After sending the manuscript of les miserables to the publishing house, there was no reply for some time.
So he sent a letter to the publishing house, the content only wrote: “? – Hugo.
” Soon, he received a reply from the publishing house, the content of which was only: “! — editorial room.
” Before long, the sensational les miserables met with readers.
These two letters are called “the shortest letters in the world”.
The two punctuation marks completely express the meaning to be expressed between them, which can’t help but make people applaud.
Victor Hugo (1802-1885) is the leader of the French romantic literary movement and one of the greatest writers in the history of French literature.
Hugo still enjoys a high reputation and occupies a very important position in the history of French and world literature.
His life spanned almost the whole 19th century.
His literary career lasted for 60 years and his creativity lasted for a long time.
His romantic novels are wonderful and moving, vigorous and powerful, and have permanent charm to readers.
Hugo was born in Besancon, southern France, in 1802.
His grandfather was a carpenter and his father was an officer under his command.
He was awarded the rank of general by Napoleon’s brother Joseph Bonaparte, king of Spain.
He was a close and important Minister of the king.
Hugo became interested in literature when he was in middle school.
His literary activities began with his writing for the magazine literary conservatives.
Due to the influence of his family, Hugo’s initial poems mostly praised royalism and religion.
His first novel, Han islamt, was praised by the novelist nottie.
The bond with nottier prompted Hugo to turn to Romanticism and gradually become the leader of romanticism.
In 1827, Hugo wrote a long preface to his play Cromwell, the famous romantic literary declaration.
In the preface, Hugo opposes the artistic viewpoint of classicism, puts forward the literary proposition of romanticism, and insists on not expressing the plot formulaically but concretely.
He especially advocated the principle of the contrast between truth, goodness and beauty and hypocrisy, evil and ugliness.
This preface occupies an important position in the history of French literary criticism.
Romanticism is the longest lasting and most influential literary school in France in the 19th century.
Hugo used his script to break the classical drama of suppressing emotion with reason, only praising the rules and regulations of princes and nobles, and put forward the aesthetic principle of comparing funny, ugly and noble beauty, which made love overwhelm reason and finally overturned the ruling position of classicism.
When his romantic drama “Onani” was performed in 1830, the audience of two groups supporting classicism and romanticism fought in the theater.
It was called “Onani event” in history.
This is the symbol of the victory of romanticism over classicism.
Therefore, Hugo, 27, became the leader of romanticism.
Since then, romanticism has further developed and differentiated, resulting in great world-renowned writers such as Balzac, Stendhal and Zola.
It can be said that the schools they represent are derived from Romanticism, and without Hugo and the romantic literary movement led by him, it is impossible to achieve such brilliant achievements.
The significance of Hugo’s creation lies in that his works cooperate with the real political struggle.
Hugo’s early novel Notre Dame de Paris is a typical example.
It tells a story that took place in Paris in the 15th century.
The gypsy girl Esmeralda performed in the street.
Claude Frollo, the vice bishop of Notre Dame in Paris, had evil thoughts on her and ordered cassimodo, the ugly bell ringer of Ritchie in Notre Dame, to hijack her.
As a result, she was rescued by Fabius, the leader of the bow and arrow team, and became his lover.
Out of jealousy, Frollo stabbed Phoebus during their tryst and blamed Esmeralda, so that she was sentenced to death.
Quasimodo loved Esmeralda and rescued her to Notre Dame and hid her in the bell tower.
Frollo handed Esmeralda over to the officers and soldiers for execution after she was refused again.
Out of righteous indignation, Quasimodo pushed frolo down from the top of the bell tower and fell to death.
He fled into the cemetery with Esmeralda’s body in his arms and committed suicide.
Politically, the novel exposes the hypocrisy and darkness of the Catholic Church and criticizes the injustice and cruelty of the feudal judicial system.
In art, it embodies Hugo’s principle of “comparison between beauty and ugliness”: the dignified vice bishop frolo has a heart like a snake and scorpion, while the ugly bell ringer Quasimodo is kind and noble, and the exaggeration of the character fully shows the color of romanticism.
Hugo’s later works are more closely combined with reality.
After Napoleon’s third restoration, he was forced to exile abroad for 19 years.
During his exile, he wrote precious speeches such as little Napoleon, as well as magnificent and emotional moving poems such as punishment and ferocious years.
He sounded the horn of struggle against autocratic rule and praised light and progress, so as to become an immortal national poet in France.
His masterpiece les miserables, which took him 16 years to complete, fully embodies his humanitarian ideal.
Jean Valjean, the protagonist, was imprisoned in prison for 19 years for stealing a piece of bread.
After he was released from prison, he was renamed Madeleine under the influence of the lenient bishop Bienvenu.
After he became rich, he was charitable, became mayor, and saved Fantine, a female worker who became a prostitute.
At this time, the police concluded that a thief was Jean Valjean.
In order not to implicate others, he stepped forward and was arrested after admitting his true identity.
Fantine was frightened to death.
Later, Jean Valjean took the opportunity to save a sailor and pretended to fall into the sea to die.
After countless hardships, he finally brought up Fantine’s illegitimate daughter Cosette.
Through the true description of the suffering of the poor, the novel strongly protested against the darkness of society and the injustice of justice, and publicized the humanitarian thought that kindness and fraternity can eliminate evil and save mankind.
As he pointed out in his preface: “as long as the three major problems of this century – men’s moral corruption due to poverty, women’s degradation due to hunger, and children’s physical weakness due to darkness – can not be solved completely, as long as there is ignorance and poverty in this world, such books are not useless.
” Because of this, “les miserables” can be regarded as a model of the combination of realism and romanticism, and has shocking artistic power.
Hugo published 19 volumes of poetry before his death and six volumes after his death, with a total of about 220000 lines and more than 10 million words.
There are three differences between his novels and short storiesA million words.
He wrote nine plays, as well as more than ten volumes of political comments, essays and travel notes.
Therefore, in the eyes of the French, Hugo is a poet, dramatist and novelist.
While writing, Hugo also put his humanitarian thought into action.
After the British and French allied forces burned the Old Summer Palace in 1861, he wrote solemnly: “the French Empire has obtained half of the stolen goods from this victory, and now it is naive as if it is the real owner to show the glorious plunder of the Old Summer Palace.
I hope that one day France can get rid of the burden, clean up the blame and return these wealth to the looted China.
” After the failure of the Paris Commune, he called for the pardon of commune soldiers and the opening of his residence in Brussels for members to take refuge.
Today, millions of people are still fighting for the most basic human rights such as the right to survival and the right to development.
Hugo’s statement that poverty corrupts men’s morality and hunger corrupts women is far from being fundamentally changed.
Therefore, the humanitarian spirit advocated by Hugo all his life still has the practical significance of progress and is still worth carrying forward today.