The Hebrew nation was born in the west of the Asian continent.

The famous Euphrates and Tigris rivers originate from the mountains in the north and flow into the sea of the Persian Gulf.

These two rivers carry a large amount of sediment, which flows continuously, washes and deposits, and forms a vast plain between the two rivers.

On this fertile alluvial plain, there are some ancient nationalities living.

Most of them came to this fertile land after wandering from their homes.

About four thousand years ago, among these wandering peoples, there appeared a small tribe from the southern desert, which was the later Hebrews.

The ancient nationalities in the two river basins first belonged to the Semites.

In addition to the Hebrews, the Semites also included the Babylonians, Canaanites, Arameans and so on in the ancient Middle East.

In the early days, these Semitic people lived a nomadic life in pursuit of water and grass.

Like other tribes, this small tribe also worships the gods, but they worship the Lord, the chief god of the tribe, most.

Ancient Semitic men and women, a small Semitic tribe, lived in ur along the Persian Gulf for a long time.

Later, they continued to migrate westward along the Euphrates River, hoping to find a fertile land to settle down.

At this time, the head of the tribe was named Abraham.

Abraham was not exactly the same as his ancestors.

He believed that the LORD was not only the God of his tribe, but also the creator of heaven and earth, and an all inclusive universal God (God).

Abraham broke the idols and believed only in the Lord.

Terah, Abraham’s father, belonged to the people of sishemethite.

Tara originally lived in ur, but later moved north to Haran along the right side of the fertile crescent.

In Abraham’s time, idolatry was very common.

Tara also believed in the power of various idols.

There were many clay idols enshrined in his family.

Abraham believed that idols had no divine power, and his worship of them was of course stupid and absurd, so he picked up an axe and broke all idols.

He observed all things, saw the change of seasons, the withering and flourishing of plants and trees, the sunrise and sunset, and there was reincarnation.

He realized that there must be a God in the world to arrange all this.

Therefore, Abraham believed only in the Almighty and only God – God, and later established his monotheistic belief in God in his tribe.

It is said that when Abraham was 75 years old, he heard the voice of the LORD God.

The Lord, the supreme god of the Hebrews, ordered Abraham to go to another place to establish his own country, saying, “I will make you a great country, bless you, make your name great, and you will bless others.

” So, under the revelation of the “gods”, Abraham took the people up the great Hebei River, crossed the Euphrates River and entered Canaan westward.

Local Canaanites call them “Hebrews”, which means “people crossing the river”.

Abraham led his people from birr to the “land of God’s promise”.

With the birth of this name, a new and unique nation has stepped onto the historical stage of world civilization.

Abraham’s migration for his faith directly contributed to the birth of a nation.

When Abraham crossed the Euphrates River, he left behind not only relatives who believed in paganism and idols, but also paganism and idols themselves.

What he brought across the river was not only a new religious belief, but also a new nation.

Living in Egypt, after Abraham led his people to move to Canaan, the Hebrews began to multiply here.

It is said that Abraham’s wife Sarah gave birth to his son Isaac.

Isaac’s second son was Jacob.

He was stronger than man.

He fought with the God to win.

He gave God the name “Israel”, which means “a man who fell with God”.

Therefore, the Hebrews are also called Israel.

Jacob had 12 sons: Reuben, mameon, Levi, Judah, Issachar, Zebulun, Joseph, Benjamin, Dan, Naphtali, GAD and Asaph.

When the hiksos invaded Egypt at the end of the 18th century BC, the Hebrews trapped by drought and famine in Canaan also migrated to Egypt with the hiksos to Goshen, the Hebrew delta enslaved by the Nile in Egypt, where they engaged in animal husbandry, lived and multiplied, and expanded from the offspring of Jacob’s 12 sons to 12 tribal branches.

But their beliefs are incompatible with the local Egyptians.

In the 16th century BC, the Hyksos Dynasty was overthrown, and the Pharaoh of the New Kingdom ruling Egypt demoted the Hebrews who were Semitic with the Hyksos as slaves and forced them to perform hard labor, thus ending the beautiful days of Hebrews living and working in peace and contentment.

The Pharaoh not only deliberately abused these believers, but even issued a cruel decree that all Hebrew children must drown.

The national exclusion of the rulers brought great disaster to the Hebrews, and the whole nation was in danger of extinction.

