At 2 a.m. on August 7, 1990, President Bush officially approved the “Desert Shield” action plan.
After the order was issued, the Pentagon acted quickly.
At 6 o’clock in the morning, defense secretary Cheney presided over the meeting in the central conference room of the office building on time and deployed the implementation plan of the “Desert Shield” action plan in detail.
The primary issue is the implementation of the “Desert Shield” action plan.
It needs to dispatch 200000 to 250000 troops from the land, sea and air force to Saudi Arabia and Kuwait, and these troops need to be assembled from dozens of scattered points in military bases at home and around the world.
It’s not easy to finish this task! Only five hours after the president’s order was issued, the two leading forces began to take action.
The first vanguard force was 2300 troops from the 82nd Airborne Division of the US Army.
All the troops boarded the plane at 7:30.
Five minutes later, the plane carrying the paratroopers was ordered to take off from Fort Bragg base in North Carolina to Saudi Arabia.
The second leading force is two squadrons, with a total of 48 F-15 fighters.
At almost the same time as the 82nd Airborne Division, the unit took off from Langley Air Force Base in Virginia to the designated airport in Saudi Arabia.
At this time, the Marines from the US military base in Hawaii also boarded the ship and set sail on the same day.
Although these vanguard troops sent by the US military are flexible and have a variety of combat capabilities of the land, sea and air forces, they have only light equipment and weak strength.
If they really want to work harder with the Iraqi forces, they can’t resist the attack of Iraqi heavy tanks at all.
Every American soldier knows this.
On the morning of August 8, the advance troops of the US military arrived at the scheduled area on time.
When the officers and soldiers got off the plane, the vast desert and hot summer rushed towards them.
Before they had time to appreciate the desert scenery, they set up a simple camp in the swirling wind and sand and entered a lonely and intolerable state of alert.
In the vast desert, these American officers and soldiers seem to be able to see the horizon at a glance.
They thought it would be romantic if it was a trip, but it was the night before the war.
The feeling of being homeless began to haunt them.
They don’t know where they are, when and in what direction the war will come to them.
Soldiers are soldiers.
They can’t control themselves.
They don’t know where the “national interests” are, where the Holy Lord is, or even where their enemy Saddam and Saddam’s army are.
All they know is that the gun is full of bullets, only that their heart is still beating, only that the taste of the wind and sand beating their cheeks and that the sun is too hot will be annoying.
Besides, they know nothing.
Powell and Norman were deeply worried about these US troops who went to the Gulf region first.
As front-line commanders, they understand the great difficulties caused by the long sea and air transportation lines for the “Desert Shield” operation, and they have to bear the risk of going to the Gulf in fear.
The basic estimate of officials from the Pentagon is that Saddam does not want to go to war with the United States.
As long as the United States continues to send troops to the Gulf, the Iraqi army will not act rashly, but the possibility of taking risks cannot be absolutely ruled out.
To this end, the follow-up force must follow closely.
As a result, the US military’s large-scale maritime and air transportation operations began nervously under extremely difficult circumstances.
On August 9, the US military stationed around the Gulf region, including two aircraft carrier battle groups with more than 100 fighters and fighter planes and more than 10 surface warships, was ordered to enter the Gulf region, and the “independence” aircraft carrier and its battle group sailed to the Arabian Sea.
At the same time, the aircraft carrier battle group “” moved to the eastern Mediterranean.
On August 10, the first batch of 17 class I reserve ships were put into active service, of which the first fast shipping ship arrived in Savannah, Georgia.
On August 11, the B-52 bomber of the Strategic Air Force Command arrived at the base within its attack range with full weapons and immediately put on standby under the control of the air force of the central headquarters.
One C-130 transport squadron of the US Air Force arrived in Saudi Arabia to meet the needs of air transportation in the theater.
On August 12, the 101st air assault division arrived by plane from Fort Campbell, Kentucky and began to deploy.
Two days later, the 7th marine brigade from Southern California began unloading the equipment of its maritime preset squadron at Jubail port.
This is a multi arms force with tanks, helicopters and fixed wing attack aircraft.
By August 22, the commander of the central headquarters had seven brigades, three aircraft carrier battle groups, 14 tactical fighter squadrons, four tactical airlift C-130 transport aircraft squadrons, a Strategic Bomber Squadron and a Patriot air defense missile unit in the Gulf region 8000 miles away from the United States.
