The victory of the U.S. military in the Gulf coincided with the white heat of the domestic presidential election.
Clinton, a politician from Arkansas, prepared to run for president in 1992 with an aggressive momentum.
Public opinion, public opinion and other indicators are optimistic.
Clinton is expected to finally defeat Bush and take over the White House.
Originally, Clinton, who had little interest in the military and avoided enlistment when he was young, suddenly paid more attention to the victory of the Gulf War because he was attacked as having no diplomatic and military experience in the election.
In October 1991, Clinton specially arranged a mass activity to welcome the return of US troops from the Gulf in his hometown of little rock.
The reporter of the post recorded the lively scene at that time: from the morning, more than 100000 people flocked to both sides of a road from Little Rock to the air force base.
They include young men and women, old people and children, veterans who participated in the Second World War, and veterans who participated in the Korean War and the Vietnam War.
Presidential candidate Bill Clinton also stood in the crowd.
When the triumphant armored forces passed through the streets, the whole little rock was boiling.
People wear carnival masks on their heads, and discos jump up all over the street with the chaotic noise of brass bands and black rock music.
A group worshipped the “heavy money Irish U-2 band” and played popular songs – “war”, “boy”, “unforgettable flame” and “under the bloody sky”.
Americans seem to like to welcome those triumphant heroes with a sad mood.
Some people in the crowd stood up and sang rock in the tank car.
Young girls on the roadside sprinkled handfuls of flowers on the marching team.
The little rock and roll soldiers seemed to jump out of the rock and roll city.
Americans also seem to prefer to treat all wars with banter and cynicism.
Just after winning a modern war with the most modern weapons, the songs of the camouflage soldiers who came back from the hail of bullets also carry a complaint that can never be satisfied in modern life.
Clinton and his followers were totally immersed in the joy of the victory of the Gulf War and the joy of the coming dignitaries to the White House.
Clinton tasted the sweetness of the disintegration of the Soviet Union and realized the importance of military and the weight of the victory and defeat of the war.
For a time, he forgot his state of mind of trying his best to avoid military service during the Vietnam War, I really found the coquettish feeling of leading the “world gendarmerie” alone.
Therefore, he made a “great wish”: after he ascended the presidency, he should also find a chance to win the war to answer the contempt of some political enemies.
Shortly after Clinton took office in the White House, Somalia in the horn of Africa triggered a scuffle between warlords due to the struggle between the two main tribes for power and territory, resulting in a large number of military and civilian casualties and refugee flight.
This incident has just provided a once-in-a-lifetime opportunity for the US military, which has always used the pretext of safeguarding “human rights”, to fill the gap between the departure of Soviet forces, meddling in and interference in Somalia’s internal affairs.
Somalia, a small country in eastern Africa with a population of 8.
4 million and an area of less than 640000 square kilometers, is one of the poorest countries in the world.
It was divided by Britain and Italy in its early years.
It gained independence in 1961 and established the Somali Republic.
Somalis belong to the same ethnic group, but there are many tribes in the country, and there are contradictions between tribes.
In 1969, asibal é became president.
Since he implemented “equal interests of multiple tribes” in domestic policy, the political situation was relatively stable until the mid-1980s.
After 1985, siad moved towards dictatorship, where people were only used by their own tribe, crowding out people from other tribes, intensifying tribal contradictions and gradually losing the support of the siad government.
Since May 1988, the ISAAC tribe in northern Somalia, the Darud tribe in southern Somalia and the Hawei tribe in central Somalia have launched armed struggles against the government.
In August 1990, the leaders of the three tribes held a consultative meeting and decided to take concerted action against the government forces.
On January 27, 1991, armed conflict broke out.
After fierce fighting, the opposition soon took control of the capital Mogadishu, and announced the overthrow of siad’s regime and the establishment of an interim government.
However, within the opposition, the two factions headed by interim president Mahdi and the chairman of the United Congress Party Aidid had serious internal strife due to the power struggle, which led to a new civil war.
To this end, other tribes united to send troops to the capital, and the capital Mogadishu immediately became a battlefield for tribes to fight each other.
The two sides used various light and heavy weapons, including machine guns, rockets and artillery.
The smoke of gunpowder filled the capital, killing more than 300 people and wounding more than 700.
After mediation, although Mehdi made concessions, he only left a small number of positions for Aidid faction in the government, and Aidid did not buy it.
One month later, the conflict between the two sides resumed and developed into a large-scale military operation.
