After World War II, the cold war broke out between the United States and the Soviet Union.
Western European countries and Japan formed an anti Communist alliance with the United States during the cold war.
With the rapid economic development of Japan and Western Europe, their tendency of independence began to strengthen.
After the cold war, while the United States, Japan and the European Union cooperated with each other, the trend of mutual competition and competition among them also continued to develop.
Throughout the cold war, the Soviet Union was the only other superpower that could compete with the United States.
With the end of the cold war and the disintegration of the Soviet Union, Russia does not have the strength to compete with the United States, but Russia is still an important force in today’s world.
Western Europe plays an important role in today’s world economy and politics.
In the decades after the war, the union of Western Europe has made great progress.
After the end of the cold war, the trend of Western Europe’s unity and self-improvement is still strengthening and gradually expanding to the whole Europe.
In the future world pattern, Europe will certainly be an important pole.
The current development and future trend of Europe will have a significant and far-reaching impact on the world. I. The integration process of Western Europe (I) from coal and steel joint venture to European community.
Europe is the birthplace of world capitalism.
Before the middle of the 20th century, it has been the center of world politics and economy.
The activities of European powers play a dominant role in the world.
However, the second world war caused serious damage to Europe and economic depression.
Europe lost its central position in world politics and economy and became a key area for the two superpowers.
Western European countries rely on the United States politically, economically and militarily and become a vassal of the United States.
Eastern Europe is under the control of the Soviet Union.
Faced with this fact, Western European countries began brewing the issue of European national integration at the beginning of the cold war.
In May 1950, French Foreign Minister Robert Schumann proposed the establishment of a unified European Coal and steel market, the elimination of tariff restrictions in the market, and the unified intervention of a supranational community institution in the production, circulation and distribution process of coal and steel in Europe for mutual benefit.
The Schumann plan takes the local combination as the starting point, bypasses some complex problems, and makes the content and scale of cooperation possible to develop and expand smoothly, and finally achieve integration.
Therefore, Schumann is known as the “father of Europe”.
Schumann’s plan proposed that the European Union should start with coal and steel, not only to restore the economies of European countries after the war, but also to avoid the “resurgence” of war in Europe.
Because in history and in the early post-war period, the contradictions and disputes between Germany and France mainly focused on the competition for coal and steel.
By establishing a unified coal and steel joint venture, the iron and steel industry of various countries can be placed under the common management of a supranational organization, which can avoid being used in war.
Schumann’s proposal received responses from Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Belgium and Rwanda.
On April 18, 1951, the six countries signed the 50 year European Coal and steel joint venture treaty in Paris.
After ratification by national parliaments, the treaty entered into force on August 10, 1952.
The establishment of coal and steel community has brought obvious benefits to the production of coal and steel in all countries, and all countries have decided to expand the scope of the union.
On June 1, 1955, 6 foreign ministers held a meeting in Messina, Italy, and formally proposed to extend the principle of coal and steel joint venture to all other economic sectors.
On March 25, 1957, 6 foreign ministers signed the indefinite Treaty of the European Economic Community and the Treaty of the European Atomic Energy pool in Rome, namely the Treaty of Rome.
In January 1958, the Treaty of Rome began to be implemented, the union of Western Europe achieved in-depth development, successively established a customs union and implemented a common agricultural policy.
In the early 1960s, Britain, Ireland, Denmark, Greece and Turkey successively applied to join the process of Western European integration.
In order to meet the new needs of the union of Western Europe, in April 1965, the six countries signed the Brussels treaty and decided to merge the Ministerial Council and Executive Committee of the three organizations of the European Coal and steel consortium, the atomic energy consortium and the economic community to establish the European community or the European common market.
In July 1967, the treaty officially entered into force and the European community was established.
In 1973, Britain, Ireland and Denmark joined, and the European Community expanded from six to nine, thus strengthening the economic strength of the European Community and improving its international status.
On January 1, 1981, Greece became the 10th member state of the European community.
On January 1, 1986, Spain and Portugal also officially became members of the European community.
The European Community expanded to 12 member states.
Other European countries have also applied to join the organization.
Economic unification is the main goal and content of the cause of European unification and plays an important role in the unification of Western Europe.
