On the European battlefield, the allies won step by step after the counter offensive.
The end of fascist Germany is numbered and its demise is a foregone conclusion.
In order to discuss the post-war disposal of Germany and other major issues, and to determine their respective strategic interests after the war, the heads of the three major powers of the Soviet Union, the United States and Britain held a meeting in Yalta, Crimea peninsula on the coast of the Black Sea, and held the second three nation summit since the war.
Yalta is located on an open-air theater like semicircular plain at the foot of DAR mountain and between the two river valleys of bestre and vodopatra.
It is a beautiful scenic spot of Crimean peninsula.
The German invaders brought great disaster to this scenic resort.
Sanatoriums, industrial enterprises, homes and ports were destroyed and looted, and the famous masandrov vineyard was also destroyed.
On April 16, 1944, just after Yalta was liberated from the German Fascist occupation army, it was conceivable that it was difficult to receive a delegation of nearly 700 people from the United States and Britain, including service personnel.
However, the meeting was scheduled to be held here on February 4, 1945.
Before the meeting, the United States and Britain’s “linaco”, “implicit” and other ships for various purposes had berthed at Yalta and Sevastopol ports.
Telegraph cables were also laid from Yalta to Sevastopol, all the way to the U.S. Navy’s “cotoktin” communication ship, so as to maintain direct contact with.
The cortektin did not enter the port of Yalta for fear of encountering German drift mines.
If you count the sailors, technicians, service personnel and a large number of security personnel on these ships, there will be more than 700 people coming to the Crimean Peninsula, but about 2500 people.
In order to receive the delegates and service personnel, the Soviets made great efforts.
Many palaces and houses have been restored and renovated.
In this way, it needs to transport 1500 carriages of construction materials and equipment lacking in wartime to Yalta, and it also needs a lot of manpower and time.
It took 20000 working days to repair the livajia palace alone.
It was burned down by the German invaders and looted the main hall and dormitory buildings.
It was also very difficult to repair.
All the security work of the conference was in the charge of Soviet soldiers.
In order to prevent accidents, they took strict preventive measures: the Gunners of the anti-aircraft artillery company were on duty day and night, the radar closely watched the sky, and the ships and submarines guarded the sea near Yalta with vigilance.
Why are guards so tight? It turned out that during the Tehran conference, our spies had tried to kill, and.
The Soviets were afraid that such a thing would happen again during the Yalta conference, so they had to be cautious.
The Three Delegations stayed in livajia, Vorontsov and Yusupov palaces respectively.
The US delegation stayed at the livajia palace, 3 kilometers from Yalta.
This was once the summer palace of Nicholas II, with a main building and two auxiliary buildings.
Roosevelt lived on the first floor of the hall.
Among the big three, Roosevelt was the youngest, but his health was the worst.
When he arrived in Malta on the morning of February 2, his haggard and weak face surprised Churchill and Harriman who arrived there before him.
How did they know that Roosevelt had less than 10 weeks left in the world.
Nevertheless, he dragged his weak body and traveled thousands of miles to the Crimean Peninsula to attend the Yalta conference.
His illness made it difficult for him to move, so he was arranged on the first floor.
He lives on the first floor with living room, office and bedroom.
There is a special wheelchair channel connected with the hall where the plenary meeting is held, which is more convenient to move.
Several other members of the U.S. delegation, such as Harry Hopkins and his son Robert, as well as stronius, Marshall, Leahy and Roosevelt’s daughter Anna, also lived in the livajia palace.
The British delegation stayed at the Vorontsov palace in alupka.
The palace was designed by the British architect ed boud and built by count M.C. Vorontsov, governor of novorossisk, in the first half of the 19th century.
Count Vorontsov was educated on the Thames.
His pro British style is fully reflected in his architectural style.
The due north of the palace is integrated with the undulating background of the whole mountains.
It is built in the late Gothic style of England, and its shape is similar to the castle of the great landlord of England in the middle ages.
Facing the sea in the south of the palace, it was built in the massage architectural style.
Churchill, head of the British delegation, liked the residence very much.
Here, he has a feeling of.
His daughter Sarah, Eden, kadogan, Alan Brooke, kenningheim, Charles Porter, Ambassador to Suriname Archibald Kopp and others lived with Churchill in Vorontsov palace, while other members of the delegation were placed in nursing homes.
All members of the Soviet delegation arrived in Yalta on February 2.
They live in the yusubov palace, which is the most inferior in scale and architectural style among the three palaces.
Stalin and foreign people’s commissar Molotov live in the main building, while other members live in the narrow auxiliary building.
Some experts live in Yalta.