On January 4, 1992, Mahdi assembled troops to counter attack Mogadishu.
As a result of the fierce battle, Aidid armed forces mainly controlled the area north of the capital and Mahdi controlled the area south of the capital.
The United Nations and the European community have been trying unsuccessfully to bring the two sides to the same negotiating table.
Years of war have seriously damaged the economy of Somalia.
In recent years, it has suffered the worst drought of this century, and agriculture has collapsed, making the already weak economy worse.
War, famine and the influx of a large number of weapons into the people have led to an increase in the number of people looting homes everywhere, everyone has weapons in his hands, and the whole country is in a state of anarchy.
According to statistics, 300000 Somalis died of famine in two years, which threatened 2 million people, and 1000 people were on the verge of death every day.
About one million people fled to neighbouring countries.
There are as many as 15 factions in Somalia.
The conflict between the two factions, mainly Mahdi and Aidid, also makes other factions join the power struggle in different ways.
Therefore, for a time, Somalia has become a paradise for anarchists and the most tragic place of death in the world.
In this case, the “world gendarmerie” that has been peeping for a long time, the United States can’t wait to appear.
On November 25, 1992, when the mediation of all parties failed and the “humanitarian relief operation” of the United Nations was frustrated, President Bush, who was about to hand over his shift, announced that the United States was willing to send 2800 troops to participate in the United Nations force composed of the United Nations to Somalia to protect the distribution of relief materials.
On December 3, when the United Nations Security CouncilWhen the United Nations Task Force headed by the United States was authorized to enter Somalia through resolution 794, the Americans with the imperial sword immediately put on a posture of chivalry and justice, saying that “there are some crises in the world that cannot be solved without the intervention of the United States”.
The U.S. military entered Somalia as a journey of peace.
Somalis hope that this army can bring them hope for peace.
In the early morning of December 9, gunfire broke out on a beach near the Somali capital Mogadishu, and the forces of Aidid, chairman of the Somali United Congress party, who woke up from his sleep, quickly entered a state of battle.
They found that the opponent this time was not the guerrillas of interim president Mahdi, but the two “green Bailey battalions” of the US Marine Corps under the cover of armed helicopters.
In the panic, Aidid sent a force to fight back against the landing forces and organized a retreat to preserve his strength.
Because Aidid knew that the Somali army was not a hard opponent against the US Army.
Therefore, with only a few shots fired, the US army occupied Mogadishu and soon controlled all airports and ports.
Wherever the US military goes, the armed separatists of various factions in Somalia either flee or turn underground.
On the surface, the situation is temporarily under control.
It seems that the “operation of hope for the restoration of peace” has seen “Hope”.
Many American veterans, however, don’t think so.
Although the two factions in Somalia reached an understanding agreement between Mahdi and Aidid on December 11, the US military is still worried that it will not get out like in Vietnam after falling into it.
“Now, don’t think that the cold war is over and the world is peaceful.
In fact, the world is full of possible Vietnam, the Middle East and the Gulf, and there are new ‘Vietnamese troops’ everywhere.
No matter how easy it is to win, it’s better to go home and sleep early.
” A senior US military veteran said.
This worry of US veterans is not unreasonable.
Because Somalia has become a country with no government, no police, weapons for everyone and extremely chaotic order.
Moreover, the Somali factions do not really flee.
They just quickly transport all their troops and heavy weapons to the mainland in order to preserve their troops in anticipation of the intervention of the international community, In particular, a large number of light weapons stored everywhere by some scattered soldiers are undoubtedly a major obstacle to the action of the US military.
This complicated situation was unexpected to the US military.
Therefore, the first step of the US military must try to collect weapons scattered among the people, especially in the hands of small groups of scattered soldiers.
The US Marines began patrolling the streets, checking and confiscating anyone who saw weapons in hand.
On the other hand, Robert Oakley was sent to persuade the militants to hand over their weapons.
Under the pressure of Oakley and Johnston, the commander of the US military in Somalia, Farah Aidid and Ali Mehdi, Somalia’s largest opponents, held their first negotiations.
After negotiations, the two sides reached a preliminary agreement: end the division of Mogadishu and withdraw their combatants and vehicles from the streets.
The political forces reached an agreement to hold a national reconciliation conference in mid March.
However, these actions by the US military have brought only superficial calm in Somalia.
The agreement reached by the factions is not binding on other small local forces.