The economic integration of the European community mainly includes the following contents: 1 Establish a customs union.
This is the starting point and foundation of economic integration in Western Europe.
In 1957, the six heads of state of the European Community formally defined the objectives, ways and means of establishing a customs union in legal form in the Treaty of Rome.
The main content of the customs union is to gradually eliminate all tariffs and trade restrictions among Member States, realize the free circulation of goods, and establish unified tariff barriers to foreign countries.
The customs union was planned to be implemented in July 1968.
The establishment of the customs union is the first important phased achievement of the European Union.
It has greatly promoted trade and investment among Member States, promoted the merger of enterprises and the formation of economies of scale, and played a great role in promoting the economic development of the European community.
From 1958 to 1972, the trade volume between the six countries increased by more than nine times.2. Implement a common agricultural policy.
This is another pillar of the European community.
The main contents are to abolish tariffs and restrictions on agricultural products among Member States, establish a common agricultural fund, unify the price of agricultural products internally, purchase and provide subsidies according to the guaranteed price, and the free circulation of agricultural products in the community.
Adopt unified high tariffs and import quotas, and establish common barriers to restrict the import of agricultural products, so as to protect the agricultural production within the six countries.
The European community has established a common agricultural market since 1962.3. Establish economic and monetary union.
In 1969, the Hague summit formally put forward the goal of establishing economic and monetary union.
The economic crisis broke out in the early 1970s, the difference of economic interests among Member States expanded, and the construction of economic and monetary union was blocked.
In 1978, initiated by France and Germany, the countries of the European Community formally agreed to establish a European monetary system to stabilize the currencies of Western European countries.
It was implemented on March 13, 1979, thus establishing the monetary stability zone required for the economic integration of Western Europe.
With the exception of the United Kingdom, the other eight countries participated in the European UnionContinental monetary system.
In the European monetary system, the European monetary exchange rate mechanism is the main component.
The mechanism implements adjustable exchange rates for all Member States of the community and joint floating of foreign currency exchange rates.
It stipulates that eight currencies such as mark and Franc can float up and down by 2.
25% on the basis of fixed exchange rate, and the floating range of sterling is 6%.
If the exchange rates of the two currencies exceed this limit, the central banks of both sides must intervene.
If necessary, the government can change the central exchange rate of its own currency under the authorization of the European Community Monetary Commission.
In addition to the European monetary exchange rate mechanism, the European monetary system has also established the European monetary unit – EGU as the core of the European monetary system.
At the same time, countries are also required to provide 20% of their gold foreign exchange reserves as the European Monetary Fund to maintain the stability of the fixed exchange rate.4. Establish a unified European market.
After the establishment of the customs union, it has greatly promoted the trade and economic development of the Member States, but it has not achieved the goal of realizing the free flow of goods, personnel, labor services and funds between the member states of the community without boundary restrictions stipulated in the Treaty of Rome.
Although the tariff barriers among member states have been eliminated, non-tariff barriers still exist, especially when the economy is in recession.
Instead of actively promoting the free circulation of goods and personnel, countries artificially set up some non-tariff barriers.
In order to promote the establishment of a common market among the countries of the community, in March 1985, Delors, chairman of the Executive Committee of the European community, put forward a proposal to the European Parliament on the establishment of a unified market.
In June, the EC executive committee published a white paper on the establishment of a unified market.
In December, the Luxembourg summit adopted the European single document, which decided to build an internal unified market without national boundaries on December 31, 1992, so as to realize the free flow of goods, personnel, labor services and funds.5. Strengthen scientific and technological cooperation.
In order to meet the challenge of the new technological revolution, the community has strengthened scientific and technological cooperation since the 1980s.
In February 1984, the community adopted the European Strategic Plan for information technology research and development.
In April 1984, the community formulated the joint research and development bioengineering plan.
In June 1985, the community summit adopted the Eureka plan for the establishment of a European “scientific and technological community” proposed by French President Mitterrand.
In November, the Eureka secretariat was established to begin the concrete implementation of the plan.
By 1992, more than 3300 institutions from 21 countries in Western Europe had participated in the Eureka program, with 622 research projects and a total investment of 67.
2 billion francs.
Achieving political unity through economic unity and establishing a European Federation is the goal pursued by the founders of the community.
