Sixth, the role of Islam in the formation of modern Arab nation states.
Islam has played an important role in the struggle against colonialism in the Arab region.
In modern times, almost all major national movements were carried out under the banner of Islam.
In the 20th century, the Arab nationalist movement took on a new pattern.
The national movements in some countries inherited the modern organization and ideology, especially in Saudi Arabia and Libya.
But on the whole, the role of religion in the movement tends to decline obviously, and its specific characteristics depend on the different national conditions of various countries.
According to the composition of the leadership of the national movement and its different attitudes towards religion, we can distinguish three types.
This lecture mainly analyzes the specific role and reasons of Islam in different countries belonging to three types in the 20th century. I. among the six countries of Sudan, Morocco, Libya, Saudi Arabia, Yemen and Oman, Islam has played a decisive role in the national movement led by Islamic forces, but its manifestation and degree are different.
In Sudan, Islam and nationalism are integrated with each other and jointly lead the national movement.
In Morocco, the leadership of the national movement was first held by tribal chiefs and then controlled by Islamic intellectuals.
The other four countries have no intellectual participation at all.
In Libya and Saudi Arabia, the leaders of the national movement are respectively the sanussi religious group advocating reform and the Wahhabi faction of Islamism.
In Yemen and Oman, they are traditional Islamic leaders.
Sudan is a multi-ethnic and multi sectarian country.
Muslims in the north belong to ansa (New Mahdi) and Khatami respectively.
Since the 1920s, the nationalist thought among Sudanese intellectuals and officers began to sprout.
The graduate conference was established in 1937, and its members are mostly closely related to one of the two major sects.
In August 1945, the assembly passed a resolution calling for the withdrawal of British troops and the establishment of the Federation of Egypt and Sudan.
The resolution led to internal division and supported the establishment of the Federation and the establishment of the brotherhood party by the faction associated with the Khatami faction.
The faction that opposes the Federation, demands complete independence and has close ties with Ansar faction forms the Umma party.
In early 1952, Britain proposed the draft constitution, which stipulated the establishment of a bicameral Parliament and a Sudanese government.
The legislative assembly controlled by the Umma party approved the draft, but the 1952 Egyptian revolution made it waste paper.
In November 1953, the legislative assembly election was held.
The National United Party, which was formed by the merger of the brotherhood party and other small parties, won the majority of seats in the parliament, and UMA party was the second largest party.
However, the ruling National United Party disagreed on its policy towards Egypt and finally abandoned the federal proposition.
In December 1955, the parliament unanimously adopted the resolution of immediate independence.
The cooperation between Islam and nationalism gave birth to the Sudanese nation-state.
Morocco is also a multi-ethnic and multi sectarian country, with Sunni Arabs in the north and Sufi Berbers in the south.
In the early national struggle, the RIF uprising in the 1920s played an important role.
The leader of the uprising was abd kailim, the chief of the RIF tribe.
He had received a systematic economic education at the kalavin University in Fez.
Later, he served as a judge and was influenced by Egyptian modernism.
The Republic of RIF has established the UMA Committee in accordance with the principle of Islamic consultation and carried out judicial reform.
Sharia is used to replace tribal customary law, and religious judges are responsible for judicial trial.
It is prohibited to join Sufism and whip wives.
In addition, madrasas with modern courses have been established and mullahs have been sent to mosques.
The above measures reflect the intention of the Republic to overcome tribal separatist consciousness and create a centralized state with religion.
At the same time of RIF uprising, salefi thought became more and more popular among the urban intellectual class.
They condemned the weakness of Sudan and Sufi leaders towards France and tried to revitalize the country through cultural rejuvenation.
As a result, “free schools” teaching Arabic, Islamic history and arithmetic emerged in major cities, resulting in the establishment of two nationalist organizations, which were merged into the Moroccan Action Committee in 1930.
In 1934, the Commission submitted to the authorities a reform plan calling for national autonomy and administrative, economic and judicial reforms, including the establishment of a single judicial system based on sharia law, but was rejected.
Since then, the Committee has continued to lead the people’s movement and to work closely with the new Sudan, which opposes France.
In 1944, the independent party was established on the basis of the National Party, the successor of the action committee.
It formally put forward the requirements for striving for independence and establishing a democratic government.
Its members include all sectors of society.
After the war, the independence party finally won national independence in 1956 after hard work.
In Libya, the Sanusi order, which infiltrated into the region from the mid-19th century, has become the backbone of uniting tribes, opposing foreign aggression and creating a nation-state.
In 1911, Italy invaded Libya and opened the prelude to the Italian Turkish war.
