The origin of the Iraq problem 1.
Iraq’s physical geography and human geography Iraq is located in West Asia, in the middle and lower reaches of the Euphrates and Tigris rivers.
Therefore, ancient Greece called it “Mesopotamia”, which means “between the two rivers”.
Topographically, the Mesopotamian lowlands are only 45.
7 meters above sea level.
The Zagros Mountains are in the northeast, the Arab plateau is in the southwest, which is a desert zone, and the Persian Gulf is in the south, which is an alluvial plain with many lakes and swamps.
In addition to the subtropical Mediterranean climate in the north of Iraq, most areas of Iraq have a tropical desert climate with hot and little rain.
The annual rainfall in most parts of the central and southern regions is less than 250 mm, while that in the northern mountains is as much as 1000 mm.
Therefore, irrigation is very important for agriculture.
The main agricultural products are dates, wheat, barley, cotton, tobacco, etc.
, of which the output of dates ranks first in the world.
The most important mineral resource in Iraq is oil, which is mainly distributed in the north and South.
Other minerals are relatively poor, mainly sulfur, phosphate rock and iron ore.
In 2003, the population of Iraq was about 24 million, 74% of which were Arabs.
Due to the different living areas and tribes, the lifestyles of Arabs vary from place to place.
In the southern swamp area, “swamp Arabs” live in shacks and live a semi agricultural and semi pastoral life.
Arabs in the western desert engaged in nomadism.
In the plain areas of the two river basins, Arabs are mainly settled farmers and citizens.
Among the non Arab minorities, Kurds have the largest population, accounting for about 20% of the total population, living in Kurdistan in the north.
Kurds are Aryans, and their language belongs to Indo European Persian language family.
The Kurds in Iraq belong to the same ethnic group as the Kurds in neighboring Iran, Turkey and Syria.
They have close contacts with each other, engage in nomadism and agriculture, and maintain tribal organizations.
Other ethnic minorities include Persians, Turks, Armenians, Assyrians, Jews, etc.
In terms of religion, 96% of the residents believe in Islam.
The Constitution stipulates that Islam is the state religion and the president must be a Muslim.
Among Muslims, Shiites account for 60% and Sunnis 40%.
Shiites mainly live in the south, Sunnis are concentrated in the north, and Baghdad is a mixed residential area for residents of the two factions.
Shia believers are mainly Arabs and a few Persians, while Arabs and Kurds account for roughly half of Sunnis.
Therefore, from the perspective of human geography, Iraq is divided into Kurdistan in the north, Arab Sunni dominated areas in the middle and Arab Shia areas in the south. II. Overview of the ancient and modern history of Iraq historically, the fertile two river basin is the region where the civilization of Western Asia and even the world civilization first formed.
It has the earliest human characters, cities and civilizations.
It has long been the civilization center of Western Asia and has had an immeasurable impact on the development of world history.
However, the fertile two river basin also attracted countless invaders, mainly nomads, who became masters of Iraq again and again: Amorites (founder of Babylon in Cuba), Assyrians, Chaldeans (founder of New Babylon), elans, midians, Persians, Macedonians, Parthians, Sassanians, Arabs, Mongols, etc.
But surprisingly, the invaders were eventually assimilated by the two river civilizations.
The Babylonian civilization and the Arab civilization during the Abbasid Empire have left a brilliant mark in the history of Iraq, making Iraqis proud of it.
In medieval times, Iraq became the origin of Shia Islam.
The southern cities of Najaf and Karbala, where the tombs of Shiite founder Ali and his son Hussein are located, have become Shiite holy places all over the world.
Iraq was also an important land and sea transportation route between the East and the West in ancient times.
Baghdad and Basra are important transit points on the Silk Road, which is an important port to India and China.
Since modern times, Iraq has become the jurisdiction of the Ottoman Empire, with three provinces: Baghdad, Mosul and Basra.
Among them, Baghdad is the most important.
