Although the continuous air strikes by the US British coalition forces have seriously damaged the Taliban regime and Al Qaeda in Afghanistan, the Afghans have not succumbed and bin Laden has not been killed by bombs.

Therefore, the American combat goal has not been achieved.

Therefore, for the United States and Britain, in order to win the war in Afghanistan, we must also organize ground operations.

At this time, the United States had to reuse the anti Tajikistan Alliance – the Northern Alliance to fight “proxy” ground operations.

Such operations mainly occurred in attacking Mazar-e-Sharif, occupying the capital Kabul, conquering Kunduz, and acquiring Kandahar.

On November 7, with the support of us air fire, the anti Tajik coalition forces launched an attack on Mazar-e-Sharif, the capital of Balkh Province, an important northern town of Afghanistan held by the Taliban.

On the same day, the anti Zarif forces attacked the city of mashav, which was 15 kilometers southeast of the city of mashav.

After two days and nights of fierce fighting, the anti Tajik coalition forces captured Mazar-e-Sharif, a strategic town in northern Afghanistan, on the evening of November 9.

On the night of November 9, after the Northern Alliance captured Mazar-e-Sharif, an important military town of the Taliban, significant changes took place in the war situation in Afghanistan.

The Taliban forces carried out a “strategic retreat”.

In just a few days, the entire anti Tajik alliance seized at least seven provinces from the Taliban, resulting in a sharp reduction in the Taliban controlled area.

Two days later, the forces of the Northern Alliance targeted Kabul, the political center of Afghanistan.

On November 12, with the support of American air fire, the Northern Alliance broke through the Taliban line around Kabul.

Taliban troops began to withdraw from Kabul at midnight on the 12th and transferred to their base camp, the southern city of Kandahar.

In the early morning of the 13th, the anti Tajik coalition forces invaded the capital Kabul.

In the process, they did not encounter any resistance from the Taliban forces, and easily controlled the abandoned Taliban government institutions, military bases and other key departments.

Kabul is the capital of Afghanistan.

After occupying it, the problem of rebuilding a new government will be solved.

After the Northern Alliance forces conquered the military important town of Mazar-e-Sharif and captured the capital Kabul, the northern part of Afghanistan was basically controlled by the Northern Alliance.

Kunduz has become an isolated city, which is still in the hands of the Taliban and the 55th brigade of Al Qaeda, with about 10000 people.

On November 19, the Northern Alliance demanded the unconditional surrender of the Taliban forces trapped in Kunduz, but the Taliban forces did not agree.

After the deadline, the northern alliance began to narrow its siege of Kunduz and launched fierce attacks on Taliban forces in the suburbs of Kunduz and near the city’s hanabad airport.

During the battle, the Northern Alliance used dozens of tanks, armored vehicles and other heavy weapons.

On November 23, with the support of us air firepower, the Northern Alliance launched a fierce attack on the last stronghold of the Taliban in northern Afghanistan from three fronts around Kunduz, including khaabad, plebangui and dasht arachi.

Meanwhile, the forces of the Northern Alliance and the Taliban forces trapped in Kunduz continued negotiations.

On November 24, under the strong political and military offensive of the Northern Alliance, Taliban soldiers trapped in Kunduz surrendered one after another.

At this time, the main stronghold of the Taliban regime and Al Qaeda was only Kandahar, its birthplace.

On November 26, 500 US Marines were carried into Afghanistan by C-47 helicopters and C-130 aircraft.

After a fierce battle with the Taliban guards, they controlled an airport in the southwest of Kandahar at the cost of 16 casualties.

This is the first conventional ground force sent by the US military to Afghanistan.

Then more than 500 US Marines gathered at the airport in the southwest of Kandahar, where they established a forward base, but did not launch an attack on Kandahar.

On November 29, the Northern Alliance forces approached Kandahar and had a fierce battle with Taliban forces in the eastern suburb of Kandahar.

On December 3, the Northern Alliance forces approached Kandahar airport and launched a fierce attack on the Taliban garrison stationed at the airport.