Moses led the crowd out of Egypt.

Just when the Hebrews were humiliated by other nationalities, his outstanding national hero Moses came into being.

It was he who laid the foundation of the ancient Jewish nation and Judaism.

The Jews were oppressed and devastated in Egypt.

Moses stood up and had a fierce negotiation with the Egyptian pharaoh on the status of the Jews with his brother Aaron.

It is said that God gave Moses the Ten Commandments on Mount Sinai, So Moses led the Jews out of Egypt and began their difficult journey to find an ideal country.

According to the Bible, Moses was called in Mount Sinai and entrusted by God to save the Hebrews from the suffering of Egypt.

Moses and his brother Aaron finally fled Egypt after a series of struggles with Pharaoh.

“Moving out of Egypt” means the self awakening of Hebrews to get rid of alien slavery, which is a key symbol of the beginning of the formation of the ancient Jewish nation.

When Moses led the crowd through the Sinai desert, out of the need to strengthen national cohesion, Moses launched a religious action of unifying faith against the Hebrews who restored their idolatry.

Under the pretext of the order of the LORD God, he agreed with his people on the “Ten Commandments” at the foot of Mount Sinai as a covenant between the Lord and the Jews.

This is the famous “Ten Commandments of Moses”: first, trust no other God except the LORD. 2. Do not carve or worship any idol for yourself. 3. Do not take the name of the Lord in vain. 4. Keep the sabbath day holy. V. be filial to your parents.

“Moses ten sincerity” engraved on the shield of Austrian Jewish scriptures in the mid-19th century.

Moses, leader of the Hebrew nation and founder of Judaism.

This means a lotWorks of donno Taylor, a realistic sculptor in the Renaissance.

6、 Do not kill. 7. Do not commit adultery. VIII. Do not steal. 9. Do not commit perjury to harm others. 10. Don’t be greedy for everything of others.

The ten commandments of Moses, the map from slavery to promise, laid the theoretical foundation of Judaism and unified the Jews in spirit.

The Jewish monotheistic belief was finally established and consolidated in the struggle against various contradictions under the protection of the law.

As a solid spiritual pillar, it supported the Hebrews out of the wilderness and return to Canaan.

But Moses, who led the Israelites out of Egypt, and his generation were unable to return to Canaan.

According to the Bible, after Moses reached the East Bank of the Jordan River, he climbed to the top of Pisgah on Mount Nebo and looked into the land God “promised” to Israel, and then died.

Before his death, Moses made Josiah his successor to inherit the unfinished cause of his command over the whole territory of Canaan.

Therefore, the conquest of Canaan began from Josiah, about the middle of the 13th century BC.

From this period to about 1030 BC, when Saul was king, the Israeli nation entered the period of judges, which is known as the “era of judges”.

In the early 12th century BC, Moses brought the Hebrews back to the gate of Canaan, but he himself died before entering Canaan.

Moses’ successor was Josiah, a determined and resourceful leader.

Under his leadership, the Hebrews fought for seven years, defeated the various land states in Canaan one by one, captured one city after another, killed 31 land kings, and conquered the whole territory of Canaan except the coastal areas and Jerusalem.

Next, Josiah divided Canaan into an average of 12 Israeli tribes from south to north.

From then on, the Hebrews lived here for 1000 years until they were expelled from Palestine by the Romans in 135 A.D. It was from then on that their fate was closely linked with this land.

Conquest and settlement is a long process.

The Hebrews who returned to Canaan gradually learned agricultural production technology from the local residents and began to change from a nomadic or semi nomadic nation to a settled nation.

The Israelites mingled with the tribes of Canaan and even intermarried.

In this process, a new Jewish nation gradually formed.

At this time, some tribal leaders called “scholars” (meaning “judge” or “savior”) appeared in various tribes.

These elected taxi divisions are both military commanders and religious leaders.

They manage internal affairs and solve civil disputes in peacetime.

In wartime, they command ethnic people to fight, but their positions and power cannot be passed on to their sons.

This is a military democratic system.

This period is also known as the “era of scholars and teachers”.

This period lasted about 200 years from the settlement of Jews in Canaan in the 13th century BC to the establishment of the Hebrew kingdom in the 11th century BC.