Halstein, the first chairman of the EC Executive Committee, once described the European Union as a three-stage rocket.
The first stage is a customs union, the second stage is an economic union and the third stage is a political union.
Economic integration in Western Europe promotes and requires political integration.
As early as 1959, the foreign ministers’ meeting of the six community countries decided to make foreign ministers’ meetings and consultations on foreign and political affairs regular.
In February 1961, the first summit of heads of state and government of the community focused on strengthening political cooperation in Western Europe and preparing for the establishment of a political union.
In July of the same year, the six nation summit held in Bonn adopted a declaration on political cooperation and decided to establish a special committee to draft a joint political programme.
In November, the special committee put forward a draft political union and proposed the establishment of the union of Western European states as a third force outside the United States and the Soviet Union.
Since the major countries in the community could not reach an agreement on the leadership of the alliance, the political union of the community made slow progress throughout the 1960s.
However, with the deepening of contradictions between the United States and Europe in the 1960s, the increase of threats from the Soviet Union and the development of economic integration, the political integration centered on the European community has made important progress.
In December 1969, the issue of the European community was revisited at the Joint Summit.
In October 1970, the foreign ministers’ meeting of the community adopted the joint European political report and established the European political cooperation mechanism.
In October 1972, the community summit put forward the goal of establishing the “European Union” before 1980.
In December 1973, the heads of state of the nine countries met in Copenhagen and published the “document on European identity” adopted by the foreign ministers’ meeting, emphasizing that “Europe must unite and speak with one voice more and more”.
After December 1974, the European summit was regularized and institutionalized, and was named “Council of Europe”.
In 1975, the European Parliament, the legislative body of the community, was established, and direct elections were held twice in 1979 and 1984.
European political cooperation entered a new milestone.
In the 1980s, political cooperation in Western Europe was further strengthened.
In June 1983, the 10 heads of state of the community signed the Declaration on the European Union.
In February 1984, the European Parliament adopted the draft European political union.
In June 1985, the community summit discussed the draft treaty of the European Union.
At the end of December 1985, the summit reached an agreement on Amending the Treaty of Rome, deciding to limit the veto power and expand the powers of the Commission and the European Parliament, so that they can better exercise the powers conferred by the Community Treaty.
Since the end of World War II, Western Europe has not had its own independent defense, and its security completely depends on the United States.
Although western European countries began to try to establish a defense community when the community was established, there has been no substantive progress due to various reasons.
In the 1980s, due to the progress of European Union, the defense cooperation of the community also accelerated.
At the end of 1982, France and Germany established a meeting system of defense ministers and established a “security and Defense Committee” to coordinate military policies.
At the beginning of 1983, 12 Western European countries established the “regular meeting system of defense ministers”.
In May 1984, the Western European Union resumed its activities, indicating that Western Europe has taken a decisive step in defense cooperation.
Western Europe envisages that the “Western European Union” will be incorporated into the European community, become an integral part of the political and Defense Integration of the community, and establish a multinational force within the Western European Union.
In this regard, France and Germany supported and took the lead in establishing military cooperation.
After the war, Western European countries embarked on the road of unity and unity, and continuously strengthened and developed, which has a specific economic and political background.
First of all, it is the need of Western European countries to recover and develop their economies, and it is the inevitable requirement of economic development to break the barriers of nation-state.
In the 1950s, a new scientific and technological revolution took place in EuropeWith the rise of the United States, the degree of production socialization in Western European developed countries has increased rapidly, and the productivity has developed rapidly.
The expansion of production scale and the internationalization of production and capital require the free circulation of goods and other factors of production to flow freely internationally.
However, Western Europe has a small territory and many countries.
All countries are facing the contradiction between the development of productive forces and the relatively narrow domestic market.
Therefore, it is an inevitable choice for Western European countries to solve the contradiction between productivity growth and relatively narrow domestic market to implement unity, eliminate trade barriers between countries and realize the free flow of goods.
Secondly, it is the only choice for Western European countries to survive and develop in the “gap” between the two superpowers and oppose the control and threat of the United States and the Soviet Union.
The great power status of Western Europe was greatly weakened by World War II.