The Sanusi order organized troops to fight side by side with the Turkish army.
In 1912, after the signing of the peace treaty between Italy and Turkey, the order army began to fight against Italian aggression alone.
Meanwhile, although the leaders of the order once went into exile in Egypt, their appointed leaders, especially the national hero Sheikh Omer Muhtar, continued to resist bravely.
In August 1940, the exiled Libyan leader established the Emir state of Senussi and declared its independence with the consent of the United Nations in 1956.
Saudi Arabia is very similar to Libya.
The social economy in the hinterland of the Arabian Peninsula is very backward.
Tribes are the main form of social organization, and many residents still believe in primitive religions.
As early as the 18th century, wahhabis advocating Islamism appeared on the peninsula.
After joining forces with the Saudi family, the Wahhabi faction gradually grew in strength.
Ibn Saudi Arabia formed nomads into a religious army “ihwan” and began the action of unifying the peninsula.
By 1913, it had occupied Nazhi and hasa areas.
In 1926, the north and west of the peninsula also fell under the control of Wahhabi army, and the kingdom of Saudi Arabia was officially established in 1932.
In the process of the formation of Saudi Arabia, Islam played a role in uniting tribes, unifying ideology and establishing a nation-state.
In fact, this unification process posed a challenge to the rule of the Ottoman Empire and Britain and promoted the development of the Arab national movement.
Yemen and Oman belong to another type.
Yemen was ruled by the Ottoman Empire in modern times.
The society was dominated by tribes, and the main sect was Zadeh.
Before World War I, zadehpai Imam began to strive for independenceTribal forces fought.
In 1904, the new Imam Yahya led the uprising.
The rebels surrounded Sana’a and dealt a heavy blow to the Turkish army.
In 1908, the two sides concluded peace and Yemen obtained quasi autonomous status.
In 1911, Turkey also signed the second peace treaty, recognizing the full autonomy of Yemen.
With the disintegration of the Ottoman Empire after World War I, Yemen declared its independence in 1918.
Omani residents mainly believe in the IBAD sect, which advocates the unity of politics and religion.
After the mid-18th century, Oman was actually divided into two regions, namely, the inland mountainous area controlled by the Imad of IBAD and the coastal area ruled by Muscat Sudan (whose religious affairs are still under the jurisdiction of the Imam), although both the Imam and Sudan belong to the said family.
Sutan was controlled by Britain in 1839.
Sutan took the opportunity to consolidate his position.
In 1913, the new patriarch and the mountain tribes launched an uprising to establish the long state of Islam and almost captured Muscat.
In 1920, sutan signed the SIB treaty with the leader of the uprising, recognizing the independence of the patriarch in the country.
In 1932, said Ibn Temur succeeded to the throne as Sudan.
He continued to take refuge in Britain and implemented isolationist policies, and social contradictions became increasingly acute.
In 1954, the new archbishop GAlib made a request to join the League of Arab States, which is bound to lead to the formal independence of the Archbishop state.
Sudan and Britain immediately sent troops to attack, captured the patriarchal state in 1959, and the patriarch went into exile overseas.
Since then, Oman has been unified, the two powers of religion and customs have been unified, and the regime is still controlled by Sudan.
Second, the national movements in transition from Islam to secularism Tunisia and Algeria are different from other countries in North Africa.
The foundation of Islam here is not so strong, so although the religious group dominated the movement in the early stage, the leadership is still controlled by the secular middle and small bourgeois political parties in the end.
However, religious groups have retained greater influence in Algeria.
Tunisia became a protectorate of France in 1882.
At the end of the 19th century, a group of officials, urima and intellectuals influenced by modernism began to pay attention to social and educational reform, and the youth Tunisian school was established in 1895.
Its leader abd al saalibi believes that modernism is a means to strengthen Islamic belief, claims that Sufism is heresy, and puts forward the demand for equal rights of citizens in France and Tunisia.
As a result, the faction was attacked by the French authorities and even urima.
In 1920, saalibi became a constitutional party, advocating the restoration of the 1860 constitution, the realization of universal suffrage and civil liberties, and Tunisians can participate in Parliament and hold public office.
However, the party focuses on safeguarding traditional national values and relies mainly on Bayi (Tunisian ruler) and the middle class, and dare not take radical measures.
Therefore, the radical young intellectuals led by Habib burjiba in the party began the struggle against the moderate line of the upper class.
In 1934, bourguiba withdrew from the party and formed another new Constitutional Party.
Its members include farmers, workers, small and medium-sized businessmen, students and handicraftsmen.
Even many Jews joined the party.