Since Ottoman Turks belong to Sunnis, Sunnis, as a minority, have become the rulers of Iraq since then.
Although the two river basins were the center of civilization in Western Asia for a long time in ancient and medieval times, Iraq began to lag behind after the decline of the Abbas empire in the 10th century.
During the Ottoman Empire, it became the most remote area of the Empire, and serving here was equivalent to exile.
The main reasons for Iraq’s backwardness are as follows: ① the rulers’ negligence on water conservancy.
In ancient and medieval times, Iraq was not the capital of the country, so the rulers neglected to maintain water conservancy facilities, which had a fatal impact on agricultural production.
② Years of war.
This is caused by frequent foreign invasion.
For example, the Ottoman and Persian Safavids fought intermittently for a hundred years for Iraq.
③ Frequent plagues.
In modern Iraq, there will be a major plague every 30 years.
For example, the plague in 1831 directly led to the end of the Mamluk Dynasty, and the opponent industry and commerce also caused a devastating blow.
④ Long term harassment by nomads and wahhabis.
The long-term war between Turkey and Poland, the decline of government control and the invasion of Wahhabi faction in the Arabian Peninsula are the main reasons for the flow of nomads, whose purpose is to seek new pastures and defend and expand their own interests.
The main tribal alliances that entered Iraq in the 17th-19th century included aniza, Shamar, montafik and so on.
They changed the distribution of Iraqi tribes, threatened the safety of trade routes and shipping, controlled fertile rice producing areas, clashed frequently with the government and sometimes took refuge in Persia.
For example, the montafics in the South had 12000 cavalry in 1833, which had a great influence.
In 1800, the settled population of Iraq accounted for only 60%.
The cultivated land in the 18th century was only a fraction of that in the 10th century.
A large amount of arable land in rural areas is still owned by communes.
The economic ties among the three provinces are not very close, but they are gradually developing.
In the first World War, the Ottoman Empire fought.
Britain sent troops into Iraq in 1914 and occupied the whole territory in 1918.
The San Remo conference held in 1920 announced that the delegated authority of Iraq was handed over to Britain.
This immediately triggered a popular uprising in Iraq.
In 1921, Britain was forced to appoint Faisal of the Hashemite family as king of the newly established kingdom of Iraq, and firmly controlled Iraq through bilateral treaties.
In 1925, according to the arbitration of the League of nations, the land occupied by the British army was rich in oil capitalThe source of Mosul belongs to Iraq.
Between the two world wars, the Nationalist forces in Iraq were divided into five camps: (1) moderate pan Arabs, mainly kings and Sharif, and Sunni Arabs.
This faction advocates gradually striving for national independence and modernization, and seeking the future unity of the Arab world.
(2) radical pan Arabs, also Sunni Arabs, mainly include military officers, freelancers, students, small and medium-sized businessmen, handicraftsmen, etc.
The faction strongly opposed the colonial rule of Britain and France in West Asia, advocated the realization of complete national independence and the unity of the Arab world through military intervention, and tried to contact Germany and Italy to deal with Britain and France.
(3) Iraqi faction, mainly represented by individual senior generals, including most Kurds.
This faction advocates safeguarding the independence of Iraq, opposes the establishment of a unified Arab state, and establishes a strong regime through military intervention to promote national development.
(4) social reformers, including small and medium-sized businessmen, farmers, handicraftsmen and some intellectuals.
He has little interest in Arab unity, but focuses on the complete independence of the country and the fierce socio-economic reform to promote the all-round development of the country.
Therefore, this faction has something in common with the Iraqi faction.
Including national bourgeois parties and the Communist Party of Iran.
(5) the Arab Baath Party (abbreviated as Baath party) was formed the latest.
It has the characteristics of radical Pan Arab and social reformers.
Its three slogans are “unity, freedom and socialism”.
The party originated in Syria and was founded in 1940.
The Baath party in Iraq was founded in 1949.
