In the summer of 1853, on the sunny and sparkling sea surface of Edo Bay, Japan, there appeared four large black ships with gray white smoke on the top, which were steam warships from the United States.
Brigadier general Matthew Perry of the US Navy led the fleet into Edo, which is now Puhe on the Bank of Tokyo, and handed the letter from the US president to the Japanese emperor to the Tokugawa shogunate, demanding the establishment of diplomatic relations and trade with Japan.
This incident is known as the “black boat incident” in history.
In 1854, Japan and the United States signed the Kanagawa Japan US goodwill treaty, also known as the Kanagawa treaty, which agreed to open the two ports of Xiatian and Xiangguan to the United States and give the United States most favored nation treatment.
The “black boat incident” impacted Japan’s feudal natural economy and fundamentally shook the ruling foundation of the shogunate.
With the rapid expansion of the form of commodity economy, the strength of the merchant class, especially the financial business operators, has gradually increased.
The vassal princes and warriors with bourgeois color and the businessmen who demand institutional reform form a political alliance to form the strength foundation of the “inverted curtain faction” with the grass-roots farmers who oppose the shogunate.
In 1867, when the emperor died tomorrow, Prince Muren (the Meiji emperor) ascended the throne, and the inverted screen forces actively allied and raised troops.
On November 8, the emperor issued a secret edict to discuss the curtain.
On the 9th, shogunate general Tokugawa played “return the great government”.
On January 3, 1868, the emperor issued the order of restoring the ancients to the throne, abolished the shogunate and ordered Tokugawa Qingxi to “resign and accept the land”.
On August 8 and 10, Tokugawa Qingxi declared the order of Wang Zheng’s restoration of antiquity illegal in Osaka.
On January 27, the Japanese Imperial Army, mainly composed of Saskatchewan and changfan, fought fiercely with the shogunate army near Kyoto, and Tokugawa Qingxi lost Edo.
The Wuchen war began.
The imperial army made a large-scale eastward expedition, forcing Tokugawa Qingxi to hand over Edo city on May 3, 1868.
By early November, the emperor’s army had calmed the rebellious vassals in the northeast.
In the spring of 1869, the heavenly imperial army set out for Hokkaido and captured the last stronghold occupied by the residual forces of the shogunate on June 27.
The Wuchen war ended and the whole territory of Japan was unified.
In 1877, the southwest war broke out, which was the end of the curtain down movement.
It is also the aftermath of the Japanese bourgeois revolution.
With the failure of the Samo army in the southwest war, the feudal militarist country controlled by the emperor was established, marking the end of Japan’s capitalist revolution.
From the establishment of Meiji government in 1868 to the end of the southwest war in 1877, it was the gestation and formation stage of Japanese militarism.
In these 10 years, Japan established and consolidated a centralized government centered on the emperor, established the economic foundation of militarism, militarist armed forces, police and prisons, and began to carry out aggression and expansion.
The Meiji government carried out three major policies of “enriching the country and strengthening the army”, “cultivating industry” and “civilization”.
The “enriching the country and strengthening the army” is the main body and the first of all policies.
The essence and characteristics of Japanese military feudal imperialism have brought Japan into the track of military and war, and entered a vicious circle from war to greater war.
In 1878, the Japanese army issued the “military admonition” and the “Regulations of the headquarters of the general staff” to strengthen the militarist training of soldiers.
Japan has no situation or force at home or abroad to restrict and curb the development of militarism.
There have been three climaxes of democratic movements in Japan, namely, the liberal civil rights movement, the Taisho democratic movement, the struggle of the three factions for the protection of the Constitution and the anti fascist struggle, but they all failed.
When Japan invaded foreign countries, it took many risks, but it was easier to succeed, which stimulated it to run quickly on the road of militarism.
The development of Japanese militarism was entirely driven by the incessant and crazy war of aggression.
In 1894, it provoked the Sino Japanese Sino Japanese War of 1894, invaded China as the main force of the eight power coalition in 1900, launched the Russo Japanese war in 1904, participated in the first World War in 1914, and then sent troops to Siberia to invade China.
Through these aggressive wars, Japan has obtained huge compensation, plundered a large amount of wealth of the occupied countries and seized a large area of land.
Its dream of “Greater East Asia co prosperity circle” is being realized step by step.
However, from 1920 to 1921, a huge economic crisis broke out in Japan, and farmers under the control and oppression of parasitic landlords went bankrupt one after another.
The economic crisis is not over yet.
On September 1, 1923, a strong earthquake suddenly occurred in the whole Kanto region centered on Tokyo and Shizuoka, Yamanashi and other counties.