Secular nationalist forces therefore firmly dominated the national movement until the country gained independence in 1956.
After Algeria became a colony, on the one hand, France controlled religious institutions economically and administratively, on the other hand, it carried out overall flange Westernization in culture, which greatly weakened the power of Islam.
There are three main nationalist forces in Algeria, namely, the young Algerians who advocate francalization, the radical secular nationalists and the Islamic reformists.
Young Algerians were founded by intellectuals educated in French schools and advocated integration into French society while retaining their Muslim identity.
The representative of secular nationalism is the Arab diaspora organization “North Africa League” established in Paris in 1926.
After 1933, it gradually turned to Islamic Nationalism, put forward the demand for independence, and replaced class struggle with national unity.
In 1937, the star of North Africa was reorganized into the Algerian people’s party, and its members expanded from workers to craftsmen, small traders and students.
The Islamic reformist faction came into being under the influence of Egyptian Abdullah.
Its leader, Sheikh Ben badis, advocated the return to the Koran, opposed Sufism and assimilation, and took the recognition of God’s uniqueness, Godson’s piety, respect for others, rational use of wealth, legitimate business and moral purity as the main principles of the reform.
The reformers vigorously set up education.
At the same time, they also called for the recovery of wachov and opposed the forcible occupation of land by French immigrants.
In 1931, Ben badis founded the Islamic sage Association and became the main force of anti law.
But the reformists only mentioned the establishment of a democratic state protected by France and its alliance with liberated Tunisia and Morocco.
After Ben badis died in 1940, the reformist activities returned to the field of education, and its influence decreased.
After the Second World War, the Algerian nationalist movement rose day by day.
In 1946, the people’s party expanded into the victory party for democracy and freedom, and put forward the idea of armed struggle for the first time.
At the same time, a “special organization” led by Ben Bella and others appeared in the party.
Its members are mostly young people in small towns with strong religious sentiment, including graduates of many reformist religious schools.
In 1954, they formally established the unity and action Revolutionary Committee, merged with the victory party for democracy and freedom and the sage Association into the national liberation front, and began the armed struggle.
Since then, the radical and generally secular nationalists led by the petty bourgeoisie have become the backbone of the Algerian independence movement. III. national movements dominated by secularism most of the 16 countries analyzed here are countries with relatively developed social economy, and secular parties occupy a leading position in the national movements.
It can be divided into four categories.
The first is Egypt, Iraq and South Yemen, whose national movement leadership is in the hands of the small and medium-sized bourgeoisie.
However, in Iraq, where there are a large number of Shiite believers, the role of the religious elite is also quite significant.
The second category is Palestine.
The leadership of its national movement was initially controlled by Christian and Muslim secularists and later taken over by mufti, but this did not affect the Secularity of the struggle.
After the Second World War, secular petty bourgeois organizations became the representatives of resistance forces.
The third category is Syria and Lebanon, which are characterized by Christian and Muslim nationalists fighting side by side.
The last category is Jordan and the small Gulf States.
The nobility or tribal chiefs are the main representatives of their nationalism.
Between the two world wars, the main force of the Egyptian national movement was still secular nationalist organizations, such as waffle secession and its derivative people’s party and Saad peopleParty, etc.
The anti British movement in 1919 showed a high degree of national unity, and both Muslims and Copts actively participated in the movement.
The 1923 constitution stipulates that Islam is the state religion, which is a concession to the conservative forces.
However, the government still made a difference in secularization.
For example, a series of laws involving private identity were promulgated from 1920 to 1946, which restricted the Sharia law and religious courts.
However, waffle’s long-term governance did not win the complete independence of the country, nor did it create a situation of economic prosperity and social stability.
Intellectuals, officers and other emerging classes began to seek a new way out, resulting in the emergence of radical organizations such as the Muslim Brotherhood.
The Brotherhood was founded in Ismailia in 1925.
Its founder Hassan Banna is a primary school teacher.
He once joined the hasafe order and was ideologically influenced by Abdul’s student Rashid Rida.
Both organizations supported Faisal, the son of megasharif Hussein, as king, but the covenant society called for British protection, while the defender’s Association favoured full independence.
In May 1920, the two organizations and representatives of sects and tribes agreed to hold an uprising, and the two sects United for the first time in the struggle.
The main force of the uprising was Shiite tribes, who dealt a heavy blow to the British authorities.
However, Britain tried to win over the pro British elements of the covenant society and the chiefs of Sunni tribes, which prevented the expansion of the anti British movement.
In April 1922, 200 Shiite religious, tribal and nationalist leaders gathered in Karbala to demand the complete independence of the country, called for the convening of the national assembly and reserved half of the seats for Shiites in the Parliament and cabinet.