The hospitable host did everything possible to provide better accommodation and convenience for the guests under the difficult conditions of wartime.
February 4, 1945, sunny.
All delegations have arrived at the meeting place.
At 5 p.m., the leaders of the three major countries met in the hall of the livajia palace, and the first plenary meeting of the Yalta Conference opened.
Members of the delegation of the Soviet Union, the United States and Britain sat around the big round table in the center of the hall, and the fireplace was burning vigorously, which added to the warm atmosphere of the meeting.
The main members of the U.S. delegation are: head Delano Roosevelt, Secretary of state E.
stranus, special assistant to the President Harry Hopkins, presidential chief of staff general Leahy, U.S. Army chief of Staff General George Marshall, commander in chief of the Navy General D.
king, U.S. ambassador to Mosco A.
Harriman and others.
Assistant Secretary of state Charles Bolen is the official translator.
The members of the British delegation are: head of the British delegation, Winston Churchill, foreign secretary A.
Eden, deputy secretary of state a.
kadogan, Grand Admiral Alan Brooke, chief of staff of the Empire, general ha Ismay, chief of staff of the Ministry of defense, Lieutenant General Charles Porter of the air force, chief of staff of the Navy and field marshal kenningheim.
The members of the Soviet delegation are: head Stalin, member of the people’s Committee for foreign affairs Molotov, member of the people’s Committee of the Navy Kuznetsov, deputy chief of the general staff of the Red Army Antonov, marshal Hu jiakov of the air force, Soviet ambassador to the United States gromiko and Soviet ambassador to Britain Gusev.
The military and diplomatic advisers and experts of the delegation mainly include: arudinian, alkatiyev, Vinogradov, kavtaraze, pofrob, Novikov, molochkov, etc.
The Soviet delegation proposed to elect Roosevelt as the executive chairman of the conference, and the British delegation supported this proposal.
At the beginning of the meeting, Roosevelt almost made every effort to announce: “I am very honored to announce the opening of the meeting.
” Next, he lowered his voice and said calmly, “the leaders of the three major countries have known each other very well so far, and their understanding is increasing.
Everyone hopes to end the war and establish a stable peace as soon as possible.
” this meeting did not set a strict agenda in advance, and delegations of all countries can raise any issues according to their own wishes and submit them to the general assembly for discussion.
The British delegation explained that since some documents were lost due to the crash of a plane carrying files on its way to Malta, there was no written bill submitted to the general assembly and hoped to hold consultations on issues of common concern.
Both the Soviet delegation and the US delegation came to the Yalta meeting with carefully studied plans.
The Soviet Delegation believed that the main task of the conference should be to ensure the defeat of German Fascism as soon as possible and ensure that the Soviet Union and other countries will not suffer aggression in the future.
In order to achieve this goal, we must solve the fundamental problems related to the political structure of post-war Europe and Germany in order to ensure common security.
The US delegation proposed to seek specific assistance from the Soviet Union in the war against Japan.
The United States also hopes to reach an agreement with the Soviet Union on the establishment of the United Nations.
The U.S. State Department drafted a special “black book” for Roosevelt, which expounds the position of the United States on some political problems and ways to solve them.
During the meeting, the British delegation spared no effort to strengthen Britain’s influence in Europe, maintain the “balance of power” and maintain the status of the British Empire.
The meeting began with a study of the battlefield situation between the Soviet Union and Germany.
Senior general Antonov, deputy chief of general staff of the Red Army of the Soviet Union, made a report on the battlefield situation between the Soviet Union and Germany.
He pointed out that by the end of January, the Soviet army had advanced 500 kilometers in the main assault direction of Warsaw Berlin, and had entered the line of the Oder River, 60 kilometers away from Berlin, cutting off the main channel connecting the enemy in East Prussia with the central region of Germany.
At the same time, it broke through the German fortified positions in the direction of chinisburg and lejin in East Prussia.
Most of Poland and Czechoslovakia have been liberated by the Red Army, and Hungary has been forced to withdraw from the war.
On behalf of the Soviet command, general Antonov expressed the hope that “the allies will quickly turn to attack on the current very favorable western line.
” Because the German army has transferred 16 divisions to the east line, it is likely to increase its troops to the east line.
The Allied forces and the Soviet army should coordinate their operations so that the Soviet army can launch the attack smoothly.
General Marshall also gave a detailed report on the situation on the western front after general Antonov’s speech.
He said that the Allies “have eliminated the consequences of the German attack in the Aden mountains” and are preparing to break through the “zigfi line” in the next step.
The first attack plan began on February 8.
