, the country with the largest territory in the world, can’t even feed itself and has become the largest food importer in the world. Although there are many reasons for all this, the fundamental one is that the Communist Party of the Soviet Union deviated from the principles and purposes of Marxism and established a political system without public status.

this year marks the 20th anniversary of the upheaval in the Soviet Union. Many people have a question: Why did such a powerful Soviet Union disappear overnight? Why did the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, which has been in power for 74 years, collapse rapidly? The Communist Party of the Soviet Union was stopped in August 1991 and disintegrated in December 1991. Neither the people nor Communist Party members of the Soviet Union stood up to protest. The answers to these questions are also various. It can be said that different people have different opinions. On this issue, we invite Professor Zuo Fengrong of the Institute of international strategy of the Party School of the CPC Central Committee to write a series of articles for readers.

— original editor

people always ask what is the root cause of the upheaval in the Soviet Union and where is the root cause. In my opinion, fundamentally speaking, the Communist Party of the Soviet Union did not conform to the trend of historical development during its 74 years in power, and the new system claimed to represent the development direction of human society is actually retrogressive. The socialism established by the Communist Party of the Soviet Union is contrary to the trend of human development and progress.

throughout the development of human society, its general trend is progress. With the improvement of productivity and the close social connection, man is gradually liberated from the bondage of God and things and become the master of himself and society. It is precisely under the banner of “land, bread, peace and freedom” for the people that the Russian Communist Party (Bolshevik) stepped onto the stage of history and won the support of the people, and claimed that the proletarian political party should implement higher and more practical democracy than the hypocritical bourgeoisie, so as to make the working people become the masters of society.

however, in the socialist construction of more than 70 years, the working people have never become the masters of the country and society, or even their own destiny. The Soviet Union spared no effort to publicize that “the October Revolution opened a new era in human history”. Soviet socialism realized social harmony and established brotherhood among all ethnic groups, representing the direction of the development of human history. Many progressive people in the world once regarded the Soviet Union as the hope of human society, especially when the great crisis occurred in the west, the Soviet Union was rapidly realizing industrialization. However, when they had the opportunity to see the actual situation of the Soviet Union in person, they were disappointed. The most typical example was reflected in the famous French writer Roman, who visited the Soviet Union in 1935? The Moscow diary written by Roland and and the French writer Andre who visited the Soviet Union in 1936? Gide’s return from the Soviet Union. They all talked about the Soviet Union’s personal worship, privileges, personal dictatorship and terror, lack of freedom of thought, isolation from the outside world and other issues, and expressed concern about the fate of the Soviet Union. With the passage of time, the problems of the Soviet Union have become more and more obvious, the socialist image of the Soviet Union has faded, and has been questioned and criticized by more and more people. After the 1970s, the Soviet Union gradually lost its moral advantage in the world, and the human rights situation and undemocratic became the targets of attack. The Soviet Union’s economy is only dominated by military enterprises. Agriculture and light industry have almost collapsed. The technological level of light industry is still at the level of industrialization in the 1930s. The country with the largest territory in the world can’t even feed itself and has become the world’s largest food importer. Although there are many reasons for all this, the fundamental one is that the Communist Party of the Soviet Union deviated from the principles and purposes of Marxism and established a political system without public status.

according to Marxist theory, the proletarian state should be a Paris Commune state. In the form of political power organization, Paris Commune is a political power integrating legislation and administration, which was inherited by the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, which has become an organ integrating legislation and administration. However, the system of the unity of Parliament and administration in Paris Commune is based on the system of universal suffrage, and the system of the unity of Parliament and administration of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union is based on the appointment system. Paris commune has two important principles: first, public officials are elected by universal suffrage; Second, eliminate the country as a tool of violence and establish a cheap government to serve the interests of the people. But they were abandoned by the Soviet Communist Party.

the Soviet Union did not implement the system of universal suffrage. At the beginning of the victory of the October Revolution, it can be explained by the low cultural level of the people. Lenin emphasized at that time that due to the low cultural level of the people, the political power that should be controlled by the people had to be represented by the Russian Communist Party (Bolshevik); However, decades later, the Soviet Union has become one of the most developed countries in culture and education in the world. This reason is difficult to establish. For a long time, the Communist Party of the Soviet Union believed that they most understood the needs and thoughts of the people. What they did was the needs of the people, thought and decided everything on behalf of the people, and did not believe that the people had the ability to judge right and wrong and choose. Party and state cadres are selected and appointed by the Organization Department of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. Therefore, a special cadre roster has been established. It is inappropriate to put forward the one-sided slogan “cadres decide everything”. Because the people have no right to elect cadres or supervise them, the people are separated from the state power. The people are just screws on the big socialist machine, and everything is decided by the cadres. The citizenship stipulated in the constitution of the Soviet Union has only remained literal for a long time, and the principle of people’s sovereignty has not been implemented. It was not until Gorbachev’s reform that he began to pay attention to the implementation of citizenship. However, the Soviet nationals who had not received democratic training for a long time actually did not know how to use this right. They were influenced by Yeltsin’s demagogic propaganda and became an important force to promote the disintegration of the country. After the victory of the October Revolution, the German revolutionary Luxembourg warned the Russian Bolsheviks: “without universal suffrage, unrestricted freedom of publication and assembly, and free exchange of views, the life of any public institution will gradually become extinct and become a life without soul. Only bureaucrats are still the only active factor”. The development of history was unfortunately said by Luxembourg.

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because the people have no rights and have no impact on the national decision-making, the government has persisted in the policy of obviously infringing on the interests of the people for a long time. Excessive development of land, such as not giving farmers military powerFreedom, implement the overall agricultural collectivization policy, and do not allow intellectuals to think and create freely, and so on. Although the Soviet Union is one of the superpowers in the world, the living standard of the Soviet people is far lower than that of many developing countries. The people have no enthusiasm for labor, and slacking and drinking are becoming more and more common.