There are sharp contradictions between moderates and radicals in the Pan Arab faction.
In order to oppose the British, the radicals established secret ties with the axis powers, and launched an anti British uprising in 1941, but finally failed because of their isolation.
At the same time, the moderates became increasingly conservative and integrated with traditional nobles such as chiefs and big landlords, which eventually became the object of the 1958 revolution.
On July 14, 1958, the free officers’ organization led by Kassem launched a revolution to overthrow the monarchy and establish the Republic.
Diplomatically, the new regime announced its withdrawal from the Baghdad Treaty Organization and instead developed relations with the Soviet Union.
A series of major reforms have also been carried out in internal affairs, such as land reform, rent reduction, food price control, promulgation of labor law, implementation of eight hour working system, construction of low-cost housing for the poor in Baghdad, vigorous development of education, improvement of the status of women, cancellation of the vast majority of leased land of British companies, establishment of Iraqi national oil company, formulation of five-year plan, etc.
The ARIF brothers, who played an important role in the 1958 revolution, belong to the radical Pan Arab faction and advocate strengthening relations with Egypt, so they conflict with Kassem.
In 1963, the ARIF brothers united with the Baath party to launch a coup and seize power.
After a few months in power, the Baath party was overthrown by the brothers because of its contradictions and wrong policies with the ARIF brothers. III. rule of the Arab Baath party in July 1968, the Baath Party launched another coup and successfully seized power.
Becker, the leader of the party and a soldier, became president.
The coming into power of the Baath party ended the history of political turmoil in Iraq after the war.
During this period, Becker’s nephew Saddam Hussein played an important role in the Baath Party regime.
In 1979, Saddam officially became president and became the dictator of Iraq.
Renaissance socialism belongs to Arab socialism, and the rule of the Iraqi Baath Party has the following characteristics: first, it has established a highly centralized one party system of government, which was finally improved after Saddam Hussein became president.
Its main features are as follows: ① the leader of the party monopolizes power.
Saddam Hussein served as the general secretary of the regional leadership of the Baath Party (Iraq), the president, the chairman of the revolutionary Steering Committee (which is the highest leading organ of the country), the commander of the armed forces and so on.
He took charge of the power of the party, government and military, and directly controlled the leadership of the main security institutions.
② The party leads the political, military, police, special and other organs of power.
The members of the regional leading bodies of the Baath party are basically members of the revolutionary Steering Committee, thus realizing the integration of the party and the government at the highest level.
The Baath party also stipulates that only party members can attend military academies, and Party members and officers can not obey the orders of their superiors with suspicious political tendencies.
③ Appoint members of the tribe and family at the top of the political power.
A large number of senior party and government officials came from Tikrit, Saddam’s hometown.
As the most elite part of the army, the Republican Guard also comes mainly from Tikrit.
④ Establish a united front style political organization.
That is, the National Progressive Front established in 1974, including the Baath party, the Communist Party, Kurdish parties and independents, its core is undoubtedly the Baath party.
In addition, the party also controls various social groups and public opinion tools such as teenagers, women and journalists’ associations.
⑤ Take the Arab Sunnis as the dependence of the regime.
For Shia and Kurds (mostly Sunnis), the Baath Party has adopted a soft and hard approach to control.
⑥ The opposition was severely suppressed by extraordinary means such as whistleblowing, imprisonment and armed repression.
In order to suppress the Communist Party, Kurds, Shiites and opposition figures inside and outside the party, Saddam regime encouraged informants at home, arrested, imprisoned, tortured and killed the opposition without trial, ruthlessly suppressed the anti-government Kurdish and Shiite organizations by force, destroyed their villages and towns, forced them into exile, and even killed them wantonly with poison gas.
Therefore, although there is a parliament and universal suffrage, Iraq is a de facto dictatorship.
Second, implement secularist policies.
This is the consistent policy of the Baath party.
In Iraq, the confrontation between Sunnis and Shiites makes this policy particularly necessary.