The Taliban forces have carried out tenacious resistance.

Although the anti Taliban forces are supported by us warplanes, they are still unable to continue to advance.

The Northern Alliance forces had to temporarily stop the attack on Kandahar airport on December 4.

On December 5, the Northern Alliance forces launched another attack with the support of us and British special forces and air firepower.

Omar, the supreme leader of the Taliban, was forced to negotiate with Karzai, the Pashtun anti Tajik leader and the incoming chairman of the Afghan interim administration, and reached an agreement on the disarming of the Taliban, which gave up resistance.

On December 7, Taliban forces first disarmed the new regime led by najibura, the local Pashtun tribal leader, in Kandahar.

Karzai’s troops also entered Kandahar city.

Kandahar is the “spiritual capital” of the Taliban, the last city controlled by the Taliban in Afghanistan and the location of the Taliban headquarters.

On December 9, the Taliban handed over the last Afghan province they controlled, Zabul province in the northeast of Kandahar, marking the loss of all the rivers and mountains laid by the Taliban with guns.

With the Taliban abandoning Kandahar, the organized resistance of the Taliban came to an end, and the war in Afghanistan began to come to an end.

From the perspective of military operations, the war in Afghanistan has two main characteristics: one is air raid and anti air raid, and the other is search and suppression and anti search and suppression.

Since mid December 2001, after the US military and the anti Tajik alliance seized the main cities of Afghanistan, they have readjusted their deployment, organized forces in due time, and comprehensively searched and suppressed the Taliban and the remnants of Al Qaeda who fled to the mountains of eastern Afghanistan with flexible tactical means and methods.

At the same time, the Taliban and the remnants of Al Qaeda took advantage of the favorable terrain in the mountains to carry out anti search and suppression operations in the form of guerrilla warfare and cave warfare, and constantly harassed the US military and anti Tajik coalition forces with small forces.

The search and suppression operations of both sides have been going on for four years and have not ended.

Most of Afghanistan, known as the “country of mountain Eagles”, belongs to the Iranian Plateau, with mountains and plateaus accounting for 45% of the national area.

The eastern mountains are located at the junction of Afghanistan and Pakistan.

There are many peaks at an altitude of 3000 ~ 4500 meters.

They are covered with snow all year round and fluctuate continuously.

The north and south sides of the mountains are mostly arid deserts or wastelands covered with low grass.

The mountain roads are rugged, and there are dense caves on the mountains and valleys.

The terrain is complex and easy to defendA group of bombers and fighter planes heavily bombed the positions of the Taliban and the remnants of Al Qaeda.

Six French Mirage 2000D fighter planes also participated in the air attack, and the caves where some remnants of Al Qaeda hid were destroyed.

At the same time, according to the deployment of the US Army, dozens of officers and soldiers of the 10th Mountain Division secretly went to the depth of the enemy to carry out special operations missions by taking two mh-47 transport helicopters.

However, when reaching the target area and about to land, one helicopter was injured by the enemy’s anti tank rocket, and the two helicopters immediately withdrew.

The enemy on the mountain has set up an ambush to ambush the US Army.

When two US military helicopters arrived at the accident site and were ready to land, they were suddenly shot violently by the remnants of Al Qaeda.

One of the helicopters evacuated urgently, and the other helicopter was hit and fell to the ground.

After that, the enemy on the mountain used mortars to shoot at the US Army.

The US Army was in a passive situation, with many casualties.

It urgently called for bombers and AC-130 armed attack aircraft to come for reinforcements, and was forced to retreat under the threat of fire from the other side.

The U.S. military rescue unit was trapped for 12 hours under the attack of the enemy’s commanding fire.

Finally, it was rescued under the cover of night and with the strong fire support of AC-130 armed attack aircraft.

Seven U.S. troops were killed and 11 injured in this battle, which is the most lost battle for the U.S. military since the beginning of the war.