The earthquake cut off telecommunications, telephone and transportation networks.
XiaTing area was burned to ashes by a raging fire.
On a burned site, a large number of residents became hungry refugees due to the earthquake.
After the earthquake, centered on the government’s disaster relief bills, it triggered the financial crisis in 1926 and 1927 again.
Many large companies and banks closed down and the financial sector was in chaos.
Japan’s semi feudal agriculture also fell into an economic crisis.
By October 1929, since the world economic crisis first broke out in the United States, the fragile Japanese economy was subjected to a new and greater impact, and the society could no longer maintain the stability before the World War II.
Abroad, Japan has also been challenged by Britain and the United States.
The international peace structure established after the first World War is still dominated by European victorious countries such as Britain and France.
At the meeting from 1921 to 1922, the United States, Britain and France forced Japan to accept the principles of “safeguarding China’s territorial and administrative integrity” and “open door”, which actually broke Japan’s plan to monopolize China’s market and resources.
At the same time, the unification of the capitalist world system was broken, and the socialist movement and national liberation movement rose rapidly, which formed a violent impact on Japan.
In China, the Chinese national democratic revolutionary movement, which began with the May 4th Movement in 1919, has entered a new period.
Especially after the founding of the Communist Party of China, the Chinese revolution has taken on a new look, which is undoubtedly a heavy blow to Japan, which is trying to dominate China.
There is no doubt that Japanese militarism began to fall into the dilemma of being in danger and hitting walls everywhere.
This can not help but urge all levels, groups and political forces in Japan to intensively reflect on the history and future of the nation, and make their own response and choice.
In this case, the fascist movement in Japan began to rise and develop.
During the economic crisis, Japan’s civil fascist movement and military fascist movement developed rapidly, and set off a wave of fascism.
Driven by these two fascist movements, the Japanese military headquarters became fascist.
This is Japanese lawThe characteristics of the Sith movement.
After the outbreak of the comprehensive economic crisis, various fascist organizations in Japan, taking advantage of the fear of the decline of the social and economic status of the small and medium-sized bourgeoisie and their dissatisfaction with the current social situation, put forward the slogans of “innovation” and “anti chaebol”, wantonly attacked party politics and vigorously carried out propaganda to cater to the public opinion.
They advocate aggression and expansion abroad, dominate Asia and the world, advocate opposition to proletarian revolution and democracy at home, require “innovation” of the existing system, transform society and economy, and implement the military dictatorship headed by the emperor.
To a large extent, this catered to and reflected the requirements of the small and medium-sized bourgeoisie, thus obtaining the support of the majority of members of this class and young officers, and forming a fascist movement of a certain scale.
In 1919, beiyihui, the ancestor of fascism in Japan, wrote the outline of Japan’s transformation plan.
In August of the same year, Zhou Ming of Okawa and kutaro of manchukawa set up the first fascist group in Japan – the surviving society in Tokyo, marking the rise of the fascist movement in Japan.
Beiyihui’s outline of the principles of Japan’s transformation plan, in the form of an annotated outline, briefly and clearly put forward the fascist political proposition: only by relying on the guidance of the general representative of the people and the fundamental emperor of the country, launching a coup in rural soldiers and carrying out national transformation, can we get rid of the domestic and foreign troubles faced by the great Japanese Empire, At the same time, there was a national disaster that had never happened in history.
In terms of foreign relations, it advocates that Japan has the positive power to start a war with foreign countries and openly clamors for war.
The outline of the Japanese reform act has become the most radical program of Japanese fascism because of its strong demagogic, deceptive and fanatical nature, and has had a wide and profound impact on Japanese young officers.
In 1920, beiyihui returned to Japan, joined the newly established Yucun society, and became the pillar of the society together with Dachuan Zhouming.
With the outline of Japan’s reform act of beiyihui as the core classic, Yucun society is secretly printed and distributed, and is committed to the “popularization and publicity of fascist national reform ideas”.
Its ultimate goal is to establish a great Japanese empire that dominates Asia by completing the “national transformation” of Japanese fascism.
Encouraged by the still existing society, beiyihui’s fascist thought resonated among some Japanese soldiers and students.
Fascist groups such as the “Sun Society” of Imperial University of Tokyo, the “war society” of Imperial University of Hokkaido, the “tide society” of Waseda University, the “soul society” of Tuozhi University, the “Dongguang society” of the fifth University, the “Sun Society” of Saga University, and the “Yoshine society” of Kyoto Imperial University have emerged one after another.