This history is recorded in the book of judges in the Old Testament, which focuses on the deeds of 12 judges, including othniel, Ehud, Deborah, Gideon, Jephthah, Samson, Shanga, TolA, jair, ibizan, Elon and Abdon.

The last Samson, depicted in the painting, is a scholar’s cousin fengsun, who finally collapsed the house and died with the Philistines.

At this time, the ancient tribal clan system began to disintegrate.

In the north, 10 Israeli tribes formed a tribal alliance called “Israel”.

In the south, Benjamin and Judas formed another alliance, known as “Judea”.

Various tribes or tribal alliances often unite to resist foreign enemies, but there are also internal conflicts and killing each other from time to time.

Once there was a conflict between the Ephraim tribe and the GAD tribe on both sides of the Jordan River.

42000 people of the Ephraim tribe died under the sword of their own people, and their strength was greatly weakened.

The Bible says, “there was no king in Israel at that time, and everyone did whatever he wanted.

” The only thing that can maintain the connection between the tribes is about the common belief – Judaism.

This separatist regime and chaos lasted for about 200 years.

By the end of the Shishi era (about the late 12th century BC), the maritime people from the Aegean islands and the coast of the lesser Asia Peninsula, the Philistines, were becoming stronger and stronger.

With their advanced weapons, the Hebrews occupied the land of the East, and learned to occupy it from the Hebrews.

At the battle of Aphek, the Hebrews suffered heavy losses, and even the ark of religious holy things was looted by the Philistines.

The Hebrews were faced with a great crisis by external enemies.

The Hebrews urgently felt the need to end internal strife and unite against foreign aggression.

In about 1025 BC, Saul established a unified Hebrew state in Canaan, with its capital in Gibeah, the territory of Benjamin.

In this way, the system of judges was transformed into the monarchy, and the unified Hebrew kingdom was born.

Although the unified kingdom Saul (reigned from about 1025 to 1013 BC) was the first king of the Hebrew Kingdom, his kingdom still bears traces of old tribal relations.

In fact, he is still just a transitional figure between the ancient and loose tribal alliance and the perfect monarchy.

His successor King David (about 1013 BC to 973 BC when young David took Goliath’s head for King Saul) was the founder of the Hebrew monarchy in the real sense.

He unified the tribes of the Hebrews and established Jerusalem as his capital.

As a wise commander, he subdued the Philistines, ammonites, Arameans and other strong external enemies, and established his ruling position in the vast territory from the “stream of Egypt” (that is, the tomb of David on Mount elarish shahelusa Leng Zion in Sinai, the desert oasis of the kingdom of Jerusalem) to the banks of the Euphrates River.

He was also an outstanding politician.

While conquering by force, he actively embarked on military, political and religious reforms.

Militarily, in order to ensure the loyalty of all tribes to the central government, he established a reserve force from all tribes.

He reorganized the samurai guard that followed him in his early years, and took it as the core to recruit mercenaries to form a strong standing force.

In order to control the army, he divided the army into units of 10, 50, 100 and 1000 people, making the army a strong support for his kingdom.

In terms of administration, he set up marshals, historians, chief priests, clerks and other official positions in the Central Committee to assist him in his work, tens of thousands of Jews, including kings, nobles, priests and craftsmen, were taken to Babylon in handcuffs and shackles, which is the famous “prisoner of Babylon” in history.

So far, the Hebrew kingdom was completely destroyed.

From then on until 538 BC, the Israelites entered the captivity period of nearly half a century in their history.

Although the history of this period is not long, it is very important and far-reaching in the history of Hebrew nation.

The Babylonian prisoner incident has played an important role in strengthening the cohesion of the Hebrew nation, the further development of Judaism, and even the roots of Zionism.

The rule of the kingdom of New Babylon in the Jewish Autonomous Province over West Asia did not last long.

In 538 BC, the emerging Persian Empire destroyed the new Babylonian Empire, and the Hebrews turned into ivory carvings unearthed in Samaria and became the subjects of the Persian Empire.

Cyrus the Persian Emperor needed to establish a stable and friendly stronghold by the Hebrews in Palestine, which is located in the fortress between West Asia and North Africa.

It can be used not only as an ideal springboard to attack Egypt, but also to resist the eastward invasion of the Greeks.