Therefore, the Baath regime vigorously publicizes the glorious history of Mesopotamia.
After 1969, the Shiite government adopted a tough policy against the Sunni government, especially against the Sunni government.
From the perspective of the leadership of the regime, the dominant position of Sunnis even exceeded that of the monarchy and the Kassem and ARIF periods after the 1958 revolution.
From 1948 to 1958, among the ruling elite above ministers, Sunnis accounted for 44% and Shiites 33% (the rest were mainly Kurds).
By 1958-1968, Sunnis accounted for 54% and Shiites 30% of the ruling elite at the same level.
After the Baath Party came to power, the situation was inconsistent.
In 1977, Sunnis accounted for 55% of the Revolutionary Committee and cabinet ministers, while Shiites accounted for only 21%.
As many as one million regular troops are trying to regain their hegemony in the Gulf region and the Arab world with unprecedented military strength.
During this period, the West began to alienate Iraq and became increasingly vigilant against this newly rising regional power.
The US State Department and the Foreign Affairs Committee of the house of Representatives successively condemned the human rights situation in Iraq and no longer considered Baghdad’s request for us $500 million loan guarantee from relevant US departments.
In July 1990, Saddam severely criticized the policy of overproduction of oil in the Gulf countries.
Iraqi newspapers accused Kuwait and the United Arab Emirates of overproduction of oil, causing Iraq a loss of $89 billion.
At the same time, Iraq began to dispatch troops to the border between Iran and Kuwait.
The Arab states mediated the bilateral conflict.
The Iraqi side demanded that Kuwait forgive all debts of Iraq and compensate Iraq for the “plunder” loss of US $2.
In particular, it proposed that Kuwait should formulate a Marshall type assistance plan with a total amount of US $15 billion and lease bubiyan and wAlbA islands.
Kuwait only agreed to provide a loan of US $9 billion.
The gap between the two sides cannot be bridged.
On the surface, the United States has adopted a non intervention attitude towards the Kosovo Iraq dispute.
On July 23, 1970, US satellites found that three Iraqi divisions were deployed to the border between Kuwait and Iraq.
The next day, in response to a reporter’s question, a state Department spokesman said that the United States had no defense treaty with Kuwait and no special defense commitments to it.
On the night of the 25th, Saddam urgently summoned the female Ambassador of the United States to Iraq.
The ambassador said that the United States would not comment on the internal Arab conflict, that Iraq and Kuwait should seek a solution in the Arab context, and expressed sympathy for Iran’s concerns about oil prices.
Various US statements convinced Iraq that Washington would not interfere in Baghdad’s actions.
At 2 a.m. on August 2, 1990, more than 100000 people from 14 Iraqi divisions on the border between Iraq and Kuwait invaded Kuwait and quickly occupied Kuwait City.
At the same time, the Iraqi Navy also seized the two islands of bubiyan and wAlbA from the sea.
Most of the unscheduled KLA demobilized or surrendered.
By the 3rd, the whole territory of Kuwait had fallen into the hands of Iraq.
Iraq’s invasion of Kuwait shocked the world.
Before the start of the Gulf War, the UN Security Council successively adopted 12 resolutions demanding that Iraq withdraw its troops from Kuwait immediately and unconditionally, and that all countries impose economic sanctions and trade, military and air embargoes on Iraq.
In particular, resolution 678 adopted in November authorized UN member states to “take all necessary means” to implement the relevant resolutions of the Security Council, Unless Iraq fully implements the above-mentioned resolution by 15 January 1991.
This is actually an ultimatum to Iraq, which has opened the green light for the multinational force to use force.
The United States responded quickly and resolutely to the invasion.
On August 2, the White House announced that the Task Force stationed in the Gulf was on emergency alert, and dispatched two aircraft carrier battle groups to the Middle East to immediately freeze all Iraqi and Kuwaiti assets in the United States.
On the 7th, President Bush signed the “Desert Shield” plan and announced the dispatch of troops to the Gulf.
