The competition between the United States and the Soviet Union for hegemony in the world is not only concentrated in the hot spots such as the Middle East, Latin America and the Asia Pacific, but also in the high-tech intensive space field.

They all try to use space superiority as a trump card to deter each other.

Space technology was used in many ways as early as the Second World War.

After the Second World War, with the rapid development of science and technology, especially rocket technology, electronic technology and atomic energy technology, various types of aircraft and missile nuclear weapons appeared.

As a result, the vast space has become a field where all kinds of satellites are flying.

Tens of thousands of nuclear bombs are on standby for launch on a vast land.

Space has become a new combat space.

Originally, the United States was a world leader in space technology.

After the war, the Soviets rose suddenly, satellites rose one after another, missiles were launched and tested, and soon caught up with the United States.

By the early 1970s, the two sides were almost equal in space technology.

This arms race is a heavy burden on both sides.

In order to restrict each other, the United States and the Soviet Union held talks in May 1972 and signed a treaty on the limitation of Anti Ballistic Missile Systems.

The two sides agreed to take certain measures to limit the development in this regard and suspend the competition through consultation.

While the Americans acted in accordance with the “treaty”, blindly believed in their own space technology and continued to install multiple warheads, the Soviet Union’s space technology quickly caught up with and surpassed the United States in many aspects.

There are several data that can illustrate the problem.

Comparison of strategic nuclear forces between the Soviet Union and the United States: the total number of delivery vehicles is 1.

3:1, the total equivalent of nuclear warheads is 1.

9:1, and the missile throwing weight is 1.8:1. Of course, the United States still leads in missile separation technology, the total number of nuclear missile warheads and hit accuracy.

This situation makes Americans feel more and more uneasy.

What is more serious is that the US anti satellite system has given more than a dozen false alarms due to the rise of the moon, a group of wild geese flying, computer integration failures and so on.

On one occasion, after an operator mistakenly entered a tape simulating an attack into the running system, the North American air defense command received a very realistic emergency alarm and took off tactical aircraft from the United States and Canada as an emergency.

The commander also convened a multi-level threat assessment meeting.

It was found six minutes later that the attack alarm was false.

In the face of the development of Soviet space technology, the United States is making a lot of noise, and is determined to compete with the Soviet Union in terms of diplomacy and armaments.

Carter, who came to power in 1976, was faced with not only curbing the expansion of the Soviet Union in the world, but also easing tensions between the United States and the Soviet Union.

How to continue the second stage of strategic arms limitation negotiations has become the most urgent issue in US Soviet relations.

Carter was determined to shorten the missile gap with the Soviet Union by various means, but on the surface, he had to make a gesture of developing relations with the Soviet Union.

On April 20, 1977, Carter sent Brezhnev a letter.

After the letter was sent, the response was neither good nor bad.

Carter had a sense of victory, so he asked to meet with Soviet ambassador to the United States Dobrynin.

When the two sat down, Carter proposed to study the United States and the Soviet Union’s substantial reduction of nuclear weapons and the possibility of reducing attacks, and proposed that the United States and the Soviet Union reduce conventional weapons and reduce international arms sales.

When dobrenin met Carter for the first time, the United States raised such a sharp question, so he was extremely nervous at the beginning, and sweat came out on his forehead.

However, he soon calmed down and dealt with Carter with ingenious diplomatic art.

Brzezinski, who attended the meeting, felt that Dobrynin was a chameleon, sometimes an eloquent speaker, sometimes a kind old man who patted his friends on the shoulder and talked, and sometimes appeared as an extremely ferocious polar bear.

A few days later, dobrenin came to the White House with a smile and sent Brezhnev’s reply to Carter.

The letter declared: “the Soviet Union found the letter from the president of the United States constructive and encouraging, and the realization of disarmament is the central area of Soviet American relations.

” Carter believed Brezhnev’s view, so he wrote to Brezhnev again to praise the Soviet people.

Where did he know that Brezhnev was a man who ate hard rather than soft.

