there is such a country on the Mediterranean sea route with the busiest transportation in the world. It is adjacent to the Black Sea in the north and the Aegean Sea in the west, spanning two continents of Europe and Asia. Most of it is located on the peninsula of Asia Minor. It is the only country in the world with eastern and Western culture and history. Almost all great civilizations have met here. This country is – Turkey.

the sunshine in the sea is still outside the window, but after the baptism of thousands of years of wind and sand, the old ruins of the city wall outside the window can still be seen everywhere. Is the city in front of you a city that has been designated as the capital of ancient Greece, ancient Rome and the Ottoman Empire? Is this the world-famous important town at the western end of the Silk Road?

when our “civilization” crew came here, the Bosporus bridge in front of us told us that this is Istanbul.

the ancient city is full of traces of time. Temples thousands of years ago, markets a hundred years ago, trams and modern fashion clothing stores all exist in this city. When we walk on the streets of Istanbul, we always feel too noisy, messy and disorderly, but in this noisy, messy and disorderly, we occasionally found some traces with special charm on a street corner. This is Istanbul’s famous ancient book market. Can we find some treasures through time here?

on a map of the Ottoman Empire, we can clearly see the great wall of China. Although it can not be confirmed from this map that the Ottomans came and went to Turkey and Chang’an through land or sea channels at that time, But the unexpected discovery of this map is enough to show that Ottoman China and Turkey have communicated with each other.

through a map of Turkish businessmen, we know that there was a land silk trade road between China and Turkey during the Ottoman Empire. However, according to historical records, in addition to a large number of Chinese silk transported to Central Asia, West Asia, Africa and European countries through the land transportation line across Eurasia, there is also a maritime transportation line continuously transporting Chinese goods to countries all over the world. This transportation line is called the “maritime Silk Road”. It is an important channel for maritime trade between China and other countries in the world. The “maritime Silk Road” began in the Western Han Dynasty and flourished in the middle and late period. It started from the southeast coast of China. Caravans traveled along the East China Sea and the South China Sea to the east coast of Africa through the Indian Ocean and the Arabian Sea, or to the west through the red sea and the Mediterranean Sea; This channel is also called “the road of porcelain” because it takes porcelain as the main trading product. The Chinese porcelain pieces scattered along the commercial road are like pearls, illuminating the whole Southeast Asia, Africa and the Arab world. Is Istanbul the destination of the “porcelain road”? This merchant’s map obviously can’t give an accurate answer. With such questions, we go to Topkap palace, which is known as one of the top ten palaces in the world. According to the quality records of Turkish scholars, the number of blue and white porcelain found in KAP palace in Istanbul is the first in the world. Did these porcelain come here through the “porcelain road”? Is it the way of porcelain that makes the most exquisite yuan blue and white that exists in the world appear in the palaces of distant Islamic countries instead of in China, its country of manufacture?

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the palace of Islamic countries was built in the 15th century, covering an area of 700 hectares. Its appearance and internal design are permeated with strong Islamic culture. In the early 20th century, the Republic of Turkey turned this royal palace full of the glorious achievements of the sultans of the Ottoman Empire into a permanent Museum. It is said that the most precious blue and white porcelain in the world is treasured in the second courtyard with lush trees. For five hundred years, why did Chinese porcelain hide in foreign deep palaces. What kind of history is hidden behind them?

Chinese porcelain experts tell us that the Topkap palace has a collection of more than 12000 pieces of porcelain, which is the third largest porcelain collection in the world after China and Germany. Most of the Chinese porcelain collected here are from Longquan and Jingdezhen in the yuan, Ming and Qing Dynasties. The main types are large bowls and plates. The blue and white porcelain here is used by the Ottoman sultan regardless of its origin. The quantity and quality of porcelain here make us wonder why the Ottoman monarch collected so many Chinese porcelain?

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there are many reasons for the Ottoman royal family’s preference for collecting and using Chinese porcelain. It is said that Ottoman Turks believe that porcelain is a rare treasure. Therefore, Ali Q erguangbe wrote in the book “China’s knowledge”: no matter what is injected into Chinese blue and white porcelain, the residue can be precipitated; Durable and never fade; Only diamond can scratch it, and diamond can identify its authenticity only through this method; Eating and drinking water with blue and white porcelain, without the worry of lead poisoning, can strengthen the body; Although the blue and white porcelain is hard, when you look at the oil lamp or the sun, you can see the pattern on the outside through the inner wall.

from the exquisite pieces of Yuan blue and white porcelain, we find that almost all porcelain are painted with Tibetan Buddhist patterns, mixed with dragon and phoenix patterns representing the imperial power of ancient China, as well as many patterns in the cultural and artistic style of Han nationality. This is unthinkable in a country that believes in Islam and strictly resists pagan propaganda. So, what makes the Ottomans so tolerant and almost crazy about porcelain? According to records, around 816 ad, green was the favorite color of Islam. We can see green domes or decorations on many buildings. But in the 14th century, the Mongolian nobles in Persia converted to the Sufism of Islam. Because the Sufism itself liked blue and believed that white represented the holiness of Allah, they also accepted the blue representing the Mongolian nation. Since then, blue has become the favorite color of the Ottoman royal family. however