Let’s put aside the story of ancient China for the time being and turn our attention to a distant country in the west, ancient Egypt.

300 years after Shang Tang led the army to destroy Xia, a baby boy named Ramses was born in ancient Egypt.

He was the son of Pharaoh SETI I and queen duya.

He began to join the army at the age of 10, went on an expedition with his father at the age of 15, and became Egyptian pharaoh Ramses II at the age of 25.

Unlike the cowardly Taikang, Ramses II was called by ancient Egypt as a great leader, brave soldier, outstanding architect and serious super family planning father – he had more than 200 wives, 96 sons and 60 daughters.

Ramses II was the Pharaoh of the 19th Dynasty in ancient Egypt.

His ruling period was the last strong era of the new kingdom of Egypt.

He is 1.

76 meters tall and has rare bright red hair.

The reason why later generations know so well is entirely because his mummy is preserved in the museum.

The 96 year old Pharaoh never wanted to be in such a situation.

He had slept well in the ground, but was planed out as an exhibit.

Where can I reason? However, thanks to his mummy, modern talents have solved the secret of mummy making in ancient Egypt.

Here I want to mention the story of Ramses II and the spy, but this time the great Pharaoh is not the loyal object of the spy.

In April 1275 BC, Ramses II led his army to attack Kadesh, an important ancient Syrian town controlled by the Hittite king muwatarish.

Ramesses II led 20000 soldiers and 200 chariots, while muwatarish had 10000 soldiers and more than 3500 chariots.

Egypt was full of Hittite spies, and before Ramses II’s army was launched, details of his army and the route of his march had reached muwatarish’s ears.

Although the troops on hand are only half of Egypt’s, the Hittite King arranged the next trap for the Egyptian Pharaoh with a well-trained spy organization.

Near the oronte River, Pharaoh’s army met two Hittites dressed as Bedouin herdsmen.

They said they had important information to inform the Egyptians.

The two men were brought before Ramses II and reported to him that muwatarish’s forces had fled the city of Kadesh and that the Pharaoh could easily take the city.

Ramses II was overjoyed.

He risked his lead to camp in the plain near the city of Kadesh.

After watching the Egyptian army come, muwatarish, who was too cautious, decided to send two more spies for reconnaissance.

His spies were caught by the Egyptians.

Under torture, two spies revealed the truth.

Ramses II patted his thigh and said to withdraw quickly, but it was too late.

The Hittites suddenly launched an attack, and the unprepared Egyptian army collapsed.

When Ramesses II was about to choose between captives and glorious deaths, two unexpected things saved him: first, the Hittite soldiers were basically bandits, who were busy looting property instead of chasing and annihilating the enemy army after attacking the Egyptian camp.

The second is that the Pharaoh’s follow-up troops are fast, and they have come by this time.

The battle of Kadesh finally reached a confrontation.

Due to the rebellion in the country, muwatarish was forced to make peace.

In fact, ancient Egypt lost a lot.

They were destroyed as many as 5000 people, while the Hittites just lost a lot of chariots.

But Ramses II, who understood the importance of the propaganda position, was not simple.

He ordered his men to preach the battle as a great victory.

Therefore, there are sculptures praising the “great victory” of Kadesh in every temple in ancient Egypt.

In the relief depicting the battle of Kadesh in the famous Abu Simbel temple, Ramses II stretched out four arms and drove fast.

He claimed that two of them belonged to Amun, the main god of ancient Egypt, which proved that the gods were always on the side of the great Pharaoh.

Although the battle of Kadesh had a ridiculous ending, it also left the earliest spy record in the western world.

We can notice two facts.

The spies sent by muwatarish are some eloquent ordinary people, which is very different from the identity of Yi Yinhe.

Secondly, the Hittite spies who deceived Pharaoh were determined to die, because once the Egyptians found out they were deceived, they would be executed immediately.

By the way, the battle of Kadesh also has a record by-product.

Six years later, muwatarish died, and the ascendant atusirish signed the earliest international treaty in human history with Ramses II.

The treaty stipulates that the two sides will achieve permanent peace, “never have any more hostility” and always maintain “beautiful peace and beautiful brotherly relations”.

The two sides shall implement military mutual assistance and jointly defend against any invading enemy.

Both parties undertake not to accept each other’s fugitives and have the obligation to extradite them.

This is the earliest peace treaty and extradition regulation in world history.

After the signing of the treaty, artulish also adopted the policy of peace and marriage and married his eldest daughter to Ramses II.

Later, a sculpture found on the wall of Egypt’s Karnak temple depicts the scene of the Egyptian pharaoh marrying Princess hetti at that time.

Although peace was finally achieved, the fate of ancient Egypt and Hittites was accompanied by a lingering tragic color.

The hegemony war between Egypt and Hittites is an important event in the history of the ancient Middle and Near East.

Ramses II was one of the most powerful Pharaohs in ancient Egypt, and the Hittite kingdom was also in its heyday at that time.

The decades long military contest between the two sides has seriously weakened the strength of both sides.

The Pharaohs after Ramses II could no longer revive the Empire, and the once powerful new kingdom gradually fell into disintegration.

After the war with Egypt, the Hittite’s already unstable economic foundation further shook and soon began to decline.

By the 8th century BC, the last remaining forces were completely destroyed by the Assyrian Empire.

The Hittites were the first people in the history of the world to start smelting iron, and they were also the first people in the world to enter the iron age.

After the destruction of the Kingdom, a large number of Hittite blacksmiths scattered all over the country, so they spread the iron smelting technology to ancient India in the 8th century BC and China in the 6th century BC.

Ramses II can be said to be the greatest Pharaoh in the history of ancient Egypt.

In the brilliant history of ancient Egypt, there was a very famous female Pharaoh, Hatshepsut.

Hatshepsut was the sixth Pharaoh of the 18th dynasty in ancient Egypt, living 200 years before Ramses II.

She is the daughter of Pharaoh toutemos I.

she is said to be beautiful and intelligent.

After the death of Thutmosis I, HatshepsutAncient Egyptian tradition married his Pharaoh brother.

After the death of her husband, Hatshepsut, who had no children, first adopted the nephew of the Pharaoh as the heir, and then simply announced that he was the Pharaoh.

Anyway, she was in power, and the flattering monks timely concocted the myth that Hatshepsut was the daughter of the sun god, blocking the opponents’ mouths.

Hatshepsut is closely related to the biblical story because there is a saying that she is the adoptive mother of the Israeli prophet Moses.

It is said that Abraham, the prophet of Israel, trekked from the two river basins of Iraq to Canaan, Palestine on the Mediterranean Sea 4000 years ago.

The tribe took refuge in Egypt due to drought and lived a stable agricultural and pastoral life in Egypt for more than 400 years.

The Israelites gradually became numerous, which worried Pharaoh.

So Egyptian officials regarded Israel as an enemy and ordered the killing of Israeli baby boys.

After the birth of an Israeli baby boy, his mother put him in a basket and drifted in the Nile.

He was rescued by Hatshepsut who bathed in the river.

Hatshepsut named him Moses, which means “picked up in the water”.

According to the legend of the Israelites, Hatshepsut, who had no children, loved Moses deeply and hoped to pass it on to him.

Unfortunately, he failed to do so because he was an Israelite.

After the death of Hatshepsut, Moses, who lost his backer, established Judaism for 40 years, and finally took the tribe on a journey back to Canaan, the paradise promised by God.

This is the story of the Old Testament Exodus.