In order to strengthen the ground attack in the Amar mountains, the US military urgently dispatched five AH-1W Cobra attack helicopters and two transport planes anchored on the Indian Ocean amphibious landing ship to the Amar mountains for reinforcement.

At the same time, more than 200 remnants of Al Qaeda, carrying rockets, mortars, some materials and ammunition, moved forward from depth along the position in an attempt to reinforce the defense front.

They were heavily bombed by the US military, and more than 100 people were killed.

Subsequently, the coalition led by the US military launched an attack on the enemy on the mountain.

The battle was extremely fierce.

The remaining enemy used man portable air defense missiles to fire on the US military’s low altitude attack helicopter and AC-130 armed attack aircraft.

In order to avoid being hit, US fighter planes and ground forces release firebombs from time to time as bait to attract these missiles to cover the low altitude combat of attack helicopters and AC-130 armed attack aircraft.

With the strong support of air firepower, the coalition forces surrounded a highland in the enemy’s defense front and cut off the connection between this highland and the enemy on the mountain.

After that, the coalition sent a large number of bombers, fighters, attack helicopters and AC-130 armed attack aircraft to intensively bomb the caves and bunkers where the remnants of Al Qaeda were hiding from high, medium and low altitude, and threw several hot pressure bombs.

However, due to the harsh climate in the Amar mountains, which affected the effectiveness of the US military’s advanced weapons, and the desperate resistance of the remnants of the “base” organization, it was difficult for the US military to conquer the caves and bunkers it occupied for the time being.

In order to speed up the fighting process, the US military adjusted its deployment again and sent 17 attack helicopters to Gardez.

At the same time, the US military dispatched 300 people to form three ground support forces to reinforce the Amar mountains, bringing the total number of coalition troops on the front line to 1500.

In addition, in order to prevent the besieged enemy from escaping, the U.S. military and Afghan government forces imposed an emergency blockade on southern and eastern Afghanistan, and set up checkpoints to strictly check the traffic.

In addition, in order to cooperate with the U.S. military operation, various armed factions in Afghanistan have also sent troops to the front line.

Since then, the two sides have continued to engage in fierce fighting. U.S. bombers carried out wave after wave of accurate bombing on the areas occupied by Taliban and Al Qaeda.

At the same time, in order to recover the defeat, the remnants of Al Qaeda used the Internet to frequently ask for help from the outside world.

Al Qaeda leaders who fled to Pakistan cheered them up through the Internet, encouraged them to “jihad to the end”, and sent some scattered soldiers hiding in the border area between Afghanistan and Pakistan to infiltrate into the Amar mountains.

These people turned into zero and disguised themselves in order to muddle through at the inspection stations of the coalition forces and enter the mountains to participate in the war, but most of them showed their true colors in front of the coalition checkpoints and were annihilated on the spot.

On March 11, under the fierce attack and siege of the coalition forces, more than 300 Taliban armed forces and remnants of Al Qaeda retreated to a large cave fortification in the sharko Valley in the Amar mountains, and more than 100 people fought tenaciously in a similar fortification.

The terrain in the valley is complex, and the remaining enemy has planted a large number of mines around its fortifications to block the coalition attack.

The coalition forces carried out search and suppression in the way that the US “seal” special forces searched and removed obstacles in the front and the main force followed up and supported in the back, and the progress was very slow.

In order to reduce casualties, while maintaining offensive pressure, the U.S. military asked the Afghan government forces to negotiate with the enemy surrounded in two caves and persuade them to surrender, but the negotiations failed.

After that, the U.S. military adjusted its deployment and launched a general attack on the enemy retreating to the sharko Valley on the 13th.

On the same day, the US military dispatched more than 180 sorties of B-52, F-14, F-16 and AC-130 aircraft, dropped more than 150 bombs and bombed more than 40 caves in the sharko valley.

With the support of air fire, after fierce fighting, the coalition forces controlled the whole valley.

In the following days, in order to completely annihilate the remaining enemy, about 500 people from the Canadian Army Task Force 2 and the “Princess patrissa” light infantry regiment arrived in the Amar mountains and were specially equipped with 12 “prairie wolf” armored reconnaissance vehicles.