With the passage of time, especially when the United States led peacekeeping force collected the weapons in the hands of various factions, it touched the self-interest of tribal leaders.
The United Nations Operation in Somalia began to be opposed by many factions in Somalia.
These leaders of various departments who started with guns and won political power with guns are well aware of the importance of guns and feel that their power will be shaken if they are confiscated.
In fact, they harboured evil ideas for the implementation of the agreement, and often adopted a negative attitude of confrontation, or refused to hand over their weapons, or asked for money and food in exchange for their weapons.
The faction headed by Aidid is particularly resolute in this regard.
When it comes to Aidid, everyone knows it in Somalia.
It was this Aidid that greatly frustrated the US military’s action in Somalia and failed in the contest with it.
Aidid, the president of the Somali United Congress party, who was born in poverty, has strong independence since childhood.
He left home to study in the capital at the age of 10.
After graduation, he joined the Italian army and soon became an officer.
After Somalia became independent, Aidid became a commander in the newly formed army.
He was aggressive by nature and had been imprisoned for six years for participating in tribal conflicts.
In 1989, he became the leader of Somalia’s largest opposition, the Somali United Congress party.
Aidid played a decisive role in overthrowing the former president in 1991.
However, when he arrived in Dharma gadisha in early 1991, Mahdi, who had arrived earlier, announced that he would be the interim president of Somalia.
Aidid denied it.
Aidid believes that he can get the support of more than 80% of the people in Somalia, and it is natural for him to form a cabinet for the new government.
This opened the prelude to the armed struggle with Mahdi.
After more than four months of fighting, Aidid controlled 80% of Mogadishu and became the most powerful tribal leader in Somalia.
In order to show his strength, Aidid wants to stir up trouble in the Somali capital, so as to say “no” to the Americans and tell them where the power to restore law and order in Somalia lies.
Since you dare to say no, you dare to act.
At the end of February 1993, Aidid’s riots began.
In this riot, American soldiers became the target of Somali gunmen.
For a time, inspired by operation Aidid, Somali factions adopted the guerrilla tactics of “fight and run” and attacked the U.S. military stations and peacekeeping forces of other countries one after another, leaving U.S. soldiers dead on the streets of Mogadishu.
In retaliation for Aidid and Somali guerrillas, Clinton sent more special forces to Mogadishu and ordered the U.S. military in Somalia to take major military action.
The battle started immediately.
The US military used helicopters and other advanced weapons to destroy three Somali armed vehicles and killed several Somali armed personnel.
The U.S. military believes that taking several military actions can control the situation in Somalia, but the development of the situation has worried the U.S. Supreme Command.
They fear that Aidid’s success in planning and directing behind the scenes will lead to the rapid spread of violence.
To this end, after the United States took tough measures, it quickly managed to make the 15 political factions in Somalia participate in the reconciliation conference and reach a reconciliation agreement under the auspices of the United Nations on March 28.
The method is to compete with more than 20000 United Nations troops and will not be won by the US Army in the end.
This makes the US military, which is eager to perform in front of the world, lose face.
In fact, the U.S. military does not know.
The main reason for this situation is that Aidid has tribal support, is familiar with every plant and tree in Somalia, and is good at using national sentiment to skillfully mix armed personnel with the people, which makes the U.S. military helpless.
In addition, due to the casualties of many civilians caused by the multinational force in the attack on Aidid, which aroused public anger, Somalis of all tribes opposed the “occupying forces” and turned to Aidid.
In order to protect himself, Aidid tried to take advantage of the differences between the United Nations peacekeeping forces and the U.S. search and arrest operations, and actively held secret consultations with the relevant member states of the United Nations forces in Somalia for many times, requesting reconciliation and isolating the U.S. military.
On the other hand, some countries have also publicly criticized the atrocities committed by the US military against civilians in Somalia.
Here, international public opinion also described the multinational force peacekeeping operation in Somalia as a dirty war.
On 13 July, the Italian government asked the United Nations to stop its military operations in Somalia and threatened to withdraw from Mogadishu.
The United Nations peacekeeping operation is full of difficulties, and the situation of the US military is also getting worse and worse.
This was clearly seen by the wily Aidid.
In order to further crack down on the U.S. military in Somalia, he adopted the guerrilla tactics of “fight and run”, stepped up the attack on the United Nations peacekeeping forces, and injured at least eight peacekeeping soldiers in less than a week.
