the conflict between Henry IV’s desire for monarchy politics and Gregory VII’s passion for reforming the church led to the outbreak of long-term civil strife among the princes. Is this the direct reason for the internal disintegration of the Holy Roman Empire in only a century?
questions within the professional scope should be answered carefully with the mentality of writing papers. In fact, this period of history is a little earlier than I am familiar with. If there are any mistakes, please correct them. My answer is my personal opinion ~ short version: to some extent. If you don’t study this or have academic interest, this understanding is completely enough.
extended version: this statement is not rigorous. A better expression can be “the competition for the right of appointment weakened the imperial power and strengthened the power of the Pope, leading to the civil war of the Holy Roman Empire.” About the Holy Roman Empire. A famous joke is that it is neither sacred nor Roman, nor an empire = = in fact, everything about this dog blood name should start from the ancient Roman Empire. In AD 293, the ancient Roman emperor Diocletian divided the empire into four regions for various reasons, and the four regions belong to the East and West, as shown in the following figure:
in the East and West, Augustus (which can be understood as the upper emperor) managed a larger area and Caesar (which can be understood as the lower emperor) managed a smaller area, Caesar is responsible for Augustus of its ministry and is the successor of Augustus by default. This was the beginning of the administrative division between the East and the West in the ancient Roman Empire. In the later process, the administrative rule of the ancient Roman Empire was divided and combined until Theodosius became the last emperor to rule the whole Roman Empire – after his death, the two sons divided east and West, and the Roman Empire was never unified again.
generally speaking, the Western Roman Empire officially fell on September 4, 476. In the following three centuries, there was no leader who could “dominate the world” to the west of the Balkans. The appearance of Charlemagne changed this situation: on Christmas day in 800, when Charlemagne was worshiping in St. Peter’s Cathedral, then Pope Leo III crowned him emperor romanorum. He was also regarded as ruling the “Roman Empire” and inherited the position of “Roman emperor” from Octavian. (not to discuss the Eastern Roman Empire for the time being = =) from this time, until Charles V more than 700 years later, all the “Roman Emperors” were crowned by the Pope and regarded as the protectors of Catholicism. In 800,
in Charlemagne’s Empire [the pink piece]
to make a long story short, Charlemagne’s empire was divided into three according to the Frankish inheritance tradition in 843, which became the root of almost all wars in Western Europe for more than 1100 years = = these three parts were separated and broken again, Divided into numerous small areas and combined into loose large areas ・ by the 11th century of the Syrian power struggle, the “Roman Empire” had become like this:
[the orange part in the picture, with bold red lines around it] at this time, the Roman Empire was not “sacred”, and it would have to wait until the 12th century. In fact, I have said so much just to clarify the origin of the name “empire” = = the nature of the “empire” of the Holy Roman Empire is essentially different from the “British Empire” and “Qing Empire” – it just continues the name of the ancient Roman Empire. So don’t be deceived by the name of the Empire. Strictly speaking, we shouldn’t talk about “internal disintegration”, because people had been unified before. However, in any case, the struggle for Syrian power has seriously weakened the already weak imperial power.
appointment right refers to the right to appoint and grant the clergy. Although the right of appointment is nominally the right of the Catholic Church, in fact, this responsibility has been performed by secular power after the decline of the Western Roman Empire. In fact, the emperor’s exercise of the power of appointment has both secular and religious significance: the emperor itself symbolizes the secular power, which was entrusted to the clergy at the time of appointment; At the same time, the emperor also had spiritual rights. Because his position was given by God, he could grant this right to the clergy. The right of appointment also has great economic significance: like being a magistrate in China, being a bishop or abbot can often get a lot of oil and water, and selling teaching posts has also become one of the important economic sources of secular rights. At the same time, important parish monasteries often have a large area of land and a large amount of wealth and have great influence. Secular rights naturally want to appoint people loyal to themselves to this important position. To make a long story short: in the 11th century, a reform movement was launched within the Catholic Holy See. One of the objectives of the reform was to recover the right of appointment and appoint clergy independently without the intervention of secular rights. This is the background of the struggle between the Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV and Pope Gregory VII. Henry was so determined not to give up the power of delegation that he appointed his priest as the Archbishop of Milan; Gregory expelled Henry from the church. As mentioned earlier, the Roman Empire was originally a loose “Federation”, composed of many different nobles and their territories. After Henry IV was expelled from the church, these nobles were very happy to start seizing the territory and property belonging to the emperor for reasons. In short, Henry was under pressure to swallow his breath and personally went to the Pope for mercy in 1077, It is said that the pope would not see him until he stood barefoot for three days and three nights without a meal in an austerity suit in the ice and snow.
this is not the end. The Pope restored Henry’s religious status, but the German nobility elected a new emperor, and the imperial power was continuously weakened by the continuous civil war disputes = = Henry later established a new Pope himself, and went south to abolish Gregory = = it’s still a long story short. The dispute between the church, the Imperial power and the nobility did not come to an end until the walms religious agreement in 1122. The agreement provides that: