Henrik Ibsen (1828-1906) is a master of drama proud of the Norwegian people and the founder of a new era of modern European drama.
He enjoys the same immortal reputation as Moliere in the history of drama.
Ibsen’s father, a timber merchant, broke his property when he was a child, which gave the green light to create a genius.
Ibsen began to earn his living at the age of 15 and became an apprentice in the pharmacy.
In his spare time, he often read the works of Shakespeare, and Byron.
Then he began to write poems, plays and learn Latin.
Six years of hard apprenticeship tempered his fighting spirit and cultivated his creative interest, which is an important stage in his life.
In 1850, Ibsen went to the capital cristiania (now Oslo) to take the entrance examination of Medical University.
He was not admitted because of his poor performance in Greek, mathematics and Latin.
Under the agitation of the bourgeois revolution sweeping all over Europe, Ibsen made some friends with progressive ideological tendencies in the literary and artistic circles, actively wrote articles for the newspaper of the workers’ Association and other publications, participated in the workers’ movement led by the Norwegian socialist Marcus Trane, and cooperated with two friends to publish the satirical weekly andrimana.
He also wrote a set of sonnets entitled “wake up, the Scandinavians of SJO”, calling on Norway and Sweden to jointly send troops to support Denmark and fight against the Prussian invaders.
In his first historical play “Catalina”, he overturned the old case and wrote the “traitor” in Roman history as an excellent figure fighting for civil freedom.
The script not only reflects the revolution in 1848, but also shows his personal rebellious spirit.
The play was published with the help of a friend of his.
In the autumn of 1851, he wrote a prelude for Bergen theatre, which was appreciated by the founder of the theatre.
He was hired as a resident playwright and concurrently as an editor and director.
He agreed to write a new play every year.
In 1852, he was sent to visit theatres in Denmark and Germany.
His plays at the Bergen theatre include midsummer night, the tomb of the warrior, Mrs inger of ESTRO, solhogg’s banquet and Olaf lilekron.
During this period, Ibsen participated in the editing and directing of no less than 145 scripts.
His practical experience in drama creation is comparable to that of Shakespeare and Moliere.
From the creation of the script for Bergen theatre, the theme of rebellious protagonists and their harmful lovers attracted Ibsen throughout his life.
However, when Ibsen finally emerged in drama and was qualified to often write and direct himself in Bergen theater, he found himself in another kind of distress.
He should consider not only the empty and hypocritical tradition, but also the boring and lack of appreciation of the audience.
Thanks to the timely closure of the theater, Ibsen made up his mind to move to Italy.
He left for 27 years and returned to Oslo in his later years.
Representative works including “bill king” and “doll’s house” were completed and staged during exile.
Ibsen freed European drama from the state of providing entertainment and playthings for people, and restored it to ancient Greece, which became a powerful tool for judging the soul, thus fulfilling his promise: “everything or nothing.
” Ibsen wrote a total of more than 20 plays in his life.
In addition to those early romantic lyric poetry plays, it is mainly realistic prose plays, namely drama.
Most of these prose dramas take common and major social problems as the theme, which is usually called “social problem dramas”.
“Social pillar”, “doll house”, “ghosts” and “public enemy of the people” are the most famous representative works.
Ibsen’s entire creative career coincided with the second half of the 19th century.
It is natural that the image of the European bourgeoisie in his works is more rotten, ugly and hateful than that in Shakespeare and Moliere.
His sharp writing style is full of indignant enthusiasm, which exposes the hypocrisy and absurdity of the whole capitalist society by exposing the mask of the bourgeoisie in many aspects such as morality, law, religion, education and family relations.
“Doll’s house” is a serious accusation against the marriage relationship under capitalist private ownership and the patriarchal ideology of the bourgeoisie.
In fact, she is always prepared to be a good young man and a good wife for the sake of her reputation.
In fact, she is always prepared to be a good girl for her husband and family.
Because she saved her husband’s life, she once borrowed a debt from someone without telling him.
At the same time, she wanted to save her dying father’s trouble, so she signed under a false name.
It was because of this reasonable behavior that the “unreasonable law” of the bourgeoisie forced her to despair.
What made her more sad was that after the truth was revealed, when she needed her husband to help her and bear the crisis most, she found that the husband she sacrificed for was a hypocritical and despicable philistine.
She finally woke up and realized that she was just her father’s doll before marriage and her husband’s doll after marriage.
She had never had an independent personality.
So she resolutely abandoned her husband and children and ran away from the cage like family.
But what happens when Nora runs away? This is a problem that drama readers have always been concerned about.
Born in a country dominated by the petty bourgeoisie, Ibsen is surrounded by the Philistine atmosphere of compromise and speculation inherent in the petty bourgeois society.
He hated this kind of vulgar and hypocritical politics and politicians, and even, as he said, did not hesitate to “be in an open state of war”.
However, the pessimism of Ibsen, a Norwegian petty bourgeois, is also born here, and it can not really liberate Nora.
If Nora wants to really liberate herself, of course she can’t just walk away.
The first prerequisite for women’s liberation is the economic independence of all women.
Nora was subject to hailmao before awakening because hailmao first ruled her economically.
Therefore, if Nala wants to break away from hailmao’s control, she must not rely on a little rebellious spirit alone, but must first strive for an independent personality economically.
The liberation of the bourgeois women she represents must be based on the thorough reform of social and economic relations.
Ibsen was once called “a great question mark” in the history of world literature.
This “question mark” is still thought-provoking, prompting people to think about private ownership in capitalismAfter the economic foundation has been destroyed, how can we further eliminate and eliminate the bourgeois traditional morality, philistine consciousness and its pernicious influence denounced by Ibsen in Dollhouse and other plays.
In this sense, Ibsen’s drama is a valuable spiritual wealth for the proletariat whose responsibility is to liberate all mankind.