Seeing Carter praising him so much, Burke cocked his tail and said in his reply a few days later: “the Soviet Union is not willing to test our endurance on any international policy issues, including Soviet US relations!” In this way, Brezhnev poured a basin of cold water on the president of the United States head-on.

In response to Brezhnev’s rather unpleasant move, Carter made a decision: “we play the Chinese card to deal with this polar bear.

” A year later, Carter visited China, and Sino US relations took a new turn for the better.

This made Brezhnev restless, restless in sleep and food, and had to return to the negotiations with the United States on strategic nuclear weapons.

After more than a year of bargaining, Carter and Brezhnev finally signed a treaty in June 1979.

At this time, the domestic economy of the United States was in recession, national defense and diplomacy were attacking in all directions, and it was just the time of the 1980 presidential election.

On November 4, the general election revealed that Reagan, as the Republican candidate of the United States, defeated his opponent Carter by an overwhelming majority and was elected the new president of the United States.

Reagan’s entry into the White House indicates that the conservative forces in the United States have regained the upper hand of the Soviet hardliners in American politics, and will inevitably strongly demand the adjustment of military strategy and the revitalization of national prestige.

Reagan, who climbed to the presidency, delivered his inaugural speech with the strongest attitude of the Republican Party.

“Our unwillingness to conflict should not be mistaken for a lack of will.

When action must be taken to protect the security of our country, we should take action.

If necessary, we will maintain enough strength to gain an advantage.

Because we know that only doing so is the best way to avoid using that power,” he said Reagan made these remarks when he took office because the United States was deeply left behind by the Soviet Union in terms of strategic nuclear power.

In particular, the United States is disturbed that the new intercontinental ballistic missiles deployed by the Soviet Union are not only large in number and powerful, but also close to the level of the United States in terms of hit accuracy, which poses a serious threat to the fixed silo of American intercontinental missiles.

The US Department of defense exclaimed that there was a “window of vulnerability” for the US nuclear deterrent.

The expansion of the Soviet Union’s strategic nuclear force and the improvement of the strategic defense system have made the US deterrence situation more stableReliability is threatened.

The Soviet Union not only actively strengthened its military strength, but also took advantage of the opportunity that the United States was forced to carry out strategic contraction due to the “aftermath of the Vietnam War”, and stepped up its outward expansion with military strength as the backing.

In this regard, the United States feels that its hegemony is being challenged.

On the other hand, many new open differences of opinion have emerged between the United States and its allies, and the “leading position” of the United States has gradually weakened.

NATO’s European allies are half hearted about “sharing the defense burden”.

In June 1981, a report from the Ministry of defense was placed on the president’s desk.

The report said: in a comprehensive nuclear war between the United States and the Soviet Union, if both sides only attack each other’s military and economic targets, the Soviet Union may die more than 100 million people and the United States may die more than 150 million people.

Various opinions of the US scientific community on the consequences of nuclear war are also attached.

There are all kinds of “earth destruction theory”, “nuclear winter theory” and so on.

In short, there is no winner in nuclear war.

Reagan pondered: how to narrow the nuclear gap between the United States and the Soviet Union? How to break the nuclear deadlock in the US Soviet competition? What is the effect of the previous containment strategy? How to deal with the changed situation with new strategic thinking? So he took action as promised in his inaugural speech.

In September, Reagan invited relevant experts to a meeting to study countermeasures.

At the suggestion of Daniel grenim, he organized a research group with funding from the heritage foundation.

In the early 1970s, the US military research group focused on how to take advantage of the strategic and technological superiority of the world’s famous space scientists and how to seize the favorable position of the world’s famous scientists in the early 1970s.

After seven months of intense and creative work, the group put forward a research report entitled “High Frontier – a new national strategy” in March 1982.

“The United States faces an opportunity to take its destiny into its own hands.

By deploying a space defense system, we can avoid the threat posed by the ‘balance of terror’ theory.

