In France, during the economic crisis, the unemployment rate rose, social unrest, strikes and demonstrations occurred one after another.
In this situation, many fascist far right organizations founded in the 1920s were very active in the 1930s, forming a fascist movement and trying to play a role in politics.
Among these far right groups are “patriotic youth”, “baton” Renault’s “French unity” and “francaism”.
Some of these organizations openly boast that they are real fascist organizations.
For example, “baton” and “fascism”, from program to action, imitated Germany, especially Italian fascism, but did not win many people.
Some groups and organizations are frightened by the French public’s contempt for belligerent fascism, especially German Nazism.
Although they are in the same strain with fascism in thought and method, they deny that they are organizations that believe in fascism.
Taking advantage of the economic crisis, extreme right groups frantically opposed Marxism and the proletarian revolution, attacked parliamentary democracy, advocated reactionary nationalism, clamored to safeguard the French colonial empire, attacked the ills of capitalism, held large-scale rallies, and called on the unemployed and the people to rise against the incompetent government.
Some extreme right-wing politicians in Parliament echoed these groups in society to destroy the parliamentary system and establish a fascist dictatorship.
In 1934, the far right believed that the time had come, trumpeted the corruption of the Republic government and demanded the end of the Republic.
In February, a group of fascist thugs gathered in Concorde square, threatened the national assembly and exchanged fire with the police.
Several people were killed and hundreds injured.
These propaganda activities of the extreme right wingers attracted and won over some members of the middle and small bourgeoisie and developed into a fascist movement.
In France, the earliest fascist organization was the French action party.
Founded in 1899, the party is a far right organization in France.
Before World War I, it openly opposed republicanism and parliamentary democracy and advocated the restoration of hereditary monarchy in France.
After the first World War, influenced by the Italian Fascist movement, on the one hand, it proposed to establish a Veterans organization similar to Italy in France.
On the other hand, he published books on fascism and actively promoted fascism.
After the establishment of the fascist regime in Italy, Leon dude, leader of the French action party, declared that the party “will soon seize power through violence”.
After that, the French action party and other fascist organizations in France developed, including the “British fascist party”, “fascist alliance”, “British National fascist party” and “imperial fascist alliance”.
In the early 1930s, due to the severe blow of the economic crisis, a large-scale fascist movement appeared.
In 1932, sir Oswald Mosley established the “British fascist alliance”.
In terms of organization, the “British fascist alliance” is a complete authoritarian party.
Party cadres are not elected, but appointed by their superiors, and enjoy absolute authority within the scope of their functions and powers.
All decisions of the party are made by the leader Mosley alone, and the party meeting strives to be dignified.
On the political front, Mosley fully endorsed the anti Semitism of and called for the abolition of all political parties and party systems.
In terms of social policy, Mosley promised to fight poverty and unemployment, vigorously carry out public construction, promote medical and health undertakings, and end the “control of financial bandits”.
In big cities, the “black shirt regiment” and “fascist defense organization” of the fascist alliance held social protests, held open-air meetings, provoked street battles, and organized large-scale fascist marches.
Mosley and the fascist alliance were able to attract many young people from the middle and small bourgeoisie, the lower class and the working class.
Therefore, in the London County Council election in March 1937, the fascists won a major victory in the east end of London.
By 1938, more than 100000 people had participated in this organization in a short time.
Although they also learn from Italian Fascists in the form of wearing black shirts, raising their hands, and even taking the “stick” as their own logo, their purpose is different from Italian and German fascists.
Almost all of them were to ensure the dominant position of the British Empire after the war.
However, because Britain is a country with a long tradition of parliamentary democracy and the fascist movement lacks a solid mass foundation, it has no substantive impact on the British political situation.
In Romania, the fascist movement began with a group of extreme nationalists represented by the notorious anti Bolshevik koneliu zeleya cordreyanu, who carried out anti Semitic activities under the banner of religion.
Cordreyanu first established the “Christian student union” at Zahi University in 1922 and proposed to abolish parliamentary democracy.
In 1923, in order to attract people with extreme nationalist ideas to join the organization, he renamed it the “cross Brotherhood”, later renamed it the “Archangel Mikhail Legion”, and finally developed into the fascist organization “Iron Guard”.
In Hungary, the famous extremist nationalist Gumbos formed an anti Semitic group with both literati and soldiers in 1919, claiming to be “members of Hungary’s National Socialist Party”.
It carried out crazy anti Semitic activities under the pretext that the Jews were consuming Hungary’s national power.
In 1921, he began to contact the leaders of German far right forces who were organizing counter revolutionary activities in Munich, and then established the fascist organization “racial defense party” in Hungary.
After the Italian fascists marched into Rome, under its influence, gombos tried to establish a fascist regime in Hungary and dressed himself as “Mussolini” of Hungary, hoping to rule the whole country under the Regent of Hungary, holti.
In Finland, the fascist movement began with anti Bolshevism.
At the beginning of 1922, three soldiers returning from the East Karelia battlefield initiated the establishment of the “college student Karelia Association” and proposed to expand outward to establish the “greater Finland”.
All participants in the association are required to form “brothers who hate Russians” and pledge their “career and life to the motherland” and to the “greater Finland”.
At that time, there was another pro fascist force in Finland, the white guard in the civil war.
After the war, the army was not dissolved, but renamed “National Guard”, which was the same as the national regular armyExists when.
It is well equipped and has its own commander-in-chief.
The rise of the fascist movement in Italy had a strong impact on it, which was reflected in the fact that the members of the National Guard began to take violent terrorist actions against the revolutionary movement and its leaders.
In the United States, fascism grew and spread during the great economic crisis.
In 1932, the secret fascist organization “Black Legion” was established in the Midwest of the United States, and the “American fascist Association” and “black society” were established in Atlanta, specializing in assassination, kidnapping and sabotage.
In January 1933, a “banking society” was established in Southern California, which had close relations with the German Nazi Party.
In June 1933, the “national industrial recovery action” organization was established.
Throughout the United States, many fascist organizations such as “American freedom alliance”, “social justice alliance”, “German American alliance”, “white party”, “blue society”, “crusade” and “wealth sharing society” have also emerged.
By the end of 1939, there were about 250 fascist organizations in the United States, and their power had developed to the peak.
These fascist organizations have widely established armed forces, carried out conspiracy activities, and even attempted to overthrow the government and establish a fascist dictatorship in the United States.
In addition, during the economic crisis, some right-wing organizations resumed their activities.
These organizations also have a certain scale and influence in the United States, trying to “lead the disappointment and dissatisfaction of the masses onto the reactionary fascist track”.
In Sweden, the fascist party is a replica of the Nazi party.
In Norway, the “National United Party” was also established.
Supporters have also been found in countries such as Spain and Portugal.
In Eastern European countries, fascism also has considerable appeal.
Although there are fascist movements of different scales in the above-mentioned countries, the activities of fascist organizations in these countries are scattered and have not formed a strong and unified organization or taken unified action.
Nevertheless, the turbid waves caused by the fascist movement still pose a threat to Western democracy.
Countries with relatively complete bourgeois democracy, such as the United States, Britain and France, have adjusted the bourgeois parliamentary democracy and taken some measures to prevent the development and coming to power of fascist forces.
However, countries such as the United States, Germany and Japan have successively established fascist totalitarian systems.