The uniqueness of Hebrew civilization is closely related to the uniqueness of Hebrew nation.
Generally speaking, the Hebrew people are Canaanites who do not wear gorgeous robes and have their hair carefully braided.
This man was probably the first to enter Egypt as a prisoner of war of the noble class.
Abraham, the patriarch of the Hebrews, was born in this region, a member of the peoples in the two river basins of the Damian plain.
Ethnically, the Hebrew nation should be an integral part of the Shemi people.
However, the concept of race is not the only standard for the Hebrew nation to define its national composition.
Secondly, kinship is not the only standard to define Hebrew identity.
To a large extent, or as a more important symbol, the definition of Hebrews is based on faith.
Only those who have unity in faith are considered Hebrews.
Some people have vividly said that the Hebrews are a nation “loyal to only one God, one book and one faith”.
This unique practice of national cognition with faith identity as the main standard obviously played a positive role in the development and preservation of Hebrew civilization, and also made the Hebrew nation one of the nations that paid special attention to faith in human history.
The uniqueness of the Hebrew nation is also reflected in the formation of their historical view.
Many nationalities live in the Middle East where the Hebrew nation was born and developed.
Many of them are the creators of early human civilization, such as Egyptians, Sumerians, Babylonians and so on.
For thousands of years, the thoughts of these nationalities have been deeply influenced and bound by the concept of “reincarnation law”, and regard history as the same phenomenon as the four seasons of the year, which goes round and round.
In their view, the law of human life is just a kind of reincarnation and repetition.
Today is just repeating the life of the old, and the future is just a repetition of the past.
This historical view that history is ruthlessly dominated by the law of reincarnation not only makes life monotonous and meaningless, but also full of deep melancholy and pessimism.
Due to the unique experience of the Hebrew nation, its history is different from that of all other nations in the world.
It is formed in the continuous diaspora of the Hebrew nation.
In addition, the Hebrews are a nation that has lost its own region for a long time.
Most of its history occurs when living together with other nationalities.
Region and boundary are no longer so important to the formation of Hebrew national historical view.
What is important is the connection with time and the memory of historical experience.
Therefore, an unprecedented concept has been formed to examine human history, Creatively put forward the view that history is a linear progressive process.
This straight forward view of history is the most important part of Hebrew cultural heritage.
It interprets history as a rich and developing movement.
This movement will end with the advent of the Savior – a real revolutionary thought compared with previous religions.
When talking about the Hebrew nation, people often use “small nation, big voice” to describe it.
It is such a “weak” nation that, with its persistence in national ideals and continuous creation of its own culture, believes that the power of words is far better than the power of sword.
With its cultural achievements, it makes a huge and far-reaching voice in the field of world civilization and makes the world deeply feel their existence, It has become the only nation in the Middle East that created a splendid civilization in ancient times and had a great impact on the process of the world, and has continued to this day with a “consistent” trend.
At the same time, it also confirms the strong vitality and creativity of the Hebrew nation, which is different from other nations.
The unique belief of Abraham, the ancestor of the Hebrew nation, one of the most important contributions of Hebrew civilization to the world is their dedication to the Bible.
In essence, the Bible is a book recording the Hebrew national belief system.
Looking at the Hebrew faith from the perspective of history and development, people have to admit that its emergence is an innovation and progress in the history of human civilization.
This innovation and progress is mainly reflected in the monotheism and contract view, which represent the essence of Hebrew belief.
The illustration of the story in the Bible tells that people can rely on the power of God to defeat demons and ghosts.
The early era of Hebrew life was an era based on polytheism.
In this era, the world was controlled by the gods, and each God had its own corresponding sphere of influence.
Therefore, the world presented a state of disorder, dispersion and opposition.
In addition, every nation, every tribe and even every family has their own God.
Nations, tribes and individuals can only passively act according to their own God’s will and ethics.
The society loses its due order due to the lack of unified ethical and moral standards.
The Hebrew nation creatively put forward the concept of monotheism under this background.
In the eyes of the Hebrews, it is not only the only God, but also an omniscient, immortal, eternal God who created and dominated the universe.
At that time, the idea of monotheism was undoubtedly an epoch-making achievement and a unique leap forward of human thought.
According to monotheistic thought, God not only created the order of nature and nature, but also created the ethics and morality that the world should abide by and the social order corresponding to ethics and morality.
In this way, the society has a unified evaluation standard, which makes it possible to establish a just society.
The proposal of monotheism was also a god of Canaanites.
It is believed to be a statue of Baal, the God of storm and fertility, found in a temple in northern Palestine in the 3rd century BC.