By opening up a broad and rich field of outer space for industrialization, we can defeat the prophecy of extinction,” the report said In order to hide people’s eyes and ears, the US government tried to distinguish the “High Frontier” strategy from the military strategy.

Report moderator Daniel Graham said that “High Frontier” is not a military strategy, but a real national strategy to deal with the legitimate economic and political aspirations and security needs of the United States and its allies.

“In the long run, the most important strategic outcome of the ‘high frontier’ plan will in fact be the non military field,” he added In fact, the core content of the Reagan Administration’s “High Frontier” strategy is an international military strategic concept, which is a major revision of the past “containment” strategy.

As pointed out in the “High Frontier” strategic research report, the purpose of outer space research is to formulate a national strategy that can maximize the use of space technology to achieve the following objectives: eliminate the existing and growing threat of Soviet military forces to the United States and its allies.

Replace the dangerous strategy of ensuring mutual destruction with “ensuring survival strategy”.

To provide protection and impetus for the development of the great industrial and commercial potential of outer space.

The Reagan administration fully accepted the ideas and measures of the “High Frontier” Research Report, and said very plainly in a speech: “this is a revolution that brings the beautiful hope of world peace and human freedom beyond our borders.

Our task is to cultivate and defend freedom and democracy and spread this idea to the world.

” The introduction of the “High Frontier” strategy is also the need for the interests of American monopoly consortia.

Reagan mainly relied on the support of the southwest consortium when running for president, and the heritage foundation is a policy research institution representing the interests of the extreme conservative forces of the southwest consortium.

Therefore, as soon as Reagan came to power, he adopted the “High Frontier” strategy and absorbed 11 members of the Council to serve in the transition team.

More than 10 members of the Senate Military Commission and the defense Appropriations Subcommittee are also from the southwest constituency.

The United States launched the “High Frontier” strategy, first of all, the need to compete with the Soviet Union militarily.

Through the implementation of the “High Frontier” strategy, the United States wants to transfer the competition with the Soviet Union to the technical field where the United States has advantages and obtain the strategic advantageous position against the Soviet Union.

At the same time, on this basis, through the implementation of space industrialization, promote the development of American economy and high technology, make western Europe and Japan dependent on the United States again, and regain the economic hegemony of the capitalist world.

After a period of internal debate and a certain range of public opinion propaganda, the “High Frontier” strategy has been basically accepted by all aspects of the U.S. government.

At this time, President Reagan had been in power for two years, and the relations in all aspects were basically straightened out.

He felt that the time was ripe for the full implementation of the “High Frontier” strategy.

So he delivered a famous TV speech in March 1983.

In October of the same year, according to Reagan’s proposal, the US Department of defense proposed a new concept based “SDI strategic defense initiative” research program, also known as “strategic defense initiative”.

Coincidentally, at that time, American society was showing an entertaining fictional story film – “Star Wars”.

The film describes the story of a Jedi Knight fighting the evil empire with laser weapons in the distant galaxy, finally defeating the Empire and saving the suffering of thousands of people.

The propaganda and public opinion circles borrowed the blockbuster science fantasy film star wars to call Reagan’s “strategic defense initiative” plan.

In fact, the United States has made two major plans since the 20th century.

The first was the “Manhattan” plan to build an atomic bomb approved by the president.

The implementation of this plan enabled the United States to make an atomic bomb before fascist Germany, accelerated the failure of Germany, Italy and Japan, and brought mankind into the era of atomic energy.

The second was the “Apollo” program of manned lunar landing approved by the president.

The implementation of this plan sent six groups of 12 astronauts to the moon, opening up a new era of human conquest of the universe.

The “Star Wars” plan proposed by President Reagan shocked the world and attracted more attention than the previous two plans.

Because this plan is not only larger than the previous two, but also has invested more human, material and financial resources than the previous two, but also its complex backgroundIts research content and goal will have a great impact.

In order to implement the “Star Wars” program proposed by President Reagan, the U.S. Department of defense established an executive committee to oversee all research programs on ballistic defense technology at the end of March 1983.

