The Soviet Union was the first socialist country born in the world after World War I.
Before the October Revolution, Russia was an agricultural country with backward economy and culture and dominated by small-scale peasant economy.
The already weak industrial base was seriously damaged during the first World War and the civil war.
After the victory of the October Revolution, the Soviet Union has been surrounded by capitalist countries and threatened by war, becoming an isolated socialist island.
After Germany’s surrender, the allies took advantage of the end of the world war to send a large number of additional troops to Soviet Russia.
Soon, 130000 troops were assembled in the South and pushed North together with the white guards.
However, the Allied forces were divided under the influence of Bolshevik propaganda, and many soldiers refused to fight.
At the end of 1920, the civil war was basically over, but the Far East was still occupied by the Japanese invading army and the white guards.
In order to avoid direct armed conflict with Japan, Soviet Russia decided to build a buffer state in the east of Lake Baikal.
In April 1920, the Far East Republic was officially established.
It was not a Soviet state of workers and peasants, but a Democratic Republic of working people.
Vladivostok accepted the leadership of the Russian Central far east bureau.
After the founding of the Far East Republic, the Red Army and guerrillas were reorganized into the people’s revolutionary army.
On October 25, the people’s revolutionary army entered Vladivostok (Vladivostok) and drove the last foreign invading army out of the country.
In November 1922, the Far East Republic was incorporated into the Republic of the Russian Federation.
On December 30, the first Soviet Congress of the union of Soviet Socialist Republics opened at the Moscow Grand Theater.
The founding declaration and Treaty of the union of Soviet Socialist Republics were read out.
The General Assembly unanimously adopted the resolution on the establishment of the union of Soviet Socialist Republics, which stipulates that the union is a voluntary union of equal nationalities, that each republic has the right to withdraw freely from the union, and that all Soviet Socialist Republics can join the union.
The establishment of the union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) opened up broad prospects for the development of all nationalities in Soviet countries.
In January 1924, the second congress of the Soviet Union approved the first constitution of the Soviet Union and completed the legislative procedures for the establishment of Soviet Union countries.
In December 1925, the 14th Congress of the Communist Party of China (Bolshevik) passed a resolution, which established the policy of socialist industrialization: to make the Soviet Union from a country importing machinery and equipment to a country producing machinery and equipment, so that the Soviet Union will never become a vassal of the capitalist world economy under the encirclement of capitalism, And become an independent economic country built in a socialist way.
In July 1926, the “new opposition” led by Zinoviev and gaminev formed a new opposition alliance with Trotsky and others, referred to as “Trotsky alliance”.
They put forward more systematic theories and political programs.
In July of the same year, the first joint action of the Tuoji alliance was to submit a “three person statement” to the Central Committee of the United Communist Party (Brazzaville).
In July, the Communist Party of China (Bolshevik) held a plenary session of the Central Committee, which launched a very heated debate on economic issues, industrialization and rural policies.
The plenary session decided to expel Zinoviev from the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee and rasevich from the Central Committee.
In September and October, the Tuoji Alliance launched an open debate across the country.
On October 16, six opposition leaders, including Trotsky, Zinoviev, gaminev, pidakov, sokrinikov and yevdokimov, issued a statement saying that they would give up factional activities, but still adhere to their own views.
From October 23 to 26, the CPC (Brazzaville) Central Committee and the central supervisory committee held a joint plenary session and decided to remove Trotsky from the post of member of the Political Bureau and gaminev from the post of alternate member of the Political Bureau, and to remove Zinoviev from the post of chairman of the Comintern.
On May 26, 1927, Trotsky, yevdokimov and smirga jointly wrote to the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee and submitted an “eighty-three member political platform” signed by 83 Communist Party members, stating that the CPC Central Committee had implemented a right leaning line externally and continued to implement the wrong line internally, resulting in a crisis in industry, agriculture and inner-Party life, He proposed overcoming inner-party differences and strengthening party unity.
In the autumn of 1927, there was a commodity shortage in China, which led to the crisis of grain purchase.
This situation seriously threatens the country’s food supply and export, and then threatens the process of national industrialization.
Therefore, overcoming the food crisis has become an urgent task for the party and government leaders of the Soviet Union.
In order to fundamentally solve the food problem, at the end of 1927, according to the policy of vigorously carrying out agricultural collectivization put forward by the 15th Congress of the Communist Party of China (Bolshevik), the Soviet Union began the agricultural collectivization movement.
In December 1929, the Political Bureau of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China (Bolshevik) established a collectivization Committee headed by Yakovlev to lead the agricultural collectivization movement.
On January 5, 1930, the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China (Bolshevik) passed the resolution on the speed of collectivization and the measures of the state to help the construction of collective farms, which divided the speed of completing collectivization into three categories.
On March 14, the Central Committee of the United Communist Party (Bolshevik) passed the resolution on opposing the distortion of the party’s line in the collective farm movement, correcting the “left” mistakes in the overall collectivization movement and prohibiting the use of coercive means to implement collectivization.
According to the resolution of the 15th Congress of the Communist Party of China (Bolshevik), the Soviet Union implemented the first Five-Year Plan for developing the national economy from 1928 to 1933.
The basic task of the first five-year plan is to establish the foundation for the technological transformation of the national economy in a short period of time and change the Soviet Union from an agricultural country to an industrial country and into a powerful and economically independent country that does not depend on capitalist countries.
Under the leadership of the United Communist Party (Bolshevik), the Soviet people made arduous efforts to realize the first five-year plan.
The United Communist Party (Bolshevik) put forward the slogan “technology determines everything in the period of socialist transformation” in 1931.
The party called on the cadres and the masses to study and master technology.
The whole country has set off an upsurge of learning new technologies.
