In the Bible, “prophet” refers to those who are called by God, communicate with God and convey God’s will.
Before the 9th century BC, there were people who communicated with God and conveyed God’s meaning in various ways between the Euphrates River and the Nile River Basin.
They thought and conveyed the “divine will” through divination, dream interpretation, throwing holy dice, observing the falling of birds and inspecting the liver of sacrificial animals.
The prophet Amos preached in northern Israel to answer all kinds of doubts in life, ranging from finding lost things to the victory or defeat of the war and harvest.
Hebrew people also have such “divination prophets”.
According to Samuel 9:5-9, after Saul’s donkey was lost, Saul’s servant advised him to take a quarter of the silver of keshel and seek the instructions of Samuel’s prophet.
At that time, there were not only “divination prophets”, but also “crazy prophets”.
According to 1 Kings, Chapter 18, verses 26-29, 450 Baal prophets fighting Elijah shouted and jumped wildly.
They even stabbed and bled their bodies with knives and guns and fell into ecstasy in order to communicate with God.
At the end of the 11th century BC, with the establishment of the unified kingdom of Hebrew, some of these divination prophets and crazy prophets continued to operate in the countryside, and some of them became Temple priests specializing in religious ceremonies.
The other part became the court prophet of the king.
The main duty of the court prophet is to provide divine recognition for the king’s major decisions.
Sometimes a king has hundreds of such prophets.
In order to protect the salary of the court, such prophets often only dare to say what is in line with the king’s will.
But there were also upright and upright men among the court prophets, such as Nathan, Elijah and Micaiah.
They were not afraid of the obscenity of the monarch, “they did not speak good words, but evil words”.
The Bible contains the words of 16 prophets.
According to the length of their works, they can be divided into big and small prophets.
4 prophets, including Ezekiel, Elijah and Jeremiah.
The 12 “little prophets” are Hosea, Joel, Amos, Obadiah, Jonah, Micah, Nahum, Habakkuk, Zephaniah, Haggai, Zechariah and Malachi.
These prophets who bear the sacred mission have gained courage and strength from the holiness of the mission.
They have doubled their courage and dare to condemn evil and preach justice without fear.
Regardless of personal honor or disgrace, we will lose the sin of denouncing the ruling class and even the whole nation.
They persevere, go through hardships and do not change their will, and do not change their deeds in times of hardship.
At the same time, the nature of the Apocalypse of prophecy also contains another layer of efficacy.
Once part of the prophecy becomes reality, the prophecy of the prophet will have a great deterrent.
Therefore, the prophecies that have not yet been realized and to be realized in the prophecy of the prophet will have greater appeal and practical guidance.
For the Hebrew nation, the prophet movement has a history of more than 300 years from the 8th century BC to the 5th century BC.
During this period, the north and South perished in the Assyrian Empire and the new Babylonian Kingdom, the solemn and beautiful temple of Jerusalem was razed to ruins, and the Hebrews were taken prisoner in a foreign land.
During this period, Assyria and New Babylon successively dominated and perished, giving way to the Persian kingdom rising on the Iranian plateau.
All these great changes brought great ideological impact to people at that time.
Jeremiah, the prophet who cares about the country and the people, stepped on the stage of history under the background of this turbulent era.
From the 8th century BC to the 7th century BC, when the Assyrian Dynasty dominated, the unified kingdom was divided into North and south.
As the national prosperity has passed, social contradictions have intensified, the polarization between the rich and the poor has further intensified, and social, political and religious life has become increasingly corrupt.
The kings and nobles were fatuous and violent, the upper class was drunk and dreamed of death, the priests only asked for sacrifices and drank too much, profiteers and usurers gathered wealth by all means, the morality of the whole society was corrupt, the world was getting worse, and hypocrisy, greed, fraud and other immoral things could be seen.
At this time, the whole society was in danger.
Outside the nation, the emerging Assyrian Dynasty has been eyeing the north and south for a long time.
However, in this difficult autumn, the ruling classes of the two countries have sunk into a comfortable life.