Then, the US Army, navy and air force units implementing the “Desert Shield” action plan are still continuously dispatching to the Gulf region.
The Pentagon is running continuously, and the “Desert Shield” program is being implemented.
The problem of insufficient troops still plagues Secretary of defense Cheney and chairman of the Joint Chiefs of staff Powell.
They are going to ask President Bush to approve the recruitment of reservists.
Cheney briefed Bush on the implementation of the “Desert Shield” program, then raised the issue of insufficient troops and asked the president to approve the recruitment of 50000 reservists.
This action will undoubtedly affect the nerves of the American people.
Even at the most critical moment of the Vietnam War, President Johnson rejected the Pentagon’s plan to recruit reservists.
However, fully mobilizing the active forces of the US military and throwing the front thousands of miles away will be detrimental to us security.
Moreover, the Gulf crisis will be a severe test for the ability of us reserve soldiers to adapt to the war.
However, the “Desert Shield” is an ambitious plan, which cannot be guaranteed without sufficient troops.
Therefore, a large number of American women soldiers will also be included in the recruitment of reserve soldiers.
Together with men, they will engage in military professional work such as logistics, transportation, medical treatment, construction and intelligence.
In fact, President Bush has thought of this issue since the first day of the US military deployment.
Sending troops is like pouring a bucket of water.
It is easy to pour out but difficult to take back.
Of course, President Bush never thought about recycling in the past.
Such a major military operation is difficult to gradually enter a state of war without public participation.
Therefore, when the Pentagon proposed the recruitment plan, Bush readily agreed.
Bush in AugustOn the 23rd, the military conscription Order No.
12727 was officially signed, authorizing the Secretary of defense to call up organized reserve forces and single reserve personnel in accordance with Article 673 B of title 10 of the United States Code.
In a sense, only eight days after the war broke out, the pressure on Iraq has exceeded the pressure on Iran for eight years.
The implementation of the United Nations “economic sanctions resolution” has put Iraq’s economy in trouble.
The United States, France, Britain, Turkey, Japan, Australia and other countries have successively announced the freezing of all assets of Iraq and Kuwait and the imposition of an economic blockade on Iraq.
The main source of Iraq’s economy is the export of oil.
The ships of the multinational force blocked Iraq’s maritime routes in the Gulf and prevented ships from entering Iraq, making Iraq an isolated “island”.
The oil produced is difficult to transport out of the sea.
The three oil pipelines for land oil transportation were closed by Saudi Arabia and Turkey, which further increased Iraq’s economic difficulties.
Don’t look at Saddam as a “madman” or “rough man”.
In fact, before the invasion of Kuwait, he had estimated the difficulties after the outbreak of the war.
He thought, “Westerners want to cure me, and I have a way to cure you.
” Long before the war, Saddam secretly told the Iraqi army that after entering Kuwait, he would cast a big net and detain all Westerners.
At the same time, it was announced that soldiers who derelict in their duty to release Western hostages would be punished by military law.
From this point of view, Saddam not only had the armed strength to eat Kuwait, but also prepared a “hostage shield” against Westerners.
After Iraq invaded Kuwait, it threatened to detain thousands of diplomats from the United States, France, Britain and other countries by force.
According to Saddam’s will, the Iraqi army also placed American hostages in important military and economic targets in the IKO region, which can not only prevent the bombing of multinational forces, but also make it difficult for Americans to solve the Kuwait problem.
On August 18, Iraqi speaker Saleh announced that foreign citizens of all countries hostile to Iraq were not allowed to leave Iraq and Kuwait.
With thousands of diplomats before that, the number of Western hostages held by Iraq has reached 20000.
They will make these hostages the first victims.
In this way, the hostages became the “savior” of Iraq.
On the one hand, Iraq can use hostages as conditions to force the United States to give up the attack or ask Iraq to withdraw its troops.
At the same time, it claims that as long as the United States guarantees not to launch an attack, it will release the hostages.
In this way, Iraq can calmly arrange defense under the cover of hostages.
On the other hand, according to the attitude of all countries towards it, Iraq has successively released some hostages to those countries that are not very determined to act in the military blockade and economic blockade, in an attempt to divide and disintegrate the multinational force.
The hostage crisis in Iraq, like its invasion, further angered the Americans, as well as the French, British, Japanese and Germans.