Churchill once again moved out of his “Balkan plan” unpopularly, that is, to attack the German army through the Adriatic Sea and the pass of Ljubljana.
This plan was ignored by the participants, and even Roosevelt made it clear that he did not support it.
With the finalization of the principle plan, the determination of the Soviet army to cooperate with the allies has been formed.
Specific military issues will be discussed at the regular meeting of representatives of the Soviet, American and British staff headquarters.
The first meeting ended at about 8 p.m. After the meeting, the atmosphere in the hall of the livajia palace was warm.
President Roosevelt hosted a banquet here in honor of the delegates.
All the dishes are specially prepared by Philippine chefs with Russian raw materials.
During the dinner, representatives of various countries raised their glasses frequently to wish the Allies success in all cooperation during and after the war.
The second plenary meeting began at 4 p.m. on 5 February.
Five minutes before the meeting, accompanied by his daughter Sarah, adjutant, Churchill first came to the venue of the meeting, the livajia palace.
Then Stalin walked solemnly and slowly to the conference hall.
Finally, the door leading to the conference hall of the presidential residence opened, and a black waiter pushed Roosevelt’s wheelchair out.
Roosevelt shook hands with Stalin and Churchill.
He smiled and could hardly see his illness.
This meeting is different from the issues discussed at the first meeting, and the atmosphere is also different.
Consensus has been reached on several military issues, but there have been serious differences and even sharp disputes on the political issues discussed.
In particular, Stalin and Churchill, the head of the Soviet delegation, often fought red in the face over a certain issue.
Nevertheless, because all parties of the countries with two social systems have good wishes and sincerity of cooperation, the disputes belong to disputes, they still maintain the attitude of mutual cooperation and make coordinated decisions.
In particular, President Roosevelt, who performed the function of chairman, was able to express the differences between the two sides calmly, with great discretion and good use of harmonious language, resolve contradictions, and played an important role in the smooth progress of the meeting and the conclusion of the agreement.
One of the most important political issues discussed at the meeting was about the future of Germany.
The heads of state of the three countries reached a consensus on the common political issues after the defeat of Germany and the plan to force fascist Germany to accept unconditional surrender.
According to the agreement, the European Consultative Committee to be established in Germany had delimited several occupied areas in September 1944: the eastern part of Germany was occupied by the Soviet Union.
Northwest Germany is occupied by Britain.
Southwest Germany is occupied by the United States.
Western Germany is occupied by France.
The “greater Berlin” area was also jointly occupied by the allies.
After Germany’s surrender, the commander in chief of the armed forces of the Soviet Union, the United States and Britain exercised supreme power in their respective occupied areas.
All issues of a German character should be resolved by the central control committee (later referred to as the “allied Control Committee for Germany”).
If there were no differences between the allies on the issue of defeating Germany at this meeting, there were serious differences on the issue of determining Germany’s future.
The Soviet Union insisted on building a unified, peace loving and democratic Germany.
The United States and Britain advocated dismembering Germany in order to subdue Germany politically and economically.
In this regard, the Soviet delegation firmly expressed its opposition, especially againstChurchill’s proposal to divide Germany into North Germany and South Germany.
Although the differences remained, the Yalta Conference adopted the most important resolution – the resolution on the elimination of the German war machine and fascism.
The heads of state of the three countries unanimously said: “our unswerving purpose is to eliminate German militarism and Nazism and ensure that Germany can no longer undermine world peace.
” The meeting made a decision: disarm Germany and disband all German armed forces.
Destroy the German general staff forever.
Ban and destroy all kinds of weapons and equipment in Germany.
Implement comprehensive control over the whole German industry (British and American heads of government strongly advocated turning Germany into an agricultural country).
Fair trial of all war criminals.
The conference also made a plan to eliminate the most dangerous source of militarism and fascism in Europe, eliminate the Nazi Party and all its organizations and institutions from the whole German territory, and abolish all Nazi laws.
The Yalta meeting also made a decision on the issue of German war reparations.
Before the formal meeting, Stalin held private consultations with Roosevelt on this issue and reached an agreement.
When the Soviet Union, the United States and Britain held formal consultations on the issue of German war reparations, Stalin put forward his own views on behalf of the Soviet government.
He cited the facts and said: “As we all know, the Soviet Union suffered the most losses in the war.
In the struggle against German Fascism, the Soviet people exchanged the flesh and blood of 20 million people for today’s victory.
Fascist bandits caused great disaster to the Soviet people in the occupied territory of the Soviet Union, with a direct loss of 679 billion rubles.
This figure is appalling and unmatched by other countries .
Therefore, it is not too much for the Soviet government to accept 50% of the German war reparations.