At this time, Amos, Hosea, Isaiah and Micah, who had a clear sense of society and crisis, began their rough and suffering career as prophets.
They are sincere patriots and painful sobers.
They see the reality that people deviate from the way of God day by day, commit many injustices, the national situation is worrying, and people are unaware of it.
A sacred sense of mission drives them to cry out and call for the implementation of social justice, in order to awaken the people, carry out social reform, and finally achieve the purpose of changing the destiny of the country.
After the successive demise of the state of Israel and the state of Judea, the content and focus of the prophet’s prophecy changed.
When Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Zephaniah, Nahum, Habakkuk and other prophets condemned the sins of the Hebrews and predicted their fate to be punished, the comfort motivation of prophecy increased.
They are worried about the survival of the nation and mourn for the loss of the country.
However, they did not forget to comfort the injured hearts of the nation and inspire their confidence in working for national rejuvenation.
With the advent of Persian hegemony, the prophecies of the prophets of Obadiah, the second Isaiah, Haggai, Zechariah and Malachi turned to depicting the afterlife and looking forward to the future.
In the second half of the 5th century BC, the Hebrew prophet movement gradually declined.
The main reason for the decline is that at this time, the God only Judaism has been formed, and the classic of Judaism, the five classics of Moses, has been gradually compiled into a book.
Since then, studying the five books of Moses has become the main way to understand God’s will and know God.
The classic Dharma of Judaism finally replaced the prophet’s teaching, which has long been the spiritual food of Hebrews.
Although the Hebrew prophets only preached the social necessity of justice to their compatriots and completely took the covenant of God and man as the ideological basis for the implementation of justice, their deafening cry spoke out the common desire of mankind to pursue justice.
Prophetic thought has had a great impact on Western intellectuals.
It “provides Western intellectuals with spiritual transcendence, that is, it produces an unremitting desire for improvement, eternal criticism and ultimate concern for the imperfect world of reality”.
The prophecy of Ezekiel, the famous Hebrew prophet.
Ezekiel was a priest in Jerusalem.
He was captured when the Chaldeans first attacked the city of JudahTo the jabalu valley.
There, the hand of the Lord fell on him.
He felt the spirit and began to prophesy for the captured Hebrews.
Ezekiel received the inspiration of God on the fifth day of the fourth month in the fifth year of his capture.
He saw a strong wind blowing from the north, a big cloud with fire blowing around, shining around.
There was a fire like pure gold, and from it appeared four strange living creatures.
The living creature had the image of a man.
It had four faces and four wings.
On the front was the face of a man, on the right was the face of a lion, on the left was the face of an ox, and on the back was the face of an eagle.
The living creatures ran in the light of fire and lightning.
Next to each living creature is another wheel.
Each of the four wheels looks like a wheel in a wheel.
There are countless eyes around the rim, and the spirits of those living creatures are in the wheel.
On their heads is the image of the throne of the Almighty God, which is as brilliant as sapphire.
On the throne, there is a human shape, and below the waist is the shape of fire.
There is a glow around it.
The glow has the color of rainbow.
This is the glorious image of the Lord.
God said to Ezekiel, “son of man, stand up! I will speak to you.
” So the spirit entered his body.
God sent him to the rebellious people of Israel and told them that the Israelites and their fathers had rebelled against the Lord, and they are still shameless and stubborn to this day.
God also told Ezekiel that as a prophet he was among thorns and briers and among scorpions, but he wanted Ezekiel not to be afraid of them.
He gave Ezekiel a book to eat, so that he could convey to the Israelites its wails, sighs and grief.
God said to Ezekiel, “son of man, take a brick and set it before you, and draw the city of Jerusalem on it.
Besiege the city, build a tower and build a fortress, camp against it, and put a hammer around it to attack it.
Put an iron pot between you and the city, and attack the city opposite you, so that it may be a sign of the state of Israel.
” “Take wheat, barley, beans and so on and put them in a vessel to make your own bread.
Barbecue with human dung in front of the people.