With the cooperation of the U.S. military, they launched a search and suppression operation code named “fish fork” and continued to catch the remaining enemy hiding in the cave.

On the 18th, operation harpoon ended.

The operation destroyed 30 suspicious caves and seized a large number of weapons.

Four Canadian soldiers were slightly injured.

On the same day, the top commander of the US military in Afghanistan, general Franks, officially announced the end of operation python.

According to the information released by the US military, in the half month “Python operation”, the coalition forces killed more than 700 Taliban militants and remnants of Al Qaeda and captured about 20 people.

A total of more than 10 US troops were killed and dozens injured.

There were basically no casualties among other coalition forces, and about hundreds of Afghan government forces were injured.

On March 19, 2002, the day after the end of operation python, the British Army urgently carried out the search and suppression operation code named “pheasant” at the request of the US Army.

About 1700 British troops participated in the operation, mainly composed of Marines of the 45th commando of the Royal Navy.

Its main task is to capture the fugitive al Qaeda leader and Taliban leader Omar, and eliminate the remaining enemies in the eastern mountains.

In order to cooperate with the British search and suppression operations, the US military provided a large number of weapons and equipment to the British army, including 10 A-10 “thunder and lightning” attack aircraft of the 23rd flight wing.

The airborne bombIt has the advantages of large volume, fast launch speed and strong lethality.

The minimum flight altitude is 30 meters.

It is suitable for low altitude flight and attacking stragglers.

After that, with the cooperation of Afghan government forces and local armed forces, the US British coalition forces once again carried out a “comb” type large-scale clean-up and suppression in Gardez area, captured a large number of Taliban armed and Al Qaeda remnants hidden in caves and civilian homes in the mountains, and searched a large amount of weapons and ammunition, which seriously damaged their strength, Basically destroy the regrouping capacity of Taliban armed forces and remnants of Al Qaeda in Gardez area.

After a short rest, the coalition forces again launched the search and suppression operation on March 27.

The U.S. military still follows the practice of establishing a two-tier siege in operation Python to improve the search and suppression effect.

It searches door-to-door by encircling first and then suppressing, repeatedly searching and luring the enemy to attack.

In search and suppression operations, the U.S. military usually takes the combat team as the basic unit, with about 20 people in each team and 3-4 teams as an action team.

It adopts various methods, such as centripetal search and suppression, multi-layer encirclement search and suppression, three-dimensional reconnaissance search and suppression, ambush and luring the enemy to attack.

It closely surrounds the search and suppression targets, checks them point by point, and advances centripetally layer by layer, without sparing a dead corner.

For some key search and suppression areas, the U.S. military has also “killed the horse gun” from time to time and carried out surprise inspection, which has effectively improved the efficiency of search and suppression.

In addition, the US military also made full use of advanced reconnaissance equipment to continuously monitor the Khost area.

When suspicious situations were found, it immediately sent troops to eliminate them.

For the deeply hidden remnants of the “base” organization, the U.S. military usually adopts the method of setting false targets to lure the enemy to attack, sending a single armored vehicle to walk in suspicious areas, deliberately exposing the target, enticing the enemy to open fire, and then completely destroying it without future trouble.

After nearly 20 days of search and suppression, the US led coalition forces successively captured more than 500 Taliban armed forces and remnants of Al Qaeda in Khost region, and hundreds of others were forced to flee, which greatly weakened the ability of Taliban armed forces and remnants of Al Qaeda to regroup in Khost region and basically ensured the stability of the region.

After April 2002, the Taliban and the remnants of Al Qaeda hiding on the border between Afghanistan and Pakistan attempted to regroup and wait for an opportunity to counterattack, and continued to create terrorist activities in Afghanistan, attacking the coalition led by the US Army, the US embassy and the Afghan government by means of suicide bombs, remote-controlled explosive devices and man portable missiles, Even UN aid workers and economic reconstruction projects were targeted.

