the power of the government does not come from the people, and the people have no right to supervise the government. Therefore, the organs only pursue their own special interests, and the cadres are in a superior position. During the period, the internal special supply system was established and improved, and cadres enjoy different salary subsidies, housing and medical care according to their levels.

this article was originally published in the learning times. The original title was: the root of the upheaval in the Soviet Union >

this year marks the 20th anniversary of the upheaval in the Soviet Union. Many people have a question: Why did such a powerful Soviet Union disappear overnight and why did the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, which has been in power for 74 years, collapse rapidly, In August 1991, the Communist Party of the Soviet Union was stopped and the Soviet Union disintegrated in December 1991. Neither the people nor the Communist Party members of the Soviet Union stood up to protest. The answers to these questions are also various. It can be said that different people have different opinions. Professor Zuo Fengrong is invited to write a series of articles on the strategy of the CPC Central Committee People always ask “what is the root cause of spekds” and “spkds” in the Soviet Union. In my opinion, fundamentally speaking, the Communist Party of the Soviet Union did not conform to the trend of historical development during its 74 years in power, and the new system claimed to represent the development direction of human society is actually retrogressive. The socialism established by the Communist Party of the Soviet Union is contrary to the trend of human development and progress.

throughout the development of human society, its general trend is progress. With the improvement of productivity and the close social connection, man is gradually liberated from the bondage of God and things and become the master of himself and society. It is precisely under the banner of “land, bread, peace and freedom” for the people that the Russian Communist Party (Bolshevik) stepped onto the stage of history and won the support of the people, and claimed that the proletarian political party should implement higher and more practical democracy than the hypocritical bourgeoisie, so as to make the working people become the masters of society.

however, in the socialist construction of more than 70 years, the working people have never become the masters of the country and society, or even their own destiny. The Soviet Union spared no effort to publicize that “the October Revolution opened a new era in human history”. Soviet socialism realized social harmony and established brotherhood among all ethnic groups, representing the direction of the development of human history. Many progressive people in the world once regarded the Soviet Union as the hope of human society, especially when the great crisis occurred in the west, the Soviet Union was rapidly realizing industrialization. However, when they had the opportunity to see the actual situation of the Soviet Union in person, they were disappointed. The most typical example was reflected in the famous French writer Roman, who visited the Soviet Union in 1935? The Moscow diary written by Roland and and the French writer Andre who visited the Soviet Union in 1936? Gide’s return from the Soviet Union. They all talked about the Soviet Union’s personal worship, privileges, personal dictatorship and terror, lack of freedom of thought, isolation from the outside world and other issues, and expressed concern about the fate of the Soviet Union. With the passage of time, the problems of the Soviet Union have become more and more obvious, the socialist image of the Soviet Union has faded, and has been questioned and criticized by more and more people. After the 1970s, the Soviet Union gradually lost its moral advantage in the world, and the human rights situation and undemocratic became the targets of attack. The Soviet Union’s economy is only dominated by military enterprises. Agriculture and light industry have almost collapsed. The technological level of light industry is still at the level of industrialization in the 1930s. The country with the largest territory in the world can’t even feed itself and has become the world’s largest food importer. Although there are many reasons for all this, the fundamental one is that the Communist Party of the Soviet Union deviated from the principles and purposes of Marxism and established a political system without public status.

according to Marxist theory, the proletarian state should be a Paris Commune state. In the form of political power organization, Paris Commune is a political power integrating legislation and administration, which was inherited by the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, which has become an organ integrating legislation and administration. However, the system of the unity of Parliament and administration in Paris Commune is based on the system of universal suffrage, and the system of the unity of Parliament and administration of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union is based on the appointment system. Paris commune has two important principles: first, public officials are elected by universal suffrage; Second, eliminate the country as a tool of violence and establish a cheap government to serve the interests of the people. But they were abandoned by the Soviet Communist Party.

