Sevastopol is located at the southern end of the Crimean peninsula.
Crimea is a large peninsula extending from the Soviet Republic Ukraine to the Black Sea.
As one of the most suitable ports in the Black Sea, Sevastopol has extremely important strategic value.
For more than 1000 years, it has been a battleground for strategists.
During the Soviet era, the fortress of Sevastopol underwent comprehensive modernization, which also became a heart disease of the.
Hitler’s troops stationed in the eastern fortress could not advance to the southern fortress at any time.
Moreover, Soviet planes taking off from Crimea airport always threaten the lifeline of the axis powers – the proyesti oil field in Romania.
Before the outbreak of the Soviet German war, Sevastopol only made preparations for air and sea defense.
The land defense system of the fortress was not established on a large scale until July 1941, but by the time of the German attack, it had a set of solid land defense system.
The 360 kilometer long rectangular zone is divided into three defense areas, with 12 permanent fortress groups, accounting for 75% of the total number of Crimean fortresses.
The central area was guarded by three huge fortress groups.
It was also the most easily broken pass in the northernmost part of the defense line.
It was the strongest maxim-i combined turret fortress at that time.
Gorky fortress I has double mounted 305 mm giant guns with a range of 44 kilometers.
The shape of the external defense layer is similar to the battleship turret at that time, which is completely wrapped by armor plates with a thickness of 200 mm to 300 mm.
There are three layers of permanent fortifications under the turret, and each layer of permanent concrete canopy is 3000 mm to 4000 mm thick.
All fortresses are covered with permanent concrete armor plates and connected with underground passages and small railways.
Countless hidden fortresses and fire points are set up in the mountainous part.
All fortress turrets are installed in a sinking manner and have an absolute superior range.
In theory, it is impossible to carry out ground attack on the defense zone.
Moreover, the designer stored the basic ammunition of the fortress in the main ammunition warehouse of kulabe, which is 30 meters deep underground on the South Bank of sevinaya Bay.
The whole defense zone is equipped with tanks, aircraft, artillery and anti-aircraft guns, which are fully equipped.
The number of defenders is about 100000, most of which belong to the internal affairs forces of the Soviet army, with strong combat effectiveness.
On December 17, 1941, seven German infantry divisions and two mountain divisions surrounded the fortress and launched the first Sevastopol offensive and defensive war.
Two days ago, the German Marines attacked the German fort on the west side of the peninsula, but the German army quickly ended the first round of the German fort.
On June 6, 1942, the second Sevastopol offensive and defensive war began.
On the same day, 203 German artillery companies gathered in the northern fortress group.
German general Manstein tried to open a gap in the strongest defense line, so as to launch one of the craziest German artillery operations in World War II.
However, in the northernmost part, Fort Maxim Gorky I suppressed the main road in the north and the dangerous area of biebuick Canyon, and the 305 mm artillery would pose a devastating threat to German infantry at any time.
Ordinary artillery can do nothing about this strong fortress, and its 44 kilometer range makes it difficult for the German 54th army to advance an inch.
In order to break through the strongest fortress, the strongest artillery must be used.
The German army, after careful planning, allocated 3 huge guns including the Dora gun, namely, 800 mm Dora train cannon, 610 mm Carle self propelled artillery, and 420 millimeter rigid fixed mortar.
The first target of the German army is the Soviet kulabe ammunition depot.
This arduous task requires more guns.
However, Dora’s armor piercing projectile had a range of only 38 kilometers, so it had to take risks to attack within the range of the Soviet Maxim Gorky I combined gun.
The Dora cannon, braving the heavy artillery fire of the Soviet army, continuously fired armor piercing shells weighing 7100 kg.
Those roaring shells with huge kinetic energy penetrated the 8000 mm protective layer of the fortress and hit the middle of the underground ammunition depot, causing a big explosion that shook the whole island, thus cutting off the ammunition supply of the northern fortress group of the Soviet army.
Then, “Dora” turned south along the temporarily built four track large railway and began to attack Stalin fortress.
At the same time, the German artillery in the North began to enter the shelling operation of comprehensively besieging Gorky I.
The protagonist of the northern shelling was replaced by “Thor’s hammer” – 600mm Carl mortar.
“Carl” had a fast firing speed.
The 610mm high explosive bomb weighing 2200kg poured around Gorky I fortress.
The 4000 mm thick permanent cement armor plate was broken into pieces, and the interior of the fortress began to be exposed.
Then the air force of the eighth Airlines poured out in droves and bombed the living area of the fortress with 1000 wave dive bombings a day, Forced the Soviet soldiers to retreat inside the fortress.
In order to suppress the breakout and reinforcement of Soviet infantry, 420 mm mortar guns carried out carpet bombardment around the fortress, and 1000 kg 420 mm guns smashed all the highway and railway networks around the fortress.
From June 30, the German army used all guns, including three giant guns, to conduct carpet bombardment on the urban area.
On the first day, 64000 tons of shells were fired.
The whole city became a sea of fire, and the sky disappeared in thick smoke and fire.
From the next day, the German army carried out uninterrupted shooting.
The attack of the air force of the eighth air force increased to 1500 sorties a day.
120000 incendiary bombs swept Sevastopol.
The shelling reached the level of a storm.
All urban buildings were destroyed, and roads, libraries, parks and schools disappeared.
After the German army completely surrounded the urban area of Sevastopol, the resistance of the defenders was meaningless.
On July 3, the German army reduced its shelling intensity, and infantry and armored troops occupied 50% of the urban area.
Considering the safety of citizens’ lives and the threat of Dora cannon, the Soviet Red Army agreed to surrender.
At this time, Sevastopol, known as the strongest fortress, had already become a ruin.
In 1944, the leader of the German secret police ordered the suppression of the underground armed uprising in Poland, and the Dora cannon came into use again.
It fired 30 shells 30 kilometers away from Warsaw City, killing many Polish civilians and turning Warsaw into ruins.
Dora cannon fired a total of 104 shells from its debut to the final suppression of the Warsaw UprisingAlthough powerful, manufacturing, transportation and erection are time-consuming and laborious, so there are few battlefield applications.
Like its predecessor, the Paris cannon, the Dora cannon is more symbolic than practical.
But in any case, it can be regarded as one of the miracles in the history of human weapon manufacturing.
There are two main theories about the whereabouts of Dora cannon.
One thought that before the end of the Second World War, Hitler ordered German engineers to dismantle the giant gun in order to avoid it being captured by the allies.
The Allies only seized some parts of the giant gun, and a huge gun barrel and several rounds of ammunition were found at the hilleben shooting range in Germany.
Another view is that at the end of World War II, Dora cannon became the booty of the Soviet Red Army, and later was transported to the Allied occupied area to become a sample of the Allied research cannon.
Finally, the super cannon was disassembled by the Allied forces, ending its short and strange life.