They unanimously called on the United Nations to authorize the joint use of force against Iraq.
At the appeal of most western countries, the UN Security Council passed a resolution on August 25, authorizing the navies of the United States and other countries to use force to block trade with Iraq.
This is the first time in the 45 years since the establishment of the United Nations that it has used the banner of the United Nations to authorize several countries to impose international blockades or economic sanctions on a country.
Normally, with this resolution of the United Nations, the United States will have the imperial sword to use force against Iraq and liberate Kuwait.
However, Bush and Cheney, Powell and other Pentagon leaders did not immediately do so.
They maintained a calm and cautious attitude.
However, after all, the United Nations resolution made Bush “famous”.
To this end, Bush felt extremely happy.
However, just as Bush was about to exercise his mandate and take action, an unpleasant thing suddenly happened.
On the morning of September 16, the post published a full column headline on the front page of the US Air Force Chief of staff, General Michael Duggan: “if war breaks out, the United States will rely on air strikes”.
The newspaper said: “Until two weeks ago, the U.S. Department of defense made a list of Iraq’s national defense, in order: Iraq’s air defense bases, airports and military aircraft.
medium range missile launch sites, including Scud missiles.
communication and command centers.
chemical weapons factories, nuclear factories and arms factories.
Iraq’s armored forces.
Saddam Hussein’s underground shelter command.
and air force command The Israeli suggested that the best way to stab Saddam Hussein was to target his family, private guards and his mistress.
If Saddam should indeed be the focus of our attack, this is the military strategy known as decapitation.
“Our Marines and army ground forces can be used to influence, flank and block Iraq’s attack on Saudi Arabia.
They may also need to use ground forces to reoccupy Kuwait.
But it is only after air forces completely destroy the enemy’s resistance that soldiers can enter.
” Powell was furious at the news of Dugan’s speech.
He could not believe that general Dugan would do such a thing.
Early in the morning, he called Cheney and asked to deal with Dugan.
Cheney found the Washington Post of that day and read it twice in a row.
He couldn’t believe it was true.
He called Scowcroft again.
Scowcroft realized that this was a serious event.
In order to eliminate and reduce the adverse effects caused by Dugan’s dereliction of duty, Scowcroft stressed in the “face the country” program: “general Dugan is not within the command system, he cannot represent the government.
” After all, it was too late.
Dugan had said everything he shouldn’t have said.
Obviously, the concentration of hundreds of thousands of troops in the Gulf region is a great pressure on the US government, and the most difficult is the front-line commander Norman Schwarz C í Kopf.
However, what made him even more puzzled was that up to this time, there was no clear strategic goal for the implementation of the “Desert Shield” program.
He could not even figure out whether it was defense or attack.
In fact, it is not clear in which direction Bush will develop the situation.
A large number of troops were transferred to the Gulf, of course, to show Saddam a little strength.
However, world public opinion, Congress and the people do not want to bear the heavy burden of war, so they must be cautious.
Bush believes that a future war is inevitable, but the chess pieces must be taken step by step.
In fact, the PentagonSenior officials, including Powell and Cheney, have no bottom in their hearts at this time.
The United Nations Security Council passed a bill on economic sanctions and blockade of Iraq to punish Saddam.
World public opinion also expected Saddam to turn around, but Saddam ignored it.
Some people in the US Congress also do not want the US military to bleed for the liberation of Kuwait.
The United States has deployed so many troops to the Gulf, and there will be a large number of troops to the Gulf.
Is this just “defense”? Is the military action against Saddam just a wish of President Bush? In order to be more forward-looking about the US military’s actions after the Gulf, Cheney chaired a meeting of the Ministry of defense to discuss the above topics.
At 0800 hours on October 10, Norman’s chief of staff and Major General Robert Johnston of the Marine Corps flew to Washington to report in detail to Cheney, Powell and the generals of the Joint Chiefs of staff on the action plan of the US military in the Gulf region.
“The Central Military Region has deployed its troops in accordance with the president’s containment and defense mission.
However, if the president tells us to start the attack tomorrow, we will take this action,” Johnston said It is learned from this report that the Central Military Region’s plan for offensive action is divided into four stages.
The first three stages are all air strikes, and the fourth stage is ground attack.
Norman soon submitted the next action report to President Bush.