the Soviet Union did not implement the system of universal suffrage. At the beginning of the victory of the October Revolution, it can be explained by the low cultural level of the people. Lenin emphasized at that time that due to the low cultural level of the people, the political power that should be controlled by the people had to be represented by the Russian Communist Party (Bolshevik); However, decades later, the Soviet Union has become one of the most developed countries in culture and education in the world. This reason is difficult to establish. For a long time, the Communist Party of the Soviet Union believed that they most understood the needs and thoughts of the people. What they did was the needs of the people, thought and decided everything on behalf of the people, and did not believe that the people had the ability to judge right and wrong and choose. Party and state cadres are selected and appointed by the Organization Department of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. Therefore, a special cadre roster has been established. Stalin also improperly put forward the one-sided slogan “cadres decide everything”. Because the people have no right to elect cadres or supervise them, the people are separated from the state power. The people are just screws on the big socialist machine, and everything is decided by the cadres. The citizenship stipulated in the constitution of the Soviet Union has only remained literal for a long time, and the principle of people’s sovereignty has not been implemented. It was not until Gorbachev’s reform that he began to pay attention to the implementation of citizenship. However, the Soviet nationals who had not received democratic training for a long time actually did not know how to use this right. They were influenced by Yeltsin’s demagogic propaganda and became an important force to promote the disintegration of the country. After the victory of the October Revolution, the German revolutionary Luxembourg warned the Russian Bolsheviks: “without universal suffrage, unrestricted freedom of publication and assembly, and free exchange of views, the life of any public institution will gradually become extinct and become a life without soul. Only bureaucrats are still the only active factor”. The development of history was unfortunately said by Luxembourg.

because people have no rights, rightThe regime abandoned some forms of bourgeois democracy, such as the separation of powers, election, freedom of speech and the press, although the Soviet Union itself declared that “proletarian democracy is a million times more democratic than any bourgeois democracy; the Soviet regime is a million times more democratic than the most democratic bourgeois republic” (selected works of Lenin, Vol. 3, people’s publishing house, 1995 edition, P. 606), However, the democracy of the Soviet Union was not recognized by the people, and there has been the actual personal centralization of power by the General Secretary for a long time. The practice of the Soviet Union shows that democracy without this shell can not realize the content of democracy.

the Soviet Communist Party did not establish a system of equality before the law. Farmers have long been regarded as a backward class and the target of elimination. Stalin enforced the overall agricultural collectivization and eliminated individual farmers. Because farmers have no normal channel to express their opinions and no political organization to represent them, they have to resist by force. The struggle of farmers against overall collectivization is also known as the “second civil war”. Because the power of the state machine of the dictatorship of the proletariat is too strong, their armed resistance is doomed to failure. Farmers who join collective farms generally lose interest in labor, undermine labor discipline, and do not work or contribute. Although the land is fertile, they do not cherish it and cannot produce what the country needs. As a result, the largest country in the world has fallen to the point where they can’t even feed themselves. Intellectuals have long been placed behind workers and farmers. In real life, “drivers and cleaners join the party faster than journalists because they are included in the list of workers”. The Communist Party of the Soviet Union strictly supervised knowledge products, which had a serious contradiction with the requirements of intellectuals. The income of intellectuals is not high, and they do not benefit as much as workers in the Department of actual material interests, resulting in the alienation of the most creative social forces from the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.

socialism was originally a vigorous cause for the people and a cause for the welfare of the people. However, because the leadership system and organizational system of the Soviet Union did not ensure that the people were the masters of the country, over time, the people lost confidence in their own judgment and were no longer lazy to think and unable to think. The Communist Party of the Soviet Union has become an organ that gives orders to the people and represents the pursuit of its own interests. The Communist Party of the Soviet Union, as an organ integrating Parliament and administration, often focuses on the strength of the country rather than the improvement of people’s living standards when formulating policies. Violations and violations of people’s interests occur from time to time. If the Communist Party of the Soviet Union could guide the people to use democratic rights, listen to and respect the interests of the people when making decisions and doing things, the Soviet Union would not stick to the lifeless collective farm system for a long time, and would not waste its money uncontrolled on developing armaments and supporting the world revolution. The centralized and rigid political system made the people lose their enthusiasm and creativity, leading to the economic crisis. By 1990, it fell to the point of begging for food all over the world, and the Soviet Union was naturally unsustainable. When the Communist Party of the Soviet Union dissolved and the Soviet Union disintegrated, there was no people to fight. This lesson is profound enough. When evaluating the Soviet Union, he said: “Stalin seriously undermined the socialist legal system. Comrades said that such an event could not happen in western countries such as Britain, France and the United States… The problems of the leadership system and organizational system are more fundamental, overall, stable and long-term. This kind of institutional problem is related to whether the party and the state change color, and must be highly valued by the whole party.” (selected works of Deng Xiaoping, Vol. 2, P. 333) this evaluation hit the heart of the Soviet problem and is worthy of serious consideration by future generations. “Qin people have no time to mourn for themselves, but later generations mourn for it; later generations mourn for it without learning from it, which also makes later generations mourn for later generations.”. Socialists should study the lessons of the Soviet Communist Party and prevent it.