The United States and the Soviet Union controlled Western Europe and Eastern Europe respectively, and took Western Europe as the strategic focus of striving for hegemony in the world.
Western Europe survived in the “gap” between the two superpowers.
The US Soviet hegemony not only posed a serious threat to the survival and development of Western Europe, but also made western Europe lose the right to decide European affairs.
In order to resist the Soviet Union and get rid of the control of the United States, Western European countries must take the road of unity.
Thirdly, unity is the need to restrict Germany and eliminate the internal contradictions of Western European countries.
There are many contradictions among Western European countries in history, which have not been solved for a long time.
This is not only detrimental to the unity and cooperation of Western Europe, but also to the maintenance of peace in Europe.
How to eliminate the contradictions left over from the history of Western European countries and restrict Germany from harming Europe has become a top priority for the people of Western European countries after the war.
On the one hand, the establishment of coal and Steel Community and atomic energy community through joint can supervise and restrict Germany’s economic activities to some extent, effectively prevent Germany from embarking on the road of military expansion and war preparation, and also help to eliminate the remaining problems in history and realize European reconciliation.
In addition, the Western European Union also has better objective conditions.
The Western European countries are small and geographically connected.
The political system, ideology, values and religious beliefs are basically the same.
Moreover, the idea of European integration has historical origin.
All this makes it possible for Western Europe to unite and take the road of integration.
(II) the process of Western European integration accelerated after the cold war.
In the late 1980s and early 1990s, great changes took place in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe, the reunification of Germany and major changes in the international situation.
In order to occupy a favorable position in the future world pattern, become an important pole in the world, meet the challenges of the United States and Japan economically and restrict Germany after reunification politically, the Western European countries decided to further accelerate the process of European reunification.1. The establishment and development of the European Union in February 1986, the European single document adopted by the European community determined that a unified market should be established before December 31, 1992.
On January 1, 1993, the unified market of the European community was officially opened, the internal borders among the 12 member states were cancelled, and the free circulation of goods, capital, labor services and personnel began.
In this case, the problems of monetary unification and political union stand out.
From December 9 to 10, 1991, the heads of state of the European community held the 46th summit in Maastricht, the Netherlands.
Finally, the Treaty of the European Union (hereinafter referred to as the Mayo) was adopted to further strengthen the economic and political unity of the European community.
There are two main contents of the Mayo treaty, one is about economic union and the other is about political union.
The Mayo decided to establish the European Union on the basis of the European community, and decided to establish the European Central Bank and implement the European single currency in three stages.
The European Central Bank and the single currency should be established no later than January 1, 1999.
Whether Britain and Denmark enter the third stage can be decided by themselves.
The Mayo has put forward clear objectives and specific implementation plans in terms of economic and monetary union.
The treaty stipulates the specific criteria for joining the single currency area: the annual fiscal deficit shall not exceed 3% of GDP.
National debt shall not exceed 60% of GDP.
The inflation rate shall not exceed 1.
5% of the average of the three countries with the most stable prices.
The long-term interest rate shall not exceed 2% of the average of the three countries with the most stable prices.
In addition, in terms of social policies, cultural undertakings, education, employment training, youth work, public health, energy and transportation, telecommunications, industrial policies and environmental protection, the Mayo treaty clearly stipulates that all Member States must coordinate and unify.
Finally, in terms of political alliance, the Mayo stipulates that all Member States should implement a common foreign and security policy.
The Mayo provides a beautiful blueprint for further European Union, but it is not plain sailing when it is really implemented.
According to the regulations, the Mayo treaty can enter into force only after it is passed by the legislative bodies of member states or by referendum.
In June 1992, the Danish referendum rejected the Mayo, which had a complex impact on the development of the joint process and caused great shock in Europe.
Then France passed by a narrow majority.
The UK announced that it would not ratify the treaty before the second referendum in Denmark.
Therefore, on January 1, 1993, the Mayo did not enter into force as scheduled.
In May 1993, Denmark approved the revised Mayo in the second referendum.
Subsequently, Britain also ratified the treaty.
In October, the German Federal Court ruled that the Mayo did not violate the German constitution.
In this way, it took two years for the Mayo to be ratified by all community member states.
On November 1, 1993, the Mayo treaty officially entered into force and the European Union was officially established.