The committee is composed of the Deputy Secretary of defense, the chairman of the Joint Chiefs of staff, the assistant secretary of defense responsible for audit, the director of the Department of planning analysis and evaluation of the Ministry of defense, the chairman of the Military Liaison Committee, the director of the Bureau of advanced research and planning and the director of the Bureau of nuclear weapons.

Less than half a month after the establishment of the committee, Reagan signed national security order No.

6, requiring the Department of defense to complete the evaluation of the role of effective anti missile systems in the security of the United States and its allies by the end of October of the same year, and to determine a long-term development plan for anti missile technology research.

To this end, the Ministry of national defense has specially established a defense technology research group and a future security research group to study the possible role of the anti missile defense system in strengthening the security of the United States and its allies in the future, including the relationship and possible impact between the new anti missile system and arms control, nuclear deterrence policy, anti missile treaty, the Soviet Union and its allies.

The US Department of defense asked the two research groups to produce their own research reports in about half a year.

Six months later, the two groups submitted the research report to the special administration of the Ministry of national defense.

The defense technology group proposed that the most effective strategic missile defense system would be a multi-layer interception system.

One of the achievements of security research is that anti missile defense can contribute to us security.

These research work is a chip to deal with the progress made by the Soviet Union in this field.

On November 30, President Reagan convened a meeting on the plan, which was attended by political leaders, vice presidents and secretaries of state, military dignitaries, the Secretary of defense, the chairman of the Joint Chiefs of staff and the director of arms control and disarmament, as well as other experts, such as the president’s scientific adviser and members of the National Security Council.

The meeting discussed a wide range of issues related to technology, international relations and the interests of allies.

On January 6 the following year, Reagan signed national security order No.

116 and officially approved the new anti missile technology research program, which was named “strategic defense initiative” (SDI), that is, the “Star Wars” program.

According to the US Department of defense, the implementation of the “Star Wars” program is divided into four stages: the first stage is the basic research stage.

The second stage is the system development stage.

The third stage is production and batch deployment.

The fourth stage is to complete the whole system deployment stage.

The whole plan will be completed from 2010 to 2015.

The “Star Wars” program is a very large and complex military research and development program.

In order to effectively manage and coordinate the work of various departments, the United States has newly established four institutions: the strategic defense plan bureau, the strategic defense plan executive committee, the strategic defense plan senior international defense policy group and the strategic defense plan Advisory Committee.

After implementing the organization of technical research and battle command, President Reagan vigorously urged his subordinates to carry out work in order to realize his grand vision as soon as possible.

In the “planet” defense system, the United States envisages a four-tier interception scheme.

The main basis is that the interception probability of the first layer is 60%, and that of the other three layers is 50%, and the total interception probability can reach 95%.

If the interception probability of each layer is 90%, the total interception probability of the four layers can reach 99.99%. Because the ballistic missile from launch to hitting the target is usually divided into four major stages: boost stage, final boost stage, middle stage and final stage.

The four-layer interception scheme is to intercept the ballistic missile layer by layer according to these four stages, so as to achieve the purpose of destroying the missile before the missile enters the air above the target.

Among the above interceptions, the boost phase interception is very important.

If the ICBM is intercepted in the boost phase, it is easier to track than waiting for it to fly along the orbit to the subsequent phase, and the general effect is good.

Of course, interception in the boost phase also has disadvantages.

The boost period is very short (40 to 300 seconds), and this period is very close to the launch point.

Therefore, the boost phase interception must pass through the other party’s airspace or sea.

This makes it a question where the base of the defense system should be located.

Some people have made a figurative analogy, saying that this method is like deploying a skilled American soldier next to each Soviet silo, equipped with a machine gun.

When the cover of the silo is removed and the missile is exposed, the defender pulls the gun, hits the rocket with holes and causes it to explode.

This kind of deployment is obviously easy to be found by the Soviet Union.

The Soviets can barely tolerate the existence of this deployment, but they can also eliminate this deployment at any time they choose, and it is likely to be close to the moment before launching the missile attack.