The Israelites will eat unclean food in the same way when I drive them among the nations.
” Ezekiel said to God, I have not been defiled since I was a child.
Please don’t tell him so.
God said he would replace human dung with cow dung to bake cakes.
God said that he would break the staff of the Israelites in Jerusalem and cut off their food, so that they would eat bread according to their weight, worry and drink water according to their limit, and be terrified, and they would be destroyed because of their iniquity.
Then, as all the prophets said, God asked Ezekiel to warn the Israelites that because they had forsaken the Lord, worshipped idols and evil gods, did not do justice and committed adultery, they would be punished by the sword, plague, famine and subjugation, although the remnant of the people could be spared.
On the fifth day of the sixth month of the second year, Ezekiel was at home in front of the elders of Judah, and the spirit of God came down on him.
It was like the image of fire.
He stretched out a hand, grabbed a lock of his hair and lifted him between heaven and earth.
Here he is, in the vision of Jerusalem.
He witnessed evil idols and dirty pictures on the walls of the temple.
And Ezekiel saw the worship of the sun in the inner court of the house of the Lord.
In view of the secret betrayal of the Jewish elders and people, Ezekiel was told in a vision that God would order those who were in charge of the city of Jerusalem to come to Jerusalem with weapons of destruction in their hands.
Then came Ezekiel’s vision of God, his reproach of the moral decay and idolatry of the seletes through the mouth of God, and his prophecy of retribution for false prophets, lies and adultery.
That is, Jerusalem will fall, and the Hebrews will be like homeless sheep.
After counting the fall of Egypt and the failure of the Philistines and other neighbors of Judah, God made Ezekiel a watchman and made him alert to the Israelites at any time.
God himself also said, “I will personally look for my sheep and find them.
These sheep have been scattered everywhere in the dark days of dense clouds, and I will save them from there.
I will bring them out of all the people, gather them from all the countries and guide them back to their hometown”.
God promised to punish all those who hate Israel, because Israel will be blessed again.
Murals reflecting the prophet Ezekiel’s expectation that Babylonian prisoners would return to their hometown and build a temple again.
Found in the ancient city of Syria, all located in Europa.
On the fifth day of the tenth month in the twelfth year after Israel was plundered, someone fled from Jerusalem to the gebalu Valley and told Jerusalem that Jerusalem was finally broken and Judah had been subjugated.
But just after that, Ezekiel sensed that the dead bones on the plain were resurrected, and the Israeli nation was still revived in despair.
God also told Ezekiel that Judah and Israel would eventually merge into one country with the vision of two wooden sticks in his hand.
On the fifteenth day of the first month of the twenty fifth year of Ezekiel’s captivity by the Babylonians, the fourteenth year after the destruction of Jerusalem, the spirit of God brought Ezekiel to the highest mountain in the land of Israel.
He saw the vision that someone was measuring the city base and planning the wall to the inner court of the temple of the Lord in order to rebuild the holy city, which implied that the legal system of the Jewish state must be restored under the care of God, and the strength of King David in the past will become a reality of Israel again.
The righteous prophet Amos Amos (about 8th century BC) was a shepherd from a small village in the mountains of Judea.
He lived in a relatively prosperous period since the national division.
The prophet Amos preached in northern Israel.
With the development of economy, new social problems have emerged.
Landlords who used slave farming annexed the property of small farmers and pushed a large number of people who had nothing into the city.
The inequality of wealth leads to social injustice.
Amos made a ruthless attack on these ugly phenomena with a fierce attitude: the gap between the rich and the poor, taking advantage of danger and profiteering, corruption of ethics and discipline, court conspiracy, and so on.
At a festival celebration, he mercilessly condemned the gathered crowd with the voice of the spokesman of the Lord, condemning their hypocrisy Greed and plunder of the poor: “although you offer burnt offerings and grain offerings to me, I do not like it, nor do I like your peace offerings with fat animals.
keep your songs away from me, for I will not listen to the sound of your harps.
