After the outbreak of the Soviet German war, the German invasion time, mode of operation and the results of the first war were beyond the expectation of the Soviet army.

Therefore, the Soviet army had to re-examine its strategic policy of resisting the enemy outside the country in the early stage of the war.

On the one hand, the harsh lesson of losing troops and land fully shows that this subjective strategic policy is not applicable to the Soviet German war and must be changed quickly.

On the other hand, in just a few weeks of defensive operations, even if the Soviet army, which lacked experience in modern warfare, experienced the main characteristics and weaknesses of the German army’s “flash warfare”, the Soviet commanders and fighters at all levels who were not well prepared before the war withstood the test of arduous war and increased their ability and ability to deal with the attack of strong enemies, Thus, conditions were created for formulating a strategic policy in line with the realities of the war at that time.

In order to quickly reverse the unfavorable situation and stabilize defense, Soviet commanders were required to resolutely abandon all outdated operational principles and strive to master modern war experience.

In this case, the Soviet Army turned to strategic defense in mid July 1941.

During this period, the Soviet Union adopted a series of major measures reflecting the strategic principle of active defense, mainly including: first, further improve the leadership system and strengthen the unified command of the troops.

On July 10, 1941, the Soviet National Defense Commission decided to reorganize the headquarters of the Soviet armed forces headquarters into the headquarters of the presidential headquarters, with Stalin himself as chairman, in order to strengthen the authority of this institution.

At the same time, in order to coordinate the operations in various strategic directions, three general headquarters in the northwest, West and southwest were established, with Soviet field marshal Voroshilov, timusingo and bujoni as the commander-in-chief respectively.

The tasks of these middle-level strategic command organizations are: to implement strategic guidance to all front armies and naval fleets carrying out combat tasks in this direction, check their implementation of headquarters instructions and lead the logistics work in this direction.

On August 8, the headquarters of the presidential command was renamed the headquarters of the supreme command, and Stalin was appointed the supreme commander of the Soviet armed forces.

As a result, the Soviet Union formed a highly centralized leadership system in important fields such as politics, military and economy, which overcame the delay and confusion caused by the unclear responsibilities of the top leaders of the party, government and army in the early stage of the war.

Accordingly, the Ministry of the people’s Committee for national defense of the Soviet Union was reorganized.

The General Staff Department of the Soviet armed forces under the Ministry was reorganized into the headquarters of the supreme command, the main business organ for formulating strategic plans and leading the front-line armed forces, and was able to get rid of complicated daily work such as mobilization, supplement and military training.

At the same time, new or restored airborne, rocket artillery, engineering, homeland defense air force, artillery and other headquarters to strengthen strategic guidance for the services and arms.

The communications people’s Committee also serves as the deputy national defense people’s Committee and the general Communications Minister to centrally lead all military and local communications departments.

In addition, according to the resolution of the Political Bureau of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China (Bolshevik) and the presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union on reorganizing political propaganda institutions and implementing the military committee system in the workers’ and peasants’ Red Army on July 16, 1941, the general political Propaganda Department of the Soviet Red Army and the General Political Propaganda Department of the Navy were reorganized into the General Political Department, and the military committee system was implemented in land and Navy organs, troops and military academies, To strengthen the party’s leadership over the armed forces and wartime ideological and political work.

According to the decision of the national defense people’s Committee in August 1941, the Soviet army also established a general logistics department and logistics departments at all levels to strengthen the unified command of logistics work.

Second, reform the military establishment system to adapt to changes in the situation.

In order to adapt to the actual situation of a large number of downsizing of combat units and serious shortage of weapons and equipment, and improve the command efficiency of the units and the ability to maneuver under difficult conditions, as an emergency measure, the headquarters of the Soviet President’s headquarters made a decision on the miniaturization of the group army on July 15, that is, temporarily abolishing the army level organizational system and the group army directly under the jurisdiction of five or six divisions.

At the same time, the army and air force will be downsized.

According to the establishment determined on July 29, the number of infantry divisions will be reduced by 30%, the number of artillery equipped will be reduced by 52%, and the number of cars will be reduced by 64%.

The number of cavalry divisions was reduced to about 3000.

The tank division was downsized into a tank brigade.

Withdrawal of anti tank artillery from brigade to regiment.