Therefore, in order to achieve boost phase interception, early warning satellites are required to find out as soon as possible, provide as much interception time as possible, quickly measure the trajectory of many trajectories, timely transmit the information to the combat management system, and order various weapons or launch platforms to track and aim at their respective targets until they are destroyed.

In addition, because the United States and the Soviet Union are thousands of miles apart, in order to achieve rapid and effective interception, we must deploy weapons in space and attack over the Soviet launch position.

The “Star Wars” plan is also based on space weapons.

Obviously, the “Star Wars” plan of the United States aims to seize the power of space domination.

In order to obtain the right to control heaven, there must be “heavenly soldiers and heavenly generals”.

Therefore, from 1982 to 1988, the US government successively organized and established a special space force and its command system.

The main institutions of this system are set up in all services, including four famous ones: one is the US military (joint) space command.

The command was established in September 1985 as a necessary link in combat between the Joint Chiefs of staff and the armed forces space command.

Its duty is to conduct operational command of aerospace, air and ballistic missile defense operations of various services.

Another is the US Air Force Space Command.

As the main part of the US (joint) space command, it is mainly responsible for organizing, training, equipping and managing the forces used to support the US space command and the North American space defense command.

Manage satellite systems such as “National Defense Support Plan”, “national defense meteorological satellite plan”, “navigation satellite” and “military satellite”.

Manage satellite and missile test and launch bases.

Another is the US Navy space command.

The command was established on October 1, 1983 and is a space agency directly under the Navy.

Its responsibility is to manage and maintain the Naval Aerospace DepartmentUnified resources to support U.S. naval forces and U.S. military (joint) space command around the world, and provide fleet support for the “tactical reference plan of national space capability”.

In addition, the space agency subordinate to the U.S. Army Aviation Administration is the U.S. Army Strategic Defense and space command.

The headquarters was established on April 7, 1988.

Its main function is to participate in the aerospace activities of the Ministry of defense and lead the research on Anti Ballistic Missile Defense.

Breakthroughs in various high-tech research and the formation and training of many “heavenly soldiers and generals” created conditions for Reagan to implement the “Star Wars” plan.

As soon as Reagan’s “Star Wars” plan came out, it aroused strong reactions all over the world, especially the strong opposition of Soviet leaders.

On the third day after Reagan’s speech on the deployment of the strategic defense plan, the general secretary of the Soviet Communist Party Andropov expressed strong opposition.

He said: “any attempt to seek military superiority over the Soviet Union is futile.

The Soviet Union is not allowed to do so and will never be unprepared for any threat.

I hope to understand this well.

” Chernenko, who succeeded him, further pointed out in 1985: “the use of the term ‘defensive’ is nothing more than playing with words.

Its essence is offensive and, more accurately, aggressive.

” Gorbachev also responded quickly after taking office.

He said: “if the Soviet Union will be put in front of the real threat from space, the Soviet Union will find an effective way to counterattack.

I hope no one will doubt it.

” Of course, the Soviets didn’t just say it.

In the face of Reagan’s aggressive situation, they took a series of actions and measures.

Politically, they first used the West’s fear of nuclear war and the desire for peace of people all over the world to create public opinion and contain the US “Star Wars” plan.

Militarily, while actively launching offensive strategic nuclear weapons and various strategic defense technologies, we should vigorously develop countermeasures against the “Star Wars” plan.

Facing the measures taken by the Soviets against the “Star Wars” plan, on the one hand, the United States continued to improve its plan, on the other hand, it launched various diplomatic offensives to slander the Soviet Union.

For a time, the Soviet Union and the United States, including the top leaders of the two countries, fought tit for tat on the issue of defense or war provocation, almost to the point of tension.

Gorbachev believed that the strategic defense plan of US President Reagan posed a great threat to the reform plan of the Soviet Union, and was determined to launch a peace offensive against Reagan.

