slaughtered the parade.
It turned out that krenski had already transferred back several teams loyal to the government from the front line, and with the cooperation of students from the capital military school – sergeant students, he created this bloodshed in a planned and prepared way.
In order to avoid further bloodshed and sacrifice and preserve the revolutionary forces, the Party Central Committee called on the demonstrators to return to factories and barracks peacefully on the night of the incident.
But klensky didn’t give up.
He tried to take this opportunity to wipe out the Bolsheviks at one stroke.
The Bolshevik party is in a very dangerous situation and can only move underground.
Sure enough, the interim government openly suppressed the revolutionary forces.
The organs of the Bolshevik party were destroyed and closed, the workers’ Red Guard began to be disarmed, revolutionary soldiers were persecuted, and many regiments and divisions were dissolved.
Lenin was the most feared and hated by the interim government.
Because they know that Lenin put forward the Bolshevik Party’s “total distrust of the new government”, “special suspicion of Kerensky” and “arming the proletariat”.
Therefore, to bring down the Bolshevik party, we must first arrest Lenin.
But this must find an excuse.
So they rumored that Lenin was a “German spy” and took a lot of German money to petersgrad to organize an armed rebellion.
All at once, the newspapers were full of such articles.
With this excuse, the interim government officially issued an order to arrest Lenin on July 20.
That night, a large truck full of government soldiers rushed to Lenin’s residence.
After rushing into the door, the officer waved a pistol and pressed Mrs.
Lenin: “is Lenin at home? We have been ordered to search!” Mrs.
Lenin replied coldly, “he is not at home.
” It turned out that Lenin secretly moved his residence before the interim government issued an arrest warrant.
At the command of the officer, the soldiers immediately opened the cupboard, pulled out the drawer, lifted the sofa and searched in disorder.
But nothing was found.
The officer angrily pulled out a letter from a stack of letters and read it.
This letter was sent from a remote village.
It said: comrade Lenin, only you can save Russia.
We must follow you.
The officer threw down the letter in disappointment and pressed Mrs.
Of course, he got nothing.
Angry with shame, he ordered the soldiers to take Mrs.
Although they failed to catch Lenin, they estimated that Lenin could not leave the capital so soon and must be hidden in a house in the city.
Therefore, an order was issued late that night: all house keepers in the capital should stand at the gate early tomorrow morning to check the people going out.
Those who do not know each other will not be allowed to go out.
Report to the government immediately, and the authorities will send someone to identify them.
They thought that in this way, they would surely catch Lenin.
Lenin really hasn’t left the capital.
That night, he lived in a worker’s house in the city.
The next morning, he saw two gatekeepers standing nervously at the gate from the window and immediately understood what was going on.
So he took an umbrella and went out unhurriedly, walking all the way to the gatekeeper.
The gatekeeper saw a stranger coming out of the house and wanted to stop him and ask.
However, Lenin walked so calmly and naturally that even the gatekeeper didn’t believe that he was wanted.
The two gatekeepers looked at Lenin again and again.
The more they looked, the more they were sure that he didn’t look like the man the government wanted to catch.
They winked at each other and let Lenin pass by.
Lenin transferred several residences one after another.
After a few days, he left the capital safely.
On July 27, 1917, klensky climbed to the throne of Prime Minister of the interim government and concurrently served as Minister of the army and navy.
Since then, white terror has enveloped all over the country.
These major events that took place in July are called the “July incident” in Russian history.
The “July incident” indicates that the Russian revolution can no longer take the road of peaceful development.
The bourgeois interim government represented by Kerensky continued to carry out the imperialist war abroad and safeguard the interests of Anglo American and French imperialism.
Internally, they tried their best to maintain the ruling machine, suppress the people, and try to dissolve the workers’ armed forces, so as to eliminate the Soviet Union.
They mobilized troops everywhere, drew out shining butcher knives and prepared to slaughter the people.
The Bolshevik party began to organize an armed uprising to overthrow the interim government.
On September 7, the workers and soldiers in Petrograd quickly put an end to the rebellion of kornilov, the commander-in-chief of the Russian army planned by the interim government and supported by the imperialist powers.
Great changes have taken place in the balance of forces between revolution and counter revolution.
In this severe situation, Lenin, who was forced to exile in Finland, resolutely returned to petersgrad secretly regardless of his personal safety.
On the night of October 20, a short man dressed as a worker hurried to the Smolny palace.
The members of the Central Committee of the Bolshevik party who had been waiting there stood up excitedly.
The worker dressed up took off his wig and shook hands with a smile.
An old Bolshevik cried out with emotion in tears: “comrade Lenin, are you in good health?” “Good! Good! Comrades!” Lenin also greeted everyone with great excitement.
Then, the emergency meeting was held in this warm atmosphere.
Lenin said that we must seize all the power of the state from the Soviet government in time.
Then, we had a heated discussion and unanimously agreed on Lenin’s proposal to prepare for a new armed uprising.
Unexpectedly, just when they held a secret meeting, a spy sneaked into the Smolny palace and killed himThe Soviet soldiers on sentry duty and overheard their discussion.
The bourgeois interim government immediately became alert, stepped up the mobilization of troops and ordered the arrest of Lenin.
Under such circumstances, the Central Committee of the Bolshevik party prepared to hold an armed uprising in advance according to Lenin’s arrangement.
In order to convey Lenin’s speech to the Bolsheviks in Petrograd and call for action, the Party Central Committee will decide to publish it in the worker’s Road on November 6.