The air force division was changed from three regiments to two regiments, and the number of aircraft in each regiment was also reduced from 60 to 30.

Later, with the increase of troops and weapons and the change of battlefield situation, the Soviet Army adjusted the establishment system of the army for many times.

Third, vigorously establish and effectively use the strategic reserve team as the “trump card” to reverse the war situation.

On August 16th, the people’s reserve committee of the Red Army Navy was established in accordance with the decision of the people’s Reserve Committee on the establishment and training of the Red Army Navy.

The Soviet army went to the front line and organized a large number of concealed inspections.

“The reserve team of the supreme command has always been the main means to fundamentally change the strategic situation of the campaign by surprise”.

They have concentrated on fighting in the main direction and achieved remarkable results.

In addition, the Soviet army began to set up the reserve air force of the supreme command in August to concentrate the limited air force to meet the urgent needs.

Fourth, adjust the main defense direction in time according to the actual situation of the battlefield.

When the Soviet Army found that it had misjudged the main direction of the German army, it quickly adjusted its main defense direction from Kiev to Smolensk and Moscow, and nearly 80% of the troops transferred from the mainland were transported there.

The first troops to arrive joined the battle of Smolensk as early as mid July.

Fifth, abandon the passive and conservative first-line defense and replace it with a defense system with in-depth echelon configuration to enhance the stability of defense.

In the western strategic direction, the main defense areas of the West German Vina River and Dnieper River defense line had just been broken through by the German army, and the Soviet presidential headquarters immediately began to build a defense system with in-depth echelon configuration.

On July 14 and 18, it successively ordered the formation of a reserve front army and a mozaysk front army behind the Western Front Army, so as to establish two new lines of defense east of the West de Vina and Dnieper River lines and in front of Moscow.

The order requires the two front armies to occupy the old Rusa, ostashkov, yelinia, Bryansk line and the west of Volokolamsk, mozaysk and Kaluga line respectively, and quickly build fortifications in echelon configuration.

Among them, the mozaisk defense line is composed of three defense zones, each with a spacing of 30 km to 60 km, in which there are also multiple intermediate defense positions and oblique defense positions, and the full longitudinal depth of the defense line is up to 120 thousandMeters to 130 kilometers.

In the strategic direction of northwest and southwest, the Soviet army also took similar measures, but on a small scale.

Sixth, on the premise of adhering to defense, it is supplemented by possible mobile defense.

In defensive operations, we should pay attention to “using our own mobility to deal with the enemy’s mobility”, timely concentrate our troops, launch anti assault against the German army, and strive to turn passivity into initiative.

Seventh, while strengthening ground defense, we should vigorously improve the ability of air defense.

In a short time, the Soviet Army’s air defense forces and weapons have been significantly strengthened, the formation of the air defense system has been continuously improved, and the political and economic centers such as Moscow and grad, military industry, energy bases and communication and transportation hubs have been effectively covered.

Eighth, strengthen the struggle behind the enemy and trap the enemy in two front operations.

In order to effectively cooperate with the Soviet front defense, the Central Committee of the United Communist Party (Bolshevik) made the “decision on organizing struggle behind the German army” on July 18, 1941.

In the second half of 1941, “18 underground prefectural Party committees, more than 260 prefectural Party committees, municipal Party committees, district party committees and other party organizations” successively formed guerrillas in the German occupied areas, and mobilized the broad masses to actively carry out various anti German activities, including armed struggle, so as to get into the difficult situation of being attacked by the enemy and fighting on the two lines.

Ninth, focus on the overall situation of the war and carefully organize defense.

In each strategic direction, large-scale battles and campaigns such as Kiev, Smolensk and Leningrad were carried out respectively, so as to create necessary conditions for crushing the German strategic attack with tenacious resistance and effective anti assault, delay and consume the attacking German army.

Tenth, actively carry out diplomatic activities to jointly confront the enemy.

While doing a good job in domestic work, we should strive for the support of Britain, America and other countries to promote the formation of the international anti fascist alliance, so as to isolate the enemy to the greatest extent and enhance the ability to fight against Germany.

In addition, during this period, the Soviet Union took various measures in improving strategic guidance, accelerating combat mobilization, strengthening political thought and doing a good job in material support.

These measures gradually achieved remarkable results in the process of fighting with Germany, creating favorable conditions for the implementation of the Soviet Army’s strategic defense policy.