At the same time, given that the monotheistic view of Judaism was in line with its interests of consolidating autocratic rule, Cyrus allowed the exiled Hebrews to return home and supported them in rebuilding the temple in Jerusalem and reviving Judaism.

He issued an edict to inform the whole country: “The LORD God of heaven has given me all the kingdoms of the earth and charged me to build a house for him in Jerusalem in Judah.

Anyone who is his people among you may go up to Jerusalem in Judah and rebuild the house of the LORD God of Israel in Jerusalem.

May God be with this man.

All the remaining people, wherever they live, shall help them with gold, silver, treasure and livestock.

In addition Besides, you should also willingly offer gifts for the house of God in Jerusalem.

” A group of Jewish artists sat sadly on the Bank of Babylon, so after living in a foreign land for 50 years, the first group of about 40000 Jews began to move back.

In 537 BC, under the leadership of a prince of David’s family, Zerubbabel, the Jews finally returned to their hometown Canaan and saw their haunted Jerusalem after several months of hard journey.

However, the returning Hebrews have faced a completely different social situation from that before 586 B.C.: there are ruins and weeds everywhere, and most of the land is occupied by the ammonites, Edomites and MoAbs who have moved around.

They have to settle in a small land around Jerusalem, It became an autonomous province under the governor of Damascus in the Persian Empire.

By 516 BC, after 20 years of construction, the reconstruction of the temple in Jerusalem was completed, and the Second Temple period in Jewish history began.

The reconstruction of the temple has set up a sacred and tangible symbol for the scattered Jews and become a spiritual pillar to strengthen their religious beliefs and avoid foreign assimilation.

At the same time, it also symbolizes the re rise of the Jews who suffered from the disaster of destruction, which is the concrete embodiment of the indomitable regeneration spirit of the Jewish nation.

The situation of Palestine after the death of King Solomon in the era of Hellenization in 331 BC, the Greek Macedonian king led the eastern expedition to occupy the Persian capital Susa, destroy the Persian Empire, and establish the Alexander empire across Europe, Asia and Africa.

Palestine also became a part of Alexander’s empire, and the Hebrews entered the era of Hellenization that lasted for 170 years.

In the vast territory of Alexander Empire, the conquered residents lived together, resulting in the dispersion of Alexander the great, the second great expedition in Hebrew history, and the Hebrews in Palestine gradually dispersed to southern Europe, Mediterranean islands, North Africa and Central Asia.

In 323 BC, Alexander died in Babylon.

The following three dynasties, namely, the ancient Ptolemaic dynasty of Egypt, the ancient Ptolemaic Dynasty and the ancient Ptolemaic dynasty, ruled in Europe and Asia.

The latter two launched a “Syrian war” for nearly a century to dominate the East.

Palestine in the middle was first subordinate to the Ptolemaic Dynasty and fell under the control of the Seleucid Dynasty after 198 BC.

The two dynasties continued to follow Alexander’s policy of promoting Greek culture and established more than 30 multi-ethnic Greek cities in Palestine alone.

In this Hellenistic era, both the Hebrews who have been scattered in southern Europe, North Africa and West Asia and the Hebrews who still live in Palestine are consciously or unconsciously influenced by Greek civilization in all aspects of their material and spiritual life.

In the 3rd century BC, Hebrew gradually degenerated into a religious language mainly used for prayer and writing scriptures, while Greek was accepted and used by more and more Hebrews, and a number of works combining Hebrew thought and Greek spirit appeared.

As a result of the blending of Jewish culture and Greek culture, “a unique culture with both Jewish and Greek characteristics was created.

This culture not only influenced ancient philosophy, but also had a considerable impact on early Christianity”.

In Jerusalem, the kingdom of makabi, there was a devout priest, mattatiah makabi, who had five sons: John, Eleazar, Judah, Jonathan and Simon.

In order to resist the brutal rule of the Seleucid Dynasty, the father and son launched the makabi uprising in 167 BC.

The uprising team was victorious and its strength was growing.

In 161 BC, Judas, the leader of the Hebrews, died in the war.

The death of Judas brought great disaster to the Hebrews.

Seleucid officials and Jewish rebels fought back against the insurgents and pious groups.

At this critical juncture, the insurgents came to Jonathan one after another and asked him to take over the bronze statue of matatia makabi, the old Hebrew priest who led the uprising, and continue Judah to lead the uprising.