Somalis also wantonly distributed leaflets demanding that soldiers from other countries of the multinational force “stay away from American positions in Mogadishu and we will attack American courtyards in Mogadishu”.
Aidid’s separatist action further exacerbated the differences between the coalition forces in Somalia.
LOY, the commander of the Italian force of the coalition army in Somalia, refused to obey the command of the United Nations headquarters in Mogadishu.
Therefore, he was dismissed by the United Nations, which caused strong dissatisfaction of the Italian government.
Aidid took other measures to humiliate the US military while isolated and attacking the US military personnel.
On August 30, Aidid commanded his men to provide false information to the US military, falsely claiming that somewhere was “Aidid’s hiding place”.
As a result, only a few United Nations staff were “caught” after the emergency dispatch of the US special forces.
This matter has greatly embarrassed and disgraced the US military.
On September 9, the armed helicopter Cobra of the U.S. Army, which was spraying a raging fire, indiscriminately bombed the Somali population in Mogadishu, including women and children.
In the three-hour battle, 203 civilians were killed and 35 injured, resulting in the heaviest casualties since the attacks on Pakistani and American soldiers.
The action of the US Army naturally brought Aidid’s revenge.
On September 25, a “Black Hawk” helicopter of the United Nations troops in Somalia was shot down by Somali militants, killing all three US troops on board.
On October 3, just as the US military deployed nearly 1000 more well-equipped, well-trained special forces specialized in dealing with emergencies to Somalia and vowed to capture Aidid, the brother of a Somali maid (actually Aidid’s eyes and ears) at the US military headquarters in Somalia reported to the US military that Aidid was holding a meeting somewhere in Mogadishu.
The US military commander was overjoyed, The authenticity of the information was not considered at all, that is, helicopters and special teams were dispatched.
When the 100 soldier U.S. Army was transported by 12 helicopters to a hotel, only the leaders of the meeting were caught, and Eddie was not found at all.
When the US army returned to the camp, two helicopters were shot down and company commander Lieutenant Colonel McKnight was also injured.
When he decided to strengthen fire protection for the people on board, they were surrounded, and then the third US aircraft was shot down.
At this time, the commander-in-chief of the US military in Somalia, general Montgomery, was forced to cancel the air rescue plan and ordered to send two troops to reinforce from land.
However, without the cover of armored vehicles, the reinforcements were sniped on the streets of the capital.
Montgomery, in a hurry, ordered a second rescue operation and sent armored vehicles from the peacekeeping forces of Malaysia and Pakistan for reinforcements.
However, due to the lack of unified command, it took four hours to start after receiving the order.
After the two troops formed one, they arrived at their destination more than two hours late.
At the same time, due to the tenacious resistance of Somalis all the way, it is also difficult for the reinforcements to cross the streets of Mogadishu.
The battle lasted 15 hours, and 18 Americans were killed and 78 wounded.
Worst of all, helicopter pilot Michael Durant was captured alive, stripped naked by Somalis and pulled to the streets for public display.
Angry Somalis still feel angry.
On October 4, they tied the bodies of two U.S. soldiers to a cart and dragged them in the streets of Mogadishu for public display.
In order to give the US military a final blow and force it to finally change its policy towards all factions in Somalia, the resourceful Aidid decided to give the US military in Somalia a final blow.
On October 6, Aidid learned through his eyes and ears that a US Marine Corps was moving from the west coast of Mogadishu to the east coast under the cover of helicopters.
As a result, Aidid decided to move to another hiding place to prevent the search and arrest of the U.S. military.
At the same time, he mixed a large number of armed personnel into an open-air market that the U.S. military had to pass through.
When the US Marine Corps convoy passed the market, the road from the market to the east coast was blocked by Somalis with large stones and sticks.
The action of the US Army was greatly affected.
When some members of the Marine Corps passed the roadblock, the cable armed personnel who mixed into the market opened fire on the US Army one after another.
After a burst of fierce shooting, the armed personnel quickly fled the scene.
When the US troops who passed the roadblock turned around for rescue, the cable armed personnel had already fled.
The battle killed 15 US troops, injured nearly 50 and destroyed three military vehicles.
After this failure, the US military finally felt that the possibility of defeating Aidid militarily had become smaller.
Because helicopters, one of the basic factors to win the battle, can no longer give the US military air supremacy, and the danger brought by land operations to the US military is becoming greater and greater, and the US military’s technical advantage has disappeared in Mogadishu.
The continuous attack of the US military on Aidid has made the US military stationed in Somalia the target of public criticism.