Since 1993, the European community has begun formal negotiations with Austria, Sweden, Finland and Norway on their accession to the European community.
In 1994, Austria, Sweden and Finland decided to join the European Union through a referendum, while Norway’s referendum was not passed.
On January 1, 1995, Austria, Sweden and Finland officially joined the EU, increasing the number of EU Member States to 15 and the population to 368 million, 44% more than that of the United States.
In terms of economic strength, the GDP of the 15 EU countries reached US $8.
4 trillion in 1995, roughly the same as that of the United States and nearly half more than that of Japan.
The total volume of foreign trade accounts for more than 40% of the total volume of world trade.
Politically, the EU vigorously promotes integration and seeks to achieve a common foreign and defense policy.
Moreover, it is accelerating the digestion of central and Eastern European countries, and its international influence is expanding.
The development of the EU, especially the continuous enhancement and expansion of its strength and scope, will have a significant impact on the future pattern of Europe and the world.2. The launch of the euro and its impact after the entry into force of the Mayo treaty, the next important step of the European Union is to establish an economic and monetary union, and the implementation of the European single currency is the core content of the European Economic Union.
Therefore, after the establishment of the EU, conditions have been created for the establishment of a single currency since 1994.
According to the provisions of the Mayo, the economic and monetary union should enter the second stage from January 1, 1994 and establish a European monetary institution.
However, due to the economic recession and the currency crisis in 1992, there is a big gap between the economic situation of EU countries and the convergence standard stipulated in the Mayo treaty.
Therefore, people are not optimistic about the prospect of European Monetary Union.
Based on the actual situation of EU countries, the Council of EU finance ministers decided to abandon 1997 as the deadline for the realization of a single currency.
In 1995, the EU Cannes summit agreed to postpone the official launch of the third phase of the economic and monetary union from January 1, 1997 to January 1, 1999.
The Madrid summit of the European Union officially identified “euro” as the name of the future unified currency, and set a timetable for the transition to a unified currency: the monetary union was officially launched on January 1, 1999, and the European Central Bank and its subsidiaries began to issue a new currency on January 1, 2002.
After the issuance of the euro, the European monetary unit (EGU), founded in 1979, will withdraw from circulation.
Replace national currencies with euros by July 1, 2002 at the latest.
In December 1996, the EU Dublin summit reached an agreement on a stability treaty.
The Convention requires countries to severely limit public deficits.
The treaty stipulates that when a country’s budget deficit exceeds 3% of its GDP, the country will be “automatically punished”.
If a country’s economy declines more than 2% of GDP in a year, it will be exempted from punishment.
If a country’s economy has a recession of 0.
75% – 2%, it can apply for exemption.
The provisions of the treaty show that the technical obstacles to the realization of a single currency have been basically removed.
From June 16 to 18, 1997, the EU summit was held in Amsterdam, the capital of the Netherlands.
The conference finally adopted the Treaty of Amsterdam (hereinafter referred to as the Treaty of Ayo).
This is the third important document in the process of European integration after the Treaty of Rome and the Treaty of Maastricht.
The main achievements of the treaty are: (1) the signing of three documents, including the Convention on stable growth, the legal status of the euro and the new currency exchange rate mechanism.
These documents are intended to ensure the timely launch of the European Economic and Monetary Union on January 1, 1999 and to ensure the stability of the euro in the future.
(2) The treaty has made specific and clear provisions on employment, which provides a legal basis for the EU to improve the employment situation.
Countries have pledged to coordinate employment policies and allow funds from the EU budget to finance the implementation of new employment creation programs.
(3) It puts forward the new concepts of establishing free security and judicial security.
The role of the European police intelligence agency has been expanded.
The Schengen agreement signed by some countries has been incorporated into the treaty to realize the free flow of internal personnel and improve the unified market within the EU.
(4) With regard to the common foreign policy, the treaty stipulates that a new department for planning and analysis will be established, a senior official will be appointed to be responsible for policy coordination, and decisions on the implementation of the common foreign policy will be adopted by a majority vote.
Although the Amsterdam conference only put forward limited improvement measures in the EU’s common foreign policy, internal affairs and judicial cooperation, and the EU’s political cooperation is still at the level of the Mayo, it has achieved important results in the establishment of a single currency, which is an important milestone in the establishment of the European Monetary Union.
