The forerunner of freedom and human rights around 3000 BC, the kingdom of rajash, another important city country in Sumeria, fought many wars with neighboring Umma for a plain called ancient Eden.
The vulture steles and inscriptions left by King rajash prove that rajash defeated the heroes and dominated Southern Sumeria for more than 200 years.
However, it was not these kings who made rajash famous in the world, but uruinimkina, who was elegant and accomplished and known as a fighter for freedom and human rights (reigned from about 2378 to 2371 BC).
As far as we know, he is the first reformer in human history.
At the end of the rajash Kingdom, domestic contradictions were very acute.
More than 20 years before uruyinimkina came to power, there were four court coups in China and four kings were replaced, but the contradiction has not been solved.
The secular nobles headed by the king occupied the temple property, and the officials at all levels colluded with each other to bully the people and rob the property of the people.
The ordinary people had to live on the leftovers of begging and alms from the rich.
Many more citizens have been put in prison and lost their freedom because of debt or all kinds of unnecessary charges.
In this case, taking advantage of his special position, uruyinimjina won the support of the majority of civilians under the banner of attacking current abuses and opposing tyranny.
Finally, he deposed the king and became king by means of a palace coup.
After uruyinimkina came to power, he immediately issued several famous reform edicts, which were written on three mud cones and an elliptical plate.
This is the earliest known reform instrument, so he has become the first famous reformer in world history.
The content of the reform of uruyinimjina is very extensive, of which the most striking and controversial are three points: first, increase the number of citizens to 10 times.
This was speculated by the former Soviet scholar strouwe based on three different figures of 3600, 36000 and 216000 in the documents of rajash king enqinmena, uruyinimkina and ancient Asia.
Strouwe believes that before the reform, the number of citizens in Lagash was 3600 and the number of free people was 36000.
The reform gave these free people civil rights.
Second, enact laws and regulations to eliminate malpractice.
Including the abolition of various Temple managers and tax collectors.
It is forbidden for officials to bully the weak with the strong, bully subordinates and widows.
Improve the treatment of temple personnel and set the standard of minimum income.
Reduce funeral expenses, etc.
This part of the imperial edict is most touching.
When enumerating the corrupt policies of the former king, it can be described as incisive and incisive, which makes people cry.
When promoting his new deal, he was tit for tat and hit the right spot.
The imperial edict puts forward an important legislative principle, which is to establish social justice and oppose bullying the weak with the strong.
It later became the basis of all legislation and was accepted by different times and classes.
Third, restore the “freedom” of citizens who have become slaves for various reasons (debtors and framed persons).
This reform is of great significance.
It is 1800 years earlier than the abolition of debt slavery proposed by Athens, known as the hometown of democracy, in the early 6th century BC.
Although the scope of this reform of the ragash Army (selected from the “vulture monument” of ragash in the 25th Century BC) uruyinimjina is very limited, his spirit of daring to analyze the current disadvantages, publicly condemning the tyranny of the ruling class and trying to solve the problem through legislation is commendable.
In the west, uruinimkina’s reputation far exceeds that of many ancient politicians, because he is the first politician in human history to put forward the concept of freedom and human rights and attempt to establish social justice and protect civil rights and freedoms through legislation.
These ideas put forward by him are not only valued by ancient politicians, but also of great value to modern society.
Therefore, although his reform ended in failure, his historical achievements can not be erased! The world’s earliest legislator in the early 20th century, people always thought that the code compiled by Babylon Hammurabi in Cuba was the world’s earliest code.
Therefore, he is often called the world’s earliest legislator.
However, from the 1950s to 1960s, people found that there were many legislators earlier than hammuras.
One of the earliest was urnam, the founder of the Third Dynasty of ur (reigned from 2113 to 2096 BC).
The military flag of ur (inlaid with shells and Lapis Lazuli about 2600 BC) shows the battle and capture of ur soldiers in the upper part, and the royal banquet and tribute payment of civilians in the lower part.
Two silver utensils from the tomb of King ur.
On the left is an oval bowl with two projections on the long side.
One of them is engraved with the hoof of a bull.
It is obvious that it was originally used by the king of the field.
On the right is a silver bowl or lamp, decorated with a longitudinal ditch, and the bottom is decorated with eight petals of rose.
The Third Dynasty of ur is the last powerful Dynasty of ancient Sumerians, and it is also the golden age of Sumerian.
Ur became the international political, economic and cultural center at that time.
The port of ur was full of foreign merchant ships, and the streets were crowded with businessmen from India, elan, Arabia and Palestine.
The temple tower of the moon temple built in urnam is 200 feet long at the bottom, 140 feet wide and 70 feet high.
It was the tallest building in Asia and the second tallest building in the world at that time, second only to the pyramid in Egypt.
Restoration of the temple tower of uryue temple was built by urnam in the 22nd century BC.
It was the magnificent building second only to the pyramid at that time.
However, it was not his martial arts or the temple tower of the moon that made urnam famous for thousands of years, but the code he formulated.
The code is written in cuneiform on a mud board and is divided into two parts: preface and text.
There are many similarities in spirit and wording between the preamble of the code and the inscription of the reform of uruyinimkina.
There are 29 articles in the main body.
Except for a few articles with incomplete words and unclear meaning, most articles have clear meaning.
Among them, there are 7 articles related to marriage, 4 articles related to female slaves, 5 articles related to the crime of injury, 3 articles related to agricultural production and 3 articles related to judicial proceedings.
In dealing with marriage between men and women, the code clearly discriminates against women and favors men.
At the same time, the code also embodies a clear class position and tries every means to protect the interests of slave owners.
Compared with the code of Hammurabi, the code of urnam seems to be more civilized and advanced.
When dealing with various cases, all the punishment means in the code are either sentencing or atonement with a fine, with no revenge at all.