In the first five-year plan, the Soviet Union invested 24.
8 billion rubles in industry and built more than 150D industrial and mining enterprises, most of which are large modern enterprises.
As a result, industrial fixed assets increased by 1.
The total industrial output value increased by 102% over 1928, with an average annual growth rate of 19.2%. To 1932In, the proportion of industry in the total output value of industry and agriculture has risen to 70.7%. Since 1933, the Soviet Union began to implement the second five-year plan for national economic development, aiming to complete the country’s industrialization and establish the latest technological foundation for all national economic departments.
During the second Five-Year Plan period, the Soviet Union further expanded the scale of industrial construction, the total capital investment increased by 1.
2 times compared with the first Five-Year Plan period, and 4500 new industrial enterprises were built.
The total industrial output value increased from 43.
5 billion rubles to 95.
5 billion rubles, an increase of 1.
2 times, ranking first in Europe and second in the world.
By 1937, the Soviet Union had basically realized the technological transformation of national industry, and the proportion of industrial output value in the total industrial and agricultural output value had risen to 77.4%. A large industrial system with complete departments has been established, which can meet the needs of the national economy and national defense with all necessary technical equipment.
The third five-year plan of the Soviet Union was implemented in 1938.
Due to the increasing threat of war in Germany, the Soviet Union spent more and more funds on strengthening the national defense industry.
By 1940, the output of defense industrial products in the Soviet Union had increased by 1.
8 times, while the output of the whole industry had increased by only 45%.
During this period, the annual growth rate of industrial output value was 39% for the national defense industry and 3.
2% for the whole industry.
This laid the foundation for the Soviet economy to quickly turn into the wartime track after the outbreak of the Soviet German war.
On the road of industrialization, the Soviet Union has always given priority to the development of heavy industry as the core and focus of socialist industrialization.
At the beginning of industrialization, the investment in heavy industry accounted for 34% of the total industrial investment, and the fixed assets of heavy industry increased by 58%.
Compared with 1917, the total output value of heavy industry increased by almost twice.
In the total industrial output value, heavy industry increased from 33.
3% in 1913 to 39.
5% in 1928.
In the stage of full-scale industrialization, according to the principle that “the production departments of heavy industry should achieve the fastest development speed, that is, they can improve the economic strength and national defense strength of the Soviet Union in the shortest time, ensure the possibility of China’s development in the event of economic blockade, and reduce China’s dependence on the capitalist world”, the focus of industrial investment is still heavy industry, Accounting for about 86% of the total industrial investment, which is much higher than that in the previous period.
As a result, the fixed assets of heavy industry increased by two times, the output value increased by 1.
73 times, and the annual growth rate reached 28.5%. In the same period, the growth of light industry was only 56% and the annual growth rate was only 11.7%. The second Five-Year Plan period was the stage when the industrialization of the Soviet Union was basically completed.
When preparing the plan, the party and the government decided to adjust the internal structure of industry and speed up the development of light industry.
The second five-year plan stipulates that from 1933 to 1937, the annual growth rate of light industry will increase from 13.
2% during the first five-year plan to 18.
5%, agriculture from 2.
6% to 14.
9%, and heavy industry from 40.
1% to 14.5%. In other words, light industry will be the fastest growing industrial sector during this period.
However, as the fascists came to power in Germany, the international situation deteriorated and the threat of war increased, and national defense had to be strengthened.
Therefore, the adjustment plan could not be realized.
The annual growth rate of heavy industry was still as high as 19% and the output value increased by 1.
The annual growth rate of light industry was 14.
8%, and the output value doubled.
In the process of socialist industrialization, the Soviet Union attached great importance to the upgrading of technology and equipment, and listed the machine manufacturing industry as the core of industrial development.
During the second Five-Year Plan period, its output value almost doubled, 23 times higher than the growth rate of the whole industry.
This has provided more and more new technologies and equipment for various departments of the national economy, greatly improving the degree of mechanization of various industries.
50-60% of the production tools and equipment used in the whole industry were updated from 1933 to 1937.
More than 80% of the total industrial output value in 1937 was created by newly-built and thoroughly transformed enterprises.
At the same time, taking advantage of the economic crisis in western countries, the Soviet Union also introduced a large number of western advanced equipment and technology to lay its own industrial foundation, and then gradually reduced imports and replaced similar imported products with domestic products.
In 1931, the machinery and equipment purchased by the Soviet Union accounted for about 131% of the world’s total machinery and equipment exports, rising to about 50% in 932.
In the process of national industrialization, the Soviet Party and government have always attached importance to the training of technical cadres.
Stalin successively put forward slogans such as “Revolutionary Youth March into science”, “technology decides everything” and “cadres decide everything”, which played a major role in solving the problems of technology and cadres.
While giving priority to the development of heavy industry, the Soviet Union attached great importance to the industrial layout, especially the regional layout of industry.
During the first Five-Year Plan period, new industrial bases were established in Ukraine, Caucasus, Belarus, Kazakhstan and other places.
During the second Five-Year Plan period, half of the new investment in heavy industry will be used in the eastern region.
The eastward movement of Soviet industry, especially heavy industry, made the industrial distribution of the Soviet Union more reasonable, which is of great significance to strengthen war preparedness and develop resources.
The completion of industrialization characterized by giving priority to the development of heavy industry in the Soviet Union turned the Soviet Union into an economically independent country, which could supply all the technical equipment necessary for its economy and national defense.
This not only provided a solid material and technological foundation for the Soviet Union’s national defense industry, but also created conditions for the Soviet Union to quickly complete the national economic restructuring and transfer to the wartime system in wartime.
The increase of technical personnel provided living technical preparation for the Soviet national defense industry.