He first announced on August 6, 1985 that in order to commemorate the 40th anniversary of the atomic bomb bombing of Hiroshima, the Soviet Union unilaterally stopped its underground nuclear test for five months.

Reagan ignored this.

On August 28, Gorbachev spoke to the reporter of time magazine and appealed to Reagan again, stressing that the United States and the Soviet Union “can only survive together” and that the US Soviet summit should be held to promote peaceful coexistence.

Although Reagan’s decision is to be sold, it will not have a deep impact on the United States.

Gorbachev was not discouraged.

In October and November of the same year, he made a clearer appeal to Reagan: “the development of world affairs has reached a limit.

At this time, it is necessary to make a particularly responsible decision.

Inaction or slow action is a crime!” Reagan always ignored Gorbachev’s repeated proposals for summit talks and was impolite.

Moreover, US Soviet relations had been deadlocked for six years.

Five years since he took office in the White House, he had not met with Soviet leaders, so he agreed to hold the US Soviet Geneva summit.

When the reporter asked Reagan why he waited so long to hold the US Soviet summit, he showed his Hollywood acting skills and said humorously: “Brezhnev, Andropov and Chernenko, they died one by one.

What can I do!” On the morning of November 19, 1985, Reagan and Gorbachev began the first round of talks at the “flower of water” villa in Geneva.

It was originally planned that the meeting would last only 15 minutes, but it actually took an hour to play tricks because both sides wanted to win a favorable position.

Finally, when the photographer came in to take photos, Reagan specially pulled Gorbachev away from the seats on both sides of the rectangular table and stood side by side by the fireplace to make a smiling appearance for the reporter to take photos in order to emulate the “fireside New Deal” made by us wartime President Roosevelt.

Afterwards, Reagan instructed American reporters to publish this photo widely, and the reporter made every effort to call the US Soviet Geneva summit the “fireside summit”.

The next day, at the beginning of the formal talks, Reagan relied on his dominant position to launch an attack.

First, he accused the Soviet Union that the domestic human rights situation was very bad and must be completely changed.

Gorbachev angrily retorted: “the president has no right to talk about human rights in the Soviet Union, because the living conditions of the American people are much worse than those of the Soviet Union!” The two of them had a cow on the issue of human rights.

Naturally, they can’t talk any more.

The next topic was disarmament, and the quarrel broke out again.

Reagan condescended and asked Gorbachev to recognize the United States’ Star Wars plan and enable the United States to obtain nuclear advantage.

Gorbachev snapped back: “it’s not persuasive.

It’s emotional, it’s a dream! Who can control it? Who can monitor it? We’ve made it clear that we won’t use nuclear weapons against you.

Why can’t you believe us and start an arms race in space?” Reagan believed that the Soviet Union was the root of all the turmoil in the world.

He had to “seek peace with strength” towards the Soviet Union, and joked with sarcasm: “if you don’t believe me, I can’t say I believe you to the American people.

” The United States and the Soviet Union had intended to issue a joint summit statement on nuclear disarmament to show the great results of the summit meeting.

However, Reagan and Gorbachev became more and more noisy.

US Secretary of state Shure C í and Soviet Foreign Minister Shevardnadze hurried out to persuade the two heads of state to take a rest next door and the diplomatic authorities of both sides continued to find a way to open the deadlock, But the result is still standing still.

Finally, the two sides signed a statement in accordance with the conditions put forward by the United States.

The talks between Reagan and Gorbachev achieved results that were beneficial to the United States, and the lobbying of American leaders received due rewards.

However, the release of the “Star Wars” plan caused a big debate at home.

The focus of this war theory is mainly: whether it is feasible in technology, whether it is necessary in strategy, whether it will aggravate the new arms race, whether it can be affordable economically, whether it can be effective in actual combat, and whether the alliance relationship between the United States and Europe will be strengthenedDecoupling, etc.

Around these issues, the pro and opposition views are very different.

The supporters are represented by the leading figures of the Reagan administration, including some so-called “hawks” or “conservatives” scientists, experts and politicians.