Jonathan restrained his grief and led the uprising soldiers to continue fighting the enemy.

Soon, his elder brother John was arrested and killed by the enemy, which strengthened the fighting will of Jonathan, Simon and the uprising soldiers.

Jonathan led the rebel army to continue to fight against the enemy general bacsid.

After successive setbacks, bacsid had to negotiate with Jonathan for peace, repatriate Jewish prisoners and promise not to invade the Hebrews again.

Antiochus IV, king of Seleucia, whose brutal rule led to the makabi uprising.

But in 143 BC, a Syrian general Trevor intended to subdue the Hebrews in order to become king of Seleucia.

heDesigned to trap Jonathan and then kill him.

In this way, the leadership of the uprising naturally fell to Simon, the youngest son of matatia, the last member of the makabi family.

After a bloody battle, Simon finally expelled the Syrian army.

A new kingdom was gradually formed in the baptism of Jewish blood and freedom.

In 142 BC, Demetrius II, king of Seleucia, in order to use Simon’s power to consolidate the throne, made a peace treaty with Simon: allow the Hebrews to enjoy complete freedom in all aspects, abolish Antioch IV’s mandatory provisions on the religious beliefs of the Hebrews, recognize Simon as the chief priest of the state of Judah, and approve the treaty between the former king and Jonathan, The Hebrew Dynasty exempted the ancient Ryukyu from taxes.

In this way, under the leadership of the makabi family, after 25 years of indomitable bloody struggle, the Palestinian Hebrews finally got rid of the rule of the Seleucid Dynasty, restored the independence and religious belief of the Hebrews, and established a Jewish theocratic state with political and religious unity with Jerusalem as the capital, historically known as the makabi kingdom.

During Simon’s reign, the makabi Kingdom has been in a peaceful environment.

According to records, at that time, “the Hebrews cultivated their land peacefully, with grain growing on the land and fruit bearing on the trees.

The young people showed off their dazzling military uniforms, and the old people sat around the city square and talked about the great events of the past.

People lived a peaceful life and were carefree in their vineyards and under the fig trees”.

Silver coins with the head of Antiochus IV unearthed by the rebels who invaded the city of Jerusalem in akar, both positive and negative.

In 135 BC, Simon was assassinated and killed by his son-in-law dorime, who plotted to usurp the throne.

Then Simon’s third son, John hilkan, ascended the throne.

From the beginning of his accession to the throne, hilkan expanded outward, conquered his neighbors and occupied outer Jordan, Samaria and Ishmael, thus expanding the ruling scope of the makabi Kingdom and greatly exceeding the territory of the Hebrew kingdom in the Solomon era.

But at the same time, the Jewish priests split and complicated factional struggle appeared.

In addition, the hasmonee family resorted to intrigue and scrambled for power and profit.

The glory of the makabi Kingdom gradually disappeared and the national power gradually declined.

Bronze sculpture: looting Jerusalem.

While burning down the second temple, the Roman army also plundered the gold and silver vessels in the temple.

In 64 BC, when the factions in the makabi Kingdom quarreled over the position of high priest of the temple in Jerusalem, the covetous Roman Empire waited for the opportunity.

Roman general Pompeii led his cavalry to capture Jerusalem on the way to the eastern expedition and captured bar kohba, the leader of the Palestinian Jewish uprising (known as the “son of the stars”, which means he is the Savior sent by the Lord).

Lestan was a Syrian province of the Roman Empire.

In the same year, the Romans appointed a new Jewish king, and the hasmonid Dynasty officially perished.

As a result, the makabi Kingdom finally collapsed after more than 100 years of existence in Palestine, and the Hebrew nation, who once enjoyed independence and freedom, began their long suffering career again.

During this period, the Jews launched many armed resistance, but all ended in failure.

In 135 ad, the Roman tyrant Hadrian put out the last armed uprising of the Jews against Roman rule, ordered the complete destruction of Jerusalem and prevented the Jews from taking a step.

So far, almost all Palestinian Jews have been expelled or fled.

This third diaspora ended the history of Jewish national subject settling in Palestine, and the Jewish nation entered the “era of worldwide Diaspora” for more than 1800 years, thus continuing and developing its own unique civilization under an extremely special historical condition.