The treaty made important provisions to ensure the timely launch of the economic and monetary union, finally determined and solved the problems involved in the single currency, and technically prepared sufficient conditions for the establishment of the monetary union.
On May 3, 1998, at the EU special summit held in Brussels, the capital of Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Spain, the Netherlands, Luxembourg, Belgium, Portugal, Austria, Finland and Ireland were identified as the first countries to implement the single currency – the euro.
The meeting also determined that the current director of the European Monetary office Dutchman duisenberg became the first president of the European Central Bank.
In terms of economy, by January 1999, the inflation rate of all EU countries except Greece was less than 2%.
The average long-term interest rate has fallen to a lower level.
The budget deficits of some member states have actually disappeared, and the vast majority of countries have met the standards required for the issuance of the euro.
This provides a good economic foundation for the start-up and operation of the euro.
The first 11 countries identified to implement the euro have been equivalent to the United States in three main indicators: population, economic strength and trade volume.
The launch of the euro will have a significant and far-reaching impact on the development and construction of the EU itself and the international political economy.
First of all, the launch of the euro has important political significance.
It will bring European integration to a higher level.
After more than 40 years of development after the war, Europe has made remarkable achievements in economic integration.
With the increasingly prominent status and role of world economic factors in international relations, EU countries are soberly aware that they must deepen political and economic integration in order to occupy a strong pole position in a multipolar world, play a greater role and have a greater impact on the international stage.
The launch of the euro will not only be the basis of European political unity, but also provide a strong economic guarantee for the EU, so as to improve the EU’s weight on the world political stage.
Therefore, the launch of the euro has important political significance.
Secondly, the launch of the euro has a significant impact on the economic development of the EU.
The implementation of a single currency will expand the circulation range of goods and services within the EU unified market, facilitate the optimal allocation of resources, enhance the resilience to the financial crisis and reduce risks.
By eliminating the restrictions of different currencies and the risks of different exchange rates among countries, the euro will drive international trade among Member States, increase market competitiveness and capital utilization, and promote the economic development of the EU.
Finally, the launch of the euro will challenge the dominant position of the US dollar in the international monetary system and have a significant impact on the development of the international economy, especially the international finance.
Although the dollar has been decoupled from gold since the 1970s, the United StatesFormal diplomatic relations were established.
(III) foreign relations in Western Europe in the 1980s.
After Reagan became president of the United States, he adopted a tough policy towards the Soviet Union, and Europe was in a tense confrontation between the United States and the Soviet Union.
Western European countries oppose a new round of competition between the United States and the Soviet Union in the European region, require the United States and the Soviet Union to maintain a low nuclear balance in the European region and actively promote the disarmament of the United States and the Soviet Union.
In 1985, Gorbachev became the leader of the Soviet Union, implemented a new thinking policy, eased diplomatic relations with the United States, and Western Europe became increasingly secure.
European countries demanded that the position of Western Europe be taken into account in the disarmament negotiations between the United States and the Soviet Union.
At the same time, Western European countries also stepped up their efforts to promote the peaceful evolution of Eastern European countries.
Especially on the issue of the reunification of Germany and Germany, the Federal Republic of Germany finally achieved the reunification of Germany and Germany by means of “annexation” on October 1, 1990.
In the 1980s, the relations between Western Europe and China entered a new period of all-round development.
Political relations between the two sides have developed greatly, and heads of state, party, government and military dignitaries have visited China frequently.
Certain progress has also been made in economy and technology, the fields of multilateral and bilateral economic and technological cooperation have been expanding, and economic and trade relations have grown rapidly.
However, after China calmed down the riots in Beijing in 1989, the relationship between China and Western Europe turned into a long period of indifference.
Until the end of the cold war, bilateral relations have been fully restored and developed in recent years.
(4) foreign relations in Western Europe after the cold war.
After the end of the cold war, the security and diplomatic status of Western Europe have fundamentally changed.
In the 1990s, great progress was made in the integration of Western Europe, and the EU strives to become a force with great influence in the world.
In order to achieve this goal, Western Europe has taken a series of major measures.