However, the provisional government army had long noticed that early that morning, a group of provisional government troops suddenly broke into the editorial office of the worker’s road newspaper and immediately seized the newspaper.
After the news spread, the red guards and revolutionary soldiers quickly gathered and kicked out the troops of the interim government.
The workers worked overtime and soon printed and distributed the worker’s road newspaper.
As a result, Lenin’s speech was spread everywhere in Petrograd, and everyone read loudly: “the political power should be handed over to the workers’ representative Soviet!” People ran around telling each other that a few hours later, the revolutionary team composed of more than 200000 people gathered and immediately entered a state of battle under the leadership of the Bolshevik party.
Under Lenin’s personal command, groups of soldiers set out and soon occupied important facilities and departments such as railway stations, post and telecommunications offices, telephone offices and banks.
Wherever they went, they were supported by the masses.
Many officers and soldiers of the interim government army also turned to the people.
The interim government was completely isolated.
The next day, November 7, Peter grad was actually in the hands of the revolutionary army, except for the winter palace where the interim government was located and a few strongholds.
Lenin immediately made a decision: occupy the winter palace! Therefore, the revolutionary army surrounded the winter palace from all directions.
The winter palace is a fortress building, so it is very difficult to capture it.
In front of it is an open waze River, just to the southeast.
From the early morning of November 7, the interim government ordered sergeants to use piles of wood to form deep barricades and block all entrances and exits of the winter palace.
Inside the barricade, there are machine guns and various small guns.
More than 2000 officials and students guarding here are watching around the winter palace day and night.
Krensky encouraged his subordinates and encouraged them to resolutely resist, while he took the car of the U.S. Embassy under the pretext of welcoming the reinforcements and fled.
Antonov, leader of the rebel forces, sent an ultimatum to the interim government in accordance with Lenin’s instructions.
However, the interim government believed that the winter palace was indestructible and that the reinforcements requested by Kerensky were coming, so it did not hesitate to refuse the requirements of the rebel forces and wanted to resist tenaciously.
Lenin immediately issued an order to Antonov: the winter palace must be occupied that night and all members of the interim government must be arrested! On that day, just after nightfall, a small boat rowed to the “afrer” moored in the Neva River.
Cruiser, a young man jumped from the boat to the ship.
A sentry soldier came up and shouted, “what are you doing?” “I want to see beresev right away!” The young man panted.
The sentry looked at each other again and reluctantly said, “please follow me!” So they walked into the cabin together.
A middle-aged man was talking to several people around him.
When he saw two people coming in, he hurriedly asked, “what’s up?” The young man hurried forward and couldn’t wait to ask, “are you Comrade beresev?” “Yes, I am!” “This is the order given to you by the Revolutionary Military Commission.
” Then he took out a letter from his arms.
Beresev took a look, turned to everyone and said, “comrades, the military commission ordered us to fire at the winter palace at 21:40 tonight!” As soon as they heard it, they shouted out excitedly.
Beresev quickly calmed everyone down and carefully arranged it for you.
Then he said to the young man, “please tell the military commission that we will fire on time at 21:40!” The young man nodded with satisfaction, said goodbye to the people, got out of the cabin, got on the boat, and rowed slowly to the shore.
Beresev is the political commissar on the cruiser.
He will command the battle tonight.
He looked at his watch every three or five minutes, couldn’t restrain his excitement, and his bright eyes looked straight ahead.
At 2140, beresev issued a decisive order: “bow gun, prepare -” the Gunners “clicked” to load the shells.
Then, without hesitation, he cut down his raised right arm and shouted, “put it down!” “Boom!” With a loud noise, the shell rushed to the winter palace from the muzzle with gunsmoke.
Then, other cannons roared together, and shells shot at the winter palace.
The huge palace trembled, and in an instant, it was a sea of fire.
As the gunfire of the cruiser “Avril” sounded, the rebel troops, led by Antonov himself, rushed to the winter palace and launched a fierce gun battle with the street barricade’s taxi students.
Revolutionary soldiers went forward one after another, bravely and fearlessly, and bravely rushed forward in spite of crazy shooting.
The sergeant students of the barricade had never seen such a spirit.
They were so frightened that they ran away one after another.
Some simply threw down their guns and raised their hands to surrender.
The revolutionary soldiers shouted, ran and fired.
They quickly crossed the open space and ran up the stairs in front of the Palace door.
However, the huge metal palace gate blocked their way.
Many soldiers had never seen such a majestic and solid threshold and were at a loss.
At this time, a commander ordered the soldiers to climb over and open the gate.
So, dozens of soldiers climbed up the copper pole at the same time.
After a while, the heavy door opened slowly, and thousands of soldiers rushed in shouting.
This cry represents the resentment of their generations and the hatred of countless people who were mutilated by the czar.
Therefore, it is particularly loud and earth shaking.
Thousands of people poured into the winter palace and searched everywhere.
However, the winter palace is very large and there are many buildings.
The soldiers looked around and didn’t find the key members of the interim government.
From time to time, they were shot by sergeants hidden behind the dark stairs and railings.
Antonov saw this and hurriedly found some winter palace servants who were inclined to revolution and asked them to lead the way and attack the enemy in an organized way.
In this way, the sergeant students lost their geographical advantage and were soon killed by the soldiers.
After a fierce battle, the garrison was basically eliminated, but the key members of the interim government had not been caught.
The soldiers turned the first and second floors upside down and still had nothing.