Led by the U.S. Army and the Taliban, the United States has carried out several armed operations to completely eliminate Osama bin Laden.

In May 2002, the Allied forces, mainly the Royal Marines, carried out a search and suppression operation codenamed “sniper operation”, with a total of more than 2000 troops.

During this period, the 101st Airborne Division dispatched more than 100 people and some attack helicopters to provide ground and air support for the British army.

The main purpose of this operation is to destroy the caves where the remnants of Al Qaeda are hiding, search the hidden guns and ammunition and eliminate the remnants.

During the operation, the British army took the method of air reconnaissance and fire assault first, and then organized troops to combine ground advance and landing, occupied the surrounding Highlands, established safety zones, searched and suppressed caves one by one, destroyed some caves and ammunition depots, annihilated and captured a remnant enemy.

From late August to September 2003, in order to eliminate the Taliban and the remnants of Al Qaeda, the U.S. military launched a search and suppression operation code named “mountain Viper” in southern Afghanistan.

On August 25, the 10th Mountain Division, the 5th special operations group and some combat aircraft of the U.S. military launched an attack on about 600 Taliban militants and remnants of Al Qaeda hiding in the mountains of Zabul province in southern Afghanistan.

On the same day, about 50 remaining enemies were annihilated and 40 people were arrested.

By late September, more than 100 Taliban remnants, including two “senior officials”, had been killed in the operation.

In addition, more than 100 remaining enemies were captured.

From December 8 to 30, 2003, the U.S. military dispatched four battalions and about 2000 troops to carry out a search and suppression operation code named “avalanche” in order to further eliminate the residual forces of the Taliban and Al Qaeda.

However, it was later confirmed that the action had little effect.

After March 2004, the US led coalition and the Pakistani army stepped up their efforts to search and suppress bin Laden and his residual forces in the border area between Afghanistan and Pakistan.

On March 7, the coalition sent 13500 people, including some forces of the 121st secret task force, to carry out a search and suppression operation codenamed “mountain storm” in the southern and eastern border areas near Pakistan.

During the operation, the coalition forces changed the previous method of mobile search and suppression and leaving after fighting.

Instead, they stayed in one place for 2-3 weeks to establish good relations with the elders and villagers of the local tribe.

Some also won the trust and support of the local people through assistance operations such as digging ditches and wells, so as to master the intelligence of the remnants of Al Qaeda hiding in the local area.

At the same time, the coalition forces also used tactics such as “high-intensity patrol, searching villages and checking at any time” to carry out strict search and suppression of suspicious areas.

On March 16, in order to search for Osama bin Laden and Al Qaeda’s No.

2 figure Zawahri, some U.S. troops, together with more than 7000 Pakistani troops, launched a search and suppression operation in an area about 50 square kilometers west of wana, the capital of the South Waziristan tribal area on the Arab Palestinian border, and launched a fierce attack on more than 400 besieged remnants of Al Qaeda.

With the support of local tribes, the remnants of Al Qaeda carried out tenacious resistance and the battle was extremely fierce.

By the 26th, after 10 days of encirclement and suppression, the coalition and the Pakistani army had achieved the result of destroying more than 70 remaining enemies and capturing more than 160 at the cost of nearly 100 casualties.

The main operation of the war in Afghanistan ended as early as July 2002, but so far the US military has not caught bin Laden.

When US President Bush launched the war, his oath of “living to see people, dead to see the body” has not been fulfilled.

The remnants of Al Qaeda and Taliban forces are still carrying out frequent attacks and sabotage activities in Afghanistan and its surrounding areas, In particular, some key elements fled to all parts of the world and established grass-roots terrorist organizations there, which further increased the factors of instability to the international community.

Therefore, the thinking left by this war is profound.

Some people say that this is a “one-sided” war between the strong and the weak.

It is an endless war.

It’s embarrassing for the Yankees to win.

People do not expect the war to leave much suspense, but the war on terrorism launched by the United States has notIt is a new thing in the history of human war, which has aroused a lot of thinking.