” Stalin finished, holding a pipe in his hand and staring at Churchill with deep and sharp eyes.
What worried him most was Churchill’s attitude.
From the beginning of the Yalta meeting, the two of them had many exchanges on some issues.
Stalin realized that Churchill would not easily agree to the requirements of the Soviet government.
As expected, Churchill’s face darkened when he heard Stalin’s request for 50% of the German war reparations.
From the bottom of his heart, he does not want this communist country to heal the wounds of war as soon as possible.
He hopes that this country will always be disabled, riddled with holes and lose the ability to compete with Britain and the United States.
Therefore, he said, “I don’t think my government will agree with the proposal of the Soviet government.
In this way, it seems unfair to other anti fascist countries in the world.
” Roosevelt thought it was time to speak for himself.
He really didn’t want this issue to affect the smooth progress of the conference.
At the same time, considering that the United States still needs the Soviet Union on the issue of fighting against Japan, therefore, He said persuasively: “I just heard Stalin estimate that the German war reparations should be US $20 billion.
If we compensate the Soviet Union with us $10 billion, it should be said that it is not much compared with the losses they have suffered, and the US $10 billion we have received should not be too small.
” Churchill had nothing to say, so he agreed with the delegations of the Soviet Union and the United States.
The heads of state of the three countries agreed to take this proposal as the basis for discussion and decision by the compensation committee to be established in Moscow.
At the Yalta meeting, a provision was also adopted on the basis of Roosevelt’s proposal: that is, when the United Nations solves issues related to the maintenance of peace, the resolution of the Security Council can be adopted only when 7 of the 11 members vote in favour, including all permanent members (the Soviet Union, the United States, Britain, France and China).
The conference also adopted an important Declaration on post liberation Europe.
The declaration affirms that the liberated peoples of all countries have the right to eliminate all the remaining evils of Nazism and fascism, to establish democratic political power according to their own choice and to choose their own form of management.
The declaration emphasizes that the three countries must remain consistent in solving international problems after the war.
At the Yalta meeting, the most heated issue was Poland.
Of the eight plenary meetings, six were devoted to Poland.
At that time, there were two governments in Poland: one was the interim government with Beirut as president and moravsky as prime minister.
The other is the government in exile in London.
The United States and Britain tried to dissolve the interim government established by the Polish democratic forces and regarded the exiled government in London, which was hostile to the Soviet Union, as a legitimate government.
But their hopes did not come true.
With the efforts of the Soviet delegation, the United States and Britain finally made a compromise and agreed to establish a unified interim government on the basis of the Polish interim government, with the participation of Democrats in Poland and poles in exile.
As for Poland’s future East-West border, it was also resolved at the insistence of the Soviet Union.
The eastern border of Poland is subject to the “Koson” line, which is 5 ~ 8km in some areas, which is conducive to the adjustment of Poland.
In this way, the United States and Britain actually recognized the integration of western Ukraine and Western Belarus into the Soviet Union.
On the western border of Poland, the Soviet Union advocated taking the Oder River and the sinis River as the boundary, but no agreement has been reached.
It was not until the Berlin Conference held after Germany’s defeat in 1945 that the western border of Poland was set on the odernis line.
So far, the Soviet Union finally achieved its wish on the Polish issue.
This played an important role in strengthening its sphere of influence in Eastern Europe.
Any diplomatic effort is backed by strength.
The Soviet Union’s contribution and strong military strength in the war against fascist Germany added a lot of weight to its diplomatic struggle of bargaining.
Considering their respective strategic interests, the moderate compromise between the United States and Britain can not but be regarded as a wise move.
However, this compromise, with the sacrifice of the sovereignty of a third country as a bargaining chip, is inevitably suspected of bullying the weak.
This is prominently reflected in the Yalta secret agreement signed by the heads of state of the three countries.
Now this secret agreement has long been disclosed to the world.
At the Yalta meeting on February 11, the United States and Britain agreed to the following conditions put forward by the Soviet Union after receiving the Soviet Union’s commitment to participate in the war against Japan within two or three months after the German surrender and the end of the European War: first, the current situation of Outer Mongolia (the people’s Republic of Mongolia) was maintained. 2. The former rights and interests of Russia derived from Japan’s treacherous attack in 1904 must be restored, that is, a, the southern Sakhalin Island and all adjacent islands shall be returned to the Soviet Union. B. Dalian commercial port must be internationalized to ensure the superior rights and interests of the Soviet Union in the port and restore the Soviet Union’s lease of Lushun Port naval base. C. Middle East Railway and South Manchuria Railway.