President Bush just smiled with satisfaction and put it on his desk.
He didn’t sign his opinion on whether or not.
Bush went through several important figures in his mind.
Although Baker, Powell and Norman Schwarz C í Kopf had different views on solving the Gulf crisis, they were all helping themselves, or helping themselves from the opposite side.
Security assistant Scowcroft and White House chief of staff Sununu are the president’s political helpers.
It seems that they can only accompany the president to play golf, fish or go on a weekend trip.
In fact, as president, people in both fields need, just like his two wings.
Before making up his mind, bush arranged for Powell to go to Saudi Arabia to visit Norman and the troops on the front line to grasp the real situation.
Powell quickly flew to Saudi Arabia in accordance with President Bush’s will.
He found that almost all the troops on the front line, including Norman Schwarz C í Kopf, were quite tired.
In the three months since the implementation of the containment policy, they have been in an uncertain mood, and their risks and hardships have increased unabated.
Powell and Normandy sat down and talked for the first time.
Powell first told Norman that “the Pentagon still has not received the president’s decision on the next stage of action.
However, we must put forward a well studied and more detailed attack plan.
” Norman said: “Saddam Hussein’s army in Kuwait has increased from 100000 to 430000.
If we attack, we must continue to increase our troops until we have enough strength to drive them out of Kuwait.
The current containment policy is enough, but the attack is far from enough.
Another problem is that the number of troops is increasing.
If the attack is just a trifle in the end, then the wave Fees and consumption will become the failure of our policy.
” Powell asked, “how much more troops will be enough?” “We need to double the number of Air Force combat aircraft, increase the number of naval aircraft carriers from three to six, and double the number of marine and army armored forces.
” Powell agreed to his request and added well-equipped 7th army and 1st mechanized infantry division to him.
These are the most elite troops of the United States.
At the end of the conversation, schwa C í Kopf said: “frankly, I don’t think offensive operation is the only solution.
But now, it can’t be solved without this move.
” Powell did not take a stand on this.
He is a very cautious man.
When he is not quite sure, he will never talk casually.
But from the bottom of his heart, Powell is still unwilling to fight for Kuwait, but now he is in the desert and on the front line.
He is unwilling to add any psychological burden to Norman and his troops.
November 29, 1990 was a key day in the Gulf crisis.
On that day, the special session of the United Nations Security Council adopted resolution 678, authorizing the multinational force led by the United States to “use all necessary means” to force Iraq to withdraw from Kuwait after January 15, 1991.
This is an “ultimatum” to Iraq.
The fact is that if the Gulf war breaks out, it will be an unprecedented catastrophe for the whole Middle East and have an inestimable impact on the whole world.
While the United States increased its troops in the Gulf, President Bush lobbied around in various ways to mobilize and persuade its Western allies and some Arab countries to jointly send troops to the war and bear the war costs.
By January 15, 1991, more than 30 countries had promised to send troops to the war.
In this way, in addition to the six countries in the Shanghai Gulf region, multinational forces from nearly 40 countries gather in the Gulf region.
The total military strength reached 700000, equipped with 3510 aircraft, 2900 tanks, 2200 armored vehicles and 400 ships.
Among the multinational forces, the US Army accounts for the vast majority, with a total strength of 527000.
Will Saddam yield to the enormous military pressure? Of course not! His answer to President Bush’s statement that he was told to get out of Kuwait was: once the Americans were involved in the war, we would let them bleed.
In order to deal with the attack of multinational forces, Saddam ordered the implementation of a wartime system throughout the country, dividing the country into five war zones, and the top military commander of each zone was in charge of all affairs in the war zone.
At the same time, Saddam stepped up his military expansion and preparation.
His regular army expanded 13 divisions on the basis of the original 53 divisions and reorganized 11 divisions to 77 divisions.
The total force increased to 1.
2 million, equipped with 5600 tanks, more than 6000 armored vehicles, more than 4000 artillery, more than 770 aircraft and more than 800 Scud missiles.
At this point, the war is imminent.
However, neither side wants to see a river of blood in the Gulf region.
In order to stop the war, Iraq, the United States and the international community began to rescue peace.
The first is the United States, which is trying to win without war.
The day after the adoption of resolution 678, it put forward its first peace proposal and invited Iraqi Foreign Minister Aziz to the United States to meet with Secretary of state Baker in mid December.