First, actively “expand eastward”, admit central and Eastern European countries and seek to achieve the goal of Greater Europe.
The drastic changes in Eastern Europe and the subsequent disintegration of the Warsaw Pact, the Council for economic cooperation and the Soviet Union made it possible for the EU to expand eastward.
In December 1991, the European Community reached an agreement with Poland and other EU associated countries, stipulating that the European community will gradually open the market to the industrial products of these countries within 10 years, and finally implement the “free circulation of four elements”.
In May 1993, the EC Commission put forward a package plan to accelerate the integration of the politics and economy of the six central and Eastern European countries (Poland, Hungary, Czech Republic, Sri Lanka, Romania and Bulgaria) into the EC track.
In June of the same year, the Council of Ministers for foreign affairs of the European Community and the Copenhagen summit adopted the report of the European Commission, which clearly announced that “the associated countries of central and Eastern Europe will become members of the EU.
Once the economic and political conditions of these countries are ready to join the EU, the acceptance work will begin immediately”.
After the Kosovo war in 1999, in order to expand the influence of the EU on the whole European region and stabilize the situation in central and Eastern Europe, the EU accelerated the process of expanding its member states.
After the eastward expansion, the political and economic strength of the EU will be greatly enhanced, which is conducive to becoming a strong pole in the future multipolar pattern.
Second, implement the “New Asia strategy”.
At the end of 1994, the EU summit approved the new strategy document for Asia formulated by the European Commission.
In 1996 and 1998, two “Asia Europe meetings” were held successively to reach consensus on a series of issues such as establishing a new type of partnership between Asia and Europe, safeguarding world and regional peace and strengthening economic and trade cooperation.
Since the 1990s, the European Commission has actively promoted the economic community to develop relations with Japan and held many summit meetings.
In July 2000, Europe and Japan held a summit, and the next 10 years will be “10 years of Europe Japan cooperation”.
The EU attaches importance to its relations with ASEAN countries.
In December 2000, the two sides held a ministerial meeting in Vientiane, the capital of Laos, and decided to strengthen political dialogue, regional security and economic and trade cooperation.
The EU strives to improve its political, economic and cultural relations with India.
In June 2000, the first summit was held.
Third, improve and strengthen relations with China.
In 1995, the EU formulated the long-term policy on EU China relations.
In 1996, the new EU strategy document for China was formulated.
In 1998, the document “establishing a comprehensive partnership with China” was adopted.
In April 1998, the EU China Summit was held in London for the first time.
The meeting issued a joint statement pointing out that the two sides hope to establish a long-term and stable partnership oriented to the 21st century, and stressed that further strengthening economic and trade relations is an important basis for the continuous development of EU China relations.
At present, the EU is China’s third largest trading partner.
EU investment in China has increased from US $3.
1 billion in 1993 to US $35.
1 billion in 1998.
On the issue of human rights, although western Europe once intervened in China’s internal affairs with the United States through the issue of human rights, it adopted a pragmatic attitude earlier, and now constructive dialogue has replaced confrontation and debate on the issue of human rights.
Fourth, seek to establish a new and equal partnership with the United States.
After the end of the cold war, due to the disappearance of the common enemy – the Soviet Union, the relationship between Europe and the United States has been alienated to a certain extent, the two sides have had many contradictions in European and international affairs, and economic frictions have also increased.
However, since the two sides still have broad common interests, especially the post Cold War Europe is not peaceful, most Western European countries believe that maintaining the U.S. military presence in Europe and maintaining the European Union is the need to maintain the balance of power in Europe and maintain European security.
However, in the European and American Union, what Western Europe needs to fundamentally change is the situation in which the United States dominated everything during the cold war.
It is hoped to continue to maintain the close cooperative relationship between the two sides and finally become an equal partner of the United States.
Fifth, implement the policy of “both cooperation and prevention” against Russia.
On the one hand, it advocates establishing stable political and economic cooperation with Russia, supporting the development of Russian democracy and market economy, supporting Russia’s accession to the World Trade Organization and vigorously developing trade with Russia.
On the other hand, they are worried about Russia and take measures to prevent it.
They are basically consistent with the position of the United States on the eastward expansion of NATO, which forms a certain check on Russia.