So that people have a unified standard for treating human beings and life, and the “equality of all living beings” between people has a realistic basis.
Human beings do not have to treat life and life negatively and pessimistically, but can live with a positive and optimistic attitude.
The contribution of Hebrew national monotheism to the world can be seen from this.
Another important influence of the Hebrew faith on the Hebrew world system.
This unique thought on the relationship between God and man shows that the relationship between “God” and “man” is no longer a helpless relationship in the Hebrew view, but a two-way choice relationship of mutual benefit, mutual assistance and mutual obligations.
The concept of contract gives people the freedom of choice in the relationship with God.
HopeIt was not until 2000 BC that the new immigrants gradually settled here that Western Canaan and Northern outer Jordan recovered significantly.
These new residents are mainly from the Amorites of the Semitic people in the northwest.
Initially, they used nomadism as their industry, and gradually began to integrate with the Canaanites who settled and worked in agriculture.
The Hebrew tribe led by Abraham also entered Canaan for the first time around this time.
In the first half of the 20th century BC, Egypt was in a prosperous Middle Kingdom era.
Its trade went up the Nile and reached Phoenicia, Crete and even Babylon through Canaan.
At that time, the power of Egypt could reach most of Canaan.
Biblus was not only influenced by Egypt’s economy and culture, but even local leaders admitted that they were subordinates of the Egyptian Pharaoh.
By the end of the Middle Kingdom in the second half of the 18th century BC, Egypt was divided and divided.
A large number of nomadic tribes known as the hixos poured into Egypt from Canaan, conquered the Nile Delta, and established a sheep herding Dynasty lasting more than 100 years with awaris in the east of the Delta as its capital.
In addition to directly occupying the Nile Delta, they also indirectly ruled some parts of Egypt by their vassals and vassals.
Although the economic and cultural development of the Hyksos was significantly lower than that of the Egyptians, they imported the techniques of domesticating horses and manufacturing horse drawn chariots, bows and axes into Egypt, and simplified the Egyptian characters, which directly contributed to the creation of Pinyin letters by the Phoenicians.
The hiksos’ sphere of influence extends northward to northern Syria and the upper reaches of the Euphrates River.
Canaan, close to Egypt, is naturally in the center of this vast area.
In the middle of the 16th century BC, the kingdom of Thebes gathered forces from all over Egypt to overthrow the rule of the Hyksos and open the new kingdom of Egypt.
The hixos who were forced to withdraw from Egypt had to return to southern Canaan.
Canaanite culture reached its heyday during the hiksos’ rule of Egypt.
The Amorites who used to live as nomads built cities one after another, and their leaders became local kings.
Canaan city-state began to revive again, and agriculture became the main occupation of local residents.
In addition to the nomadic life of some relatively backward mountain and grassland tribes, the residents have developed relatively developed farming and horticulture in the valleys, depressions and coastal plains of Canaan.
In the handicraft industry, there are a large number of bronze products such as short swords, axes and statues, and the pottery production is also more sophisticated.
They not only brewed wine and refined olive oil, but also used wool and hemp to produce colorful and decorative luxury textiles and clothes.
The most distinctive and artistic handicrafts of this period have been found in Megiddo, Jijia and Boshan.
Due to the weakening of Egypt’s political power in Canaan, Canaan commercial cities located on the important trade routes from Egypt to Syria and Phoenicia can develop relatively independently and become more prosperous with the continuous flow of caravans.
In terms of language, Canaanites mostly use Akkadian and cuneiform, and some speak Egyptian and use hieroglyphics.
In terms of religious belief, each commune, city and tribe of Canaanites has its own protective god, and multi God worship and human sacrifice are popular.
From the perspective of houses and burial objects in tombs, Canaan had a very obvious differentiation between the rich and the poor at that time.
However, with the expulsion of the Hyksos from Egypt before the 16th century BC and the re expedition of Canaan by the Egyptians, Canaan culture tended to decline, especially in handicraft production and art, as evidenced by the significant decline in the quality of pottery.
The Egyptian Pharaohs in the New Kingdom controlled most of Canaan by using the garrison and local princes to extract a wide range of tribute.
From the 15th century BC to the 13th century BC, there were constant conflicts between the Egyptians and the Hittite Kingdom rising in Asia Minor for hegemony in West Asia.
At the beginning of the 13th century BC, they concluded a peace treaty and occupied Canaan.
In the following years, tribes from the sea and desert moved and raided, causing unrest in all parts of Canaan and attacking the local power of Egypt and Hittite.
It was against this background that the Hebrews, as the ancestors of the Jews, entered Canaan again and began to create their own civilization at the intersection of the two civilizations.