But let justice roll like the sea, and let the public be like rivers.
” Hosea Hosea, the prophet of love, lives in the Northern Kingdom about a generation later than Amos.
He is a country man who is not good at words and is not good at expressing his deep passion.
At this time, the short-term prosperity of the Northern Kingdom has ended and entered its decline period.
Like Amos, Hosea also emphasized the importance of morality, but he believed that God was tolerant and kind, and his love for the Israelites eased his judgment on them.
Hosea compared God’s relationship with Israel to that of a husband and wife.
He claims that an unfaithful wife must be punished for her behavior, but this punishment does not mean that her husband’s love for her is over.
The function of this love is to punish and purify.
He said through the mouth of God, “my heart will betroth you to me as my wife forever, and I will betroth you to me with righteousness, justice, mercy and mercy.
and I will betroth you to me with honesty, and you will know me, the Lord.
” Amos predicted that the fall of the Israelites was inevitable because of their sins.
Hosea also saw this, but he looked forward to the final salvation and hoped that through suffering, people would understand that only loyalty to God can bring security and peace.
He preached God’s unswerving love.
Isaiah, the Holy Prophet, was born into a royal family.
Like other prophets, Isaiah believed that he had a mission to both Hebrew countries, so he made an extremely severe attack on the disadvantages of these two countries.
Isaiah’s thought is full of the understanding of the sanctity and sanctity of God.
God is supreme and perfect.
His prophetic poetry is full of appeal, reaching the highest level of ancient Hebrew literature.
Isaiah’s poem yearning for eternal peace has become a classic saying often quoted by later generations: “they will beat their swords into plowshares,” and their guns into sickles.
One nation will not lift up its sword against another, and they will no longer learn war.
Jacob’s house, come on! We walk in the light of the Lord.
Isaiah had foreseen that the kingdoms of Israel and Judah would be destroyed, which was the punishment for their sins.
But their destruction will not be the final outcome, “the rest will return, overflowing with righteousness”.
The survivors of the great disaster will be purified and awakened, the remaining few will obey the Almighty God, and the Israelites will be reborn through these survivors.
Micah, the crying prophet, was born in a cold family.
He can better reflect the hearts of the lower class.
He strongly condemned the injustice in society and ruthlessly exposed the crimes of corrupt officials and rich people.
He claimed that all kinds of evil acts committed by them, especially the long-term exploitation of the poor, had filled the society with evil and a great disaster was coming.
Micah stressed that only those empty sacrifices and rituals can not be redeemed, and the real redemption depends on faith and action.
And he said, O world, the Lord has shown you what is good.
What did he ask of you? Micah the prophet.
The painting was painted in the 15th century.
Micah was one of the 12 little prophets.
As long as you are righteous, compassionate, humble and walk with God.
Jeremiah, the prophet of light, was a prophet who witnessed the fall of the kingdom of Judah.
He had a premonition of the imminent demise of the nation and was deeply saddened by the impending disaster, but he was unwilling to stand idly by, so he cried bitterly and ran around.
He will turn the tomb of the king of Jerusalem into an ominous house.
However, his prophecy not only failed to attract attention, but was persecuted continuously.
Later, he was put into a dungeon and almost killed.
But he still insisted on his own opinion and grieved for the national tragedy: Lord, you know me, you see me, you turn my heart to you.
When the prophet of light came, he heard God’s answer: “I am with you and I will save you.
” In the last years of the kingdom of Judah, when people realized that they were indeed in despair and began to realize the correctness of Jeremiah’s prophecy, he had focused on the far future.
The Babylonians did not take Jeremiah away.
He was still concerned about the fate of the Hebrew nation.
He sent letters to the exiles in Babylon, urging them to be patient and happy.
He also advised them to plant grapes and build houses to live on foreign land.
In desperation, he kept telling people that Israel still had a brilliant future, including rebuilding the Hebrew country.
It was because of his influence that the exiled Hebrews maintained their faith in the Lord and confidence in the future in the dark hours, and finally waited until the light came.