The next day, Bush announced four principles for dealing with the Gulf Crisis: all Iraqi troops withdraw from Kuwait immediately and unconditionally.
Restore the legitimate government of Kuwait.
Committed to security and stability in the Persian Gulf region.
Protect the personal safety of American citizens.
The real goal of the United States is to ensure the security of Arab oil producing countries and maintain the oil supply of the West.
Weaken Iraq and eliminate its threat to its neighbors and the West.
Realize the plan of long-term garrison in the Gulf region.
Show the leading role of the United States in the world and establish a new post Cold War world order dominated by the United States.
Other western countries responded to the US troop dispatch, and Japan and Germany provided financial assistance.
The Soviet Union also condemned the invasion, showing unprecedented consistency with the United States, but the Soviet Union actively mediated.
The Arab League held a Ministerial Council in Cairo on August 4 and adopted a resolution condemning Iraq and demanding Iraq to withdraw its troops.
Yemen, Jordan, Sudan, Mauritania and the PLO abstained, Libya did not attend, and the Arab world was seriously divided.
Jordan, PLO, Libya, Egypt and Morocco have tried in vain to mediate.
On the 10th, the Arab League summit held a meeting and decided to send troops to Saudi Arabia with the support of a majority of 12 countries.
After August 7, the United States began military deployment and gathered a total of 428000 troops.
Another 39 troops participated in the multinational force, including six Gulf countries, 14 western countries, Egypt, Morocco, Syria, Turkey and some Islamic countries, Eastern Europe, Latin America and Asia Pacific countries.
The total strength of the multinational force exceeds 800000.
Baghdad believes that the Iraqi army can defeat or drag down the multinational force through a protracted war of attrition on the ground.
They delay time by taking Western hostages, improving relations with Iran, dividing the anti Iraq alliance, psychological warfare and propaganda warfare.
From January 17 to February 23, the Multinational Force conducted an air raid on Iraq code named “Desert Storm”, which seriously damaged Iraq’s nuclear, chemical and biological weapons research and development facilities, most command and control systems, radars, airports, Scud missile launch sites and all kinds of weapons and equipment.
On February 24, the troops of the United States, Britain, France, Egypt, Syria and the six Gulf countries launched a large-scale ground attack code named “Desert Saber”.
In the battle, the Iraqi army suffered heavy losses.
On the 27th, the multinational force led by the Arab forces liberated Kuwait City.
On the 28th, the US and Iraqi troops successively implemented a ceasefire.
After March 2, senior generals of the United States and Iraq held talks.
On the 11th, the ceasefire agreement signed by the two sides came into force.
On April 3, the Security Council adopted Resolution 687, which stipulates: ① Iraq must recognize the 1963 Iraq Kuwait border agreement.
② Establish a demilitarized zone on the border between Iraq and Kuwait.
③ Iraq unconditionally accepts the destruction and dismantling of all chemical and biological weapons and ballistic missiles with a range of more than 150 kilometers under international supervision.
④ Iraq shall compensate foreign governments, citizens and companies for all losses and injuries caused by its occupation of Kuwait.
⑤ Iraq shall not participate in or support international terrorist activities.
⑥ Maintain the arms sales ban on Iraq.
On April 10, Iraq officially accepted Resolution 687.
The next day, the Security Council solemnly declared the end of the Gulf War.
The Gulf war inflicted a new heavy blow on Iraq.
In the war, the total number of casualties of Iraqi troops and civilians was about 150000, and a large amount of military equipment was lost.
More than 10 cities across the country were attacked by air strikes.
80% of bridges were destroyed.
The damage degree of industrial, oil and power facilities is as high as 80%.
90%, and various economic losses exceed 200 billion US dollars.
The Gulf War has worsened the Iraqi economy, which has been tortured by the Iran Iraq war.
At this time, Iraq is also facing serious internal unrest.
In February 1991, Shiites in the South sent.