The opposition is represented by former defense minister McNamara, former national security assistant Bondi, former chief representative of disarmament negotiations Smith and former ambassador to the Soviet Union Kennan, including some leaders of the former democratic government, as well as some scientists and experts.

Later, there was a third faction, who believed that technical research could be carried out at present, and careful consideration should be given to whether to carry out actual combat deployment in the future.

The debate in the United States also reveals such a question: “is the Star Wars program a” defense star “or a” Death Star “? When Reagan gave a speech on the strategic defense plan in 1983, he only suggested seeking a “defense” system that can protect the American people.

Now it seems that this perfect system can not be achieved.

The plan is still going on.

No matter what impact it will have on the future of the United States, the tidal economic impact has given the plan life, but it is completely unreasonable.

In order to make this plan reasonable, the US military proposed an incomplete “Star Wars” system in 1985.

In this way, it directly violates the goal put forward by President Reagan in 1983.

The president wanted to give up deterrence, but now he wants to strengthen it.

The president wanted to eliminate the threat of retaliation, but now he wants to increase the threat of retaliation.

The president wants to give up America’s offensive weapons, but now he is far away from defense.

The president wanted to avoid “joint destruction”, but now “joint destruction” is more severe.

The president wanted to protect the people and abandon nuclear weapons, but now he is protecting nuclear weapons and abandoning the people.

Therefore, it was pointed out sharply that the effect of any vulnerable defense system is to invite the other party to launch an attack on itself and actually induce nuclear war.

Therefore, there is only one way to make the “Star Wars” system meaningful – that is to regard it as an offensive “Death Star” system, and use it to control space, so as to obtain absolute military superiority over the whole earth.

It seems that although the discussion of “defense star” or “Death Star” has not stopped the implementation of the “Star Wars” plan, it still has inspiration for the decision-makers of the US government.

They have always regarded the conquest of space as an American ideal.

For the United States, space is a “new boundary”, both civilian and military.

This “new frontier” means opportunities for scientific discovery, new investment and new services.

In May 1997, a French expert wrote an article in the echo and put forward his views on the new progress of “Star Wars”.

He believed that the combination of civilian satellites and military satellites broke the traditional concept of strategy.

The article also points out that at present, satellite programs aimed at meeting the needs of long-distance communication are emerging one after another.

In terms of funds, the plan that has made the most progress is the “global star” plan, which costs US $2.

2 billion.

In terms of scale, it is the “teldesic” plan to send 840 satellites into low orbit.

These plans have two connections with Reagan’s “Star Wars” plan: from military to civilian.

From civilian to military contact.

Military to civilian links: some technical difficulties of the teledesic program team have been solved due to the announcement of research for the Pentagon within the scope of the strategic initiative.

Similarly, at & T will use the results of its work for the Star Wars Program to study urban radiotelephone systems.

From civilian to military connection: due to technological progress and the use of the rocket carrying capacity of the former Soviet republics, the bet with the development of long-distance communication technology seems to have broken the defense line of rocket carrying capacity.

At the same time, due to the mass production of hundreds of satellites, the production cost and sales price of satellites will be greatly reduced.

The original intention of the “Star Wars” program, whether to build a space sword or a space shield, has achieved some results.

Because the United States has mastered space technology and information technology, it may control space for civil and military purposes in the early 21st century.

Under the influence of the US “Star Wars” program, many countries in the world are designing nuclear arsenals according to their own strategic principles.

Soon after that, the development of satellites appeared the trend of popularization.

At that time, people’s comprehensive mastery of space, telecommunications, electronics and information technology was not strategic, but now this mastery is strategic.

Therefore, in the light of the new situation, we must make new thinking and make new efforts in strategic guidance.

Reagan’s “Star Wars” plan caused a sensation and affected the whole world.

However, while the Reagan administration was busy planning the “Star Wars” plan, a military coup took place in Grenada.

Reagan could not ignore this event, which was related to the political and economic interests of the United States.