At the same time, the association of independent defenders is divided into the National Party and the awakening party.
The former advocates cooperation with Sunnis to get rid of British rule.
The latter emphasizes forcing the current regime to provide opportunities for Shiites to participate in politics.
In November of the same year and June of the following year, Shiite urima issued fatwa twice, demanding a boycott of parliamentary elections.
The famous leader Mohamed Hassan Sadr and others fled Iran.
But the move caused dissatisfaction among Sunni nationalists.
Later, some urima promised not to intervene in politics before returning to China in 1924.
Since then, the role of Shiite religious circles in politics has tended to decline, although many Shiite tribal uprisings broke out in the mid-1930s.
On the contrary, secular intellectuals and officers are increasingly becoming the main force against the conservative monarchy and other ruling elites.
The national movement of Democratic Yemen was completed under the leadership of the radical National Front for the liberation of occupied South Yemen.
Fatah emphasized the relationship between the Palestinian Liberation Struggle and Arab unity in the early stage, but did not care much about the form of the future state.
Its purpose was to avoid internal division due to ideological differences.
The “sixth five year plan” war was a blow to the thought of Arab unity.
Later, Fatah put forward his idea of founding a state more specifically.
The Palestinian National Charter, adopted in July 1968, has always stressed that Palestine is the motherland of Palestinian Arabs and that the national rights of the Palestinian people are the basis for the struggle for national liberation, Declaring that the PLO will establish a secular democratic state: “the liberation of Palestine will.
Protect all religious temples in the country and ensure that everyone enjoys the freedom of worship and worship without discrimination on the basis of race, color, language or religion.
” But Fatah also endows the national struggle with a certain religious connotation.
In fact, the word “Fatah” has the meaning of “Muslim conquest through Jihad”, while the names of the four PLO brigades are related to the military victory of early Islam.
A large number of Arab Christians and Lebanese Christians put forward the idea of Syrian nationalism.
After the first World War, Faisal, son of Mecca Hussein, established power in Eastern Syria, including Christians and Muslims.
Faisal called on all sects, including Jews, to unite and fight together.
The government was also committed to promoting the Arabic language, established the Academy of Arabic Sciences and established 10 girls’ schools in Damascus.
But soon France drove out Faisal and established a mandate.
In 1925, the people’s party was founded in Syria.
It advocated the establishment of a unified state including Palestine and Lebanon and the implementation of modern reform.
Affected by this, the Druze uprising that began in 1925 developed into a national uprising, and the national consciousness was deeply rooted in the hearts of the people.
After the failure of the uprising, the new “National Alliance” became the core of nationalism, and its leaders included intellectuals, nobles and businessmen.
In 1927, they won the election of the constitutional assembly.
Later, they put forward a draft constitution demanding independence and fought against the pro French faction.
In 1936, France was forced to sign a Franco Syrian treaty with it, allowing Syria “independence”.
In World War II, allied forces occupied Syria and Free France took over power.
In 1943, the National League won the general election and successfully forced the withdrawal of all French troops in 1945.
Lebanese residents are mostly Catholic Maronites and Druze.
The Maronite upper class and the church advocated the establishment of a country dominated by the Maronites and maintained special relations with France, while the Druze firmly opposed it.
Therefore, sectarian relations in Lebanon are very tense.
According to the requirements of the Maronites, France established greater Lebanon in 1920 and merged Syria with Beirut, Tripoli and other areas mainly inhabited by Muslims.
In 1925, the uprising in Syria reached the Muslim areas of the country.
In order to avoid the recurrence of similar incidents, France proposed a constitution in May the following year, allowing Lebanon to become independent and establish a republic.
Charles dabastan, a Greek Orthodox, served as president and Maronites as prime minister.
Under the constitutional amendments of 1927 and 1929, members of Congress were elected according to the number of people of each sect.
These measures indicate that the focus of French colonial policy has shifted to ensuring the balance of the power of various sects.
French policy played a role in bridging factional differences.
The unity of Nationalist forces and international pressure forced France to withdraw all its troops in 1946.
Jordan, Kuwait, UAE, Bahrain and Qatar belong to the same type.
These five countries are all tribal societies, and the monarch is the most powerful Sheikh.
Only the king of outer Jordan is held by members of the Hashemite family, a foreign saint.
There are many kinds of Islamic sects in the small Gulf States.
The local residents mainly believe in Sunnis, other sharia schools or Shiites (Bahrain) except hamberis, while the ruling family and religious upper class belong to wahhabis.
Therefore, Islam lacks.