It can be said that every move of the US military is monitored by Somalis.
Once peacekeeping operations go beyond the scope of peacekeeping, they will fall into the sea of war for the local people and are doomed to failure.
Since then, the civilian staff of the SokOnly under the protection of soldiers dare to go to the streets, and they have to be picked up by helicopter to and from work.
The continuous casualties and humiliation of US soldiers, coupled with the continuous occurrence of some vicious violence, have made the countries participating in peacekeeping operations express serious concerns.
It has been openly suggested that the excessive use of violence by peacekeeping forces runs counter to the goal of restoring peace.
The United States, which has always been tough on Aidid, is also excited at home.
Lawmakers have asked for the immediate withdrawal of U.S. troops from Somalia, and Congress decided to stop providing funds.
Opinion polls show that 60% of the people in the United States oppose the military action of the U.S. military in Somalia, and 13% advocate withdrawal.
Internationally, on October 7, the French defense minister sharply criticized the action taken by the United States in Somalia.
“The action in Somalia has gradually deviated from the original goal, clearly turned into intolerable confrontation, and its attitude can not be understood by Somalis”.
“The violence in Somalia has undermined the basic purpose of the United Nations there,” said Salim, Secretary General of the organization of African unity Even U.S. Secretary of State Christopher had to admit in a televised speech that “the U.S. military has’ overemphasized ‘the military role in Somalia after June 1993 and ignored the political aspect.
This change in the U.S. military mission may be a mistake, and the United States has underestimated the consequences”.
In the face of pressure at home and abroad, US President Clinton feels that it is difficult for the peacekeeping operation in Somalia to succeed.
If it is dragged on like this, it will only waste people, money and reputation.
It is up to the United States to set a date for its participation in Somalia.
Out of desperation, the United States began to seek an informal ceasefire with Aidid, and sent special envoy Robert Oakley to meet Aidid’s “foreign minister” in order to “restore trust in all parties”.
Out of concern that the US troops in Somalia are trapped in the quagmire of Vietnam War, the Pentagon began to formulate a timetable for the withdrawal of US troops from Somalia.
Before that, Italy had already decided to withdraw its troops, and France and Germany immediately announced that they would withdraw their participation in the main force of the United Nations in Somalia, agreeing to leave only a small number of peacekeepers.
Under such circumstances, the United Nations abandoned its plan to search for Aidid on October 17.
It seems that Eddie has achieved his goal to some extent.
Because the UN peacekeeping force has actually become a belligerent on the land of Somalia due to the misconduct of the US military.
After nearly two years of peacekeeping operations, some Somalis have greatly weakened their confidence in United Nations peacekeeping forces.
They believe that the UN peacekeeping force is no longer a central force that can protect their lives, and they are increasingly opposed to the UN military presence.
Therefore, with Aidid’s constant incitement, Somalis’ anti UN sentiment has risen, challenging the legitimacy of the UN military presence in Somalia.
Under such circumstances, the US military also had to put forward a withdrawal plan.
The United States, which boasts itself as the “world gendarmerie”, must save “face” in front of the world if it wants to withdraw from Somalia.
Clinton said: “if the US troops withdraw from Somalia immediately after being beaten, the credibility of the United States will be damaged, the leadership of the United States in world affairs will be damaged, and terrorists around the world will come to the conclusion that the best way to force the United States to change its policy is to kill Americans.
” Based on this consideration, Clinton announced on the one hand that he would send more troops to Somalia and on the other hand that the US military would withdraw from Somalia before March 31, 1995.
To achieve this goal, Clinton sent special envoys to Kenya, Ethiopia and other countries in the horn of Africa to seek the help of these heads of state, and asked the OAU to help reach a political solution.
Under such circumstances, the UN Security Council cancelled resolution 837 on November 16 and made a decision to withdraw all peacekeeping forces from Somalia by the end of March 1995, formally abandoning the plan to arrest Aidid.
Two days later, Aidid made his first public appearance under the protection of heavily armed bodyguards and was warmly welcomed by the citizens of Mogadishu.
The active withdrawal of peacekeeping forces dominated by the US military from Somalia marks the end of the two-year and three-month peacekeeping operation in Somalia.
Not to mention how many people died and how much financial and material resources were expended by the US military for the time being.
Just saying that Clinton had to admit defeat and took the initiative to withdraw and make peace with Aidid was enough to give a blow to the domineering “world gendarmerie”.