On the European battlefield, German fascists announced their surrender.
On May 8, 1945, representatives of the German Supreme Command signed an unconditional surrender in karlshorst, a suburb of Berlin.
So far, the Allied war against Germany has ended.
In the Asia Pacific War, the US forces have taken over Iwo Jima and Okinawa Island, and launched a counterattack on the battlefields of the Asian continent.
The Japanese troops trapped in the Chinese mainland have lost their prestige.
Judging from the whole battlefield situation, the people of the world are about to win the final victory in the war against Japanese fascism.
Although Japan’s military defeat is a foregone conclusion, the Japanese militarist forces are still unwilling to fail.
They try their best to incite reactionary nationalist sentiment among the people and engage in the so-called local decisive battle, in a vain attempt to frighten the United States with blood and strive to end the war in a more favorable way.
The decisive battle on the mainland carried out by the militaristic Japanese fascists is to carry out uninterrupted special attack operations at sea, in the air and on land.
The so-called land special attack operation is to fight bayonets, carry out hand to hand attacks on tanks, and fight a tank with one soldier.
The Japanese army’s deputy chief of staff riverside said at the pre imperial meeting on June 8 that a decisive battle in Japan is unfavorable to the US Army and has “absolute advantage” conditions for the Japanese army.
He wantonly incited the spirit of Bushido, saying that “all living beings in the imperial Kingdom have been turned into combat power”, “give play to the special attack spirit of 100 million people”, destroy the enemy with “the method of mutual assassination” and defend the great Japanese Empire.
In order to force Japanese fascists to lay down their arms and end the war as soon as possible, the three countries of the Soviet Union, the United States and Britain held the third summit meeting after Tehran and Yalta in POC í Tan, southwest of Berlin, Germany, from July 15 to August 2.
This is the famous “POC í Tan conference” in history.
The meeting adopted the famous BOC í Tan announcement, urging “the Japanese government to immediately announce the unconditional surrender of all Japanese armed forces”, reaffirming that “the conditions of the Cairo Declaration will be implemented, and Japan’s sovereignty will be limited to Honshu, Hokkaido, Kyushu, Shikoku and other small islands decided by Japan”, and Japan’s occupation of Northeast China Penghu Islands and other places should be returned to China.
The announcement was first published in the form of a joint declaration of the United States, Britain and China.
Later, the Soviet Union sent troops to fight against Japan and signed the announcement, making it the joint declaration of the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom and China.
Under the bombing and blockade of the allies, although the situation of the Japanese army was extremely difficult and on the verge of collapse, it was by no means easy for the allies to win.
During the US military’s operation on the Pacific Islands, the whole war lasted 92 days, with 75000 casualties, 763 aircraft lost and more than 400 ships under destroyers, most of which were destroyed by kamikaze suicide planes.
The US General Command estimates that the US military needs to use 1.
5 million troops and pay 500000 casualties to land in Japan, which is a considerable price.
How to use a smaller price to make the Japanese fascists surrender? While Americans were considering how to reduce casualties, an exciting news came from the United States.
On July 16, 1945, Americans successfully exploded the first atomic bomb in human history in alamergordo, a desert area in New Mexico.
That afternoon, Truman received a telegram about the success of the atomic bomb test in POC í tan.
The US president who had just taken office felt a burst of relief and suddenly felt that his eyes were bright.
The first successful test of atomic bomb energy in the United States has added another magic weapon for the United States to win.
People’s initial understanding of the atomic bomb was in the 1930s.
In the early 1930s, physicists had discovered the existence of neutrons that could split atoms.
Scientists have focused their attention on one goal – to uncover the secret of atomic fission.
Once this secret is revealed, it can serve the war and destroy mankind.
It can also serve peace and benefit mankind.
Unfortunately, this secret was discovered in the crazy 1930s.
In December 1938, Otto Hahn and stressman, famous scientists of the Institute of chemistry of William University in Berlin, Germany, spent six years and finally mastered the basic method of splitting atomic nuclei.
This scientific achievement immediately attracted the attention of the German military, which should first develop an atomic weapon for mass destruction of mankind.
Germany, which already has millions of well-equipped and well-trained SS troops, if coupled with the powerful atomic bomb, the prospect of the whole Europe and even the world will not be very beautiful.
Unfortunately, Hitler was so violent that he was opposed to intellectuals.
The race law of Nazi Germany regarded Jews as the filth of German Society and the object of elimination and elimination.
Even Jewish scientists who can uncover the secrets of atomic division are no exception.
More than 2000 European scientific elites left Nazi Germany, Italy and Hungary one by one.
They were exiled to Britain, Scandinavia and the United States.
Because he was a Jew, “father of relativity”, the scientific leader could not bear the abuse and insult of the Nazis and was forced to leave Europe.
Schillard, who has just become a prize winner, lives abroad from Hungary.
Followed by Fermi, an Italian scholar who has made brilliant achievements in nuclear physics, and famous German physicists frank, Betty, stressman, maitner, Reiner, Frith and so on.
These top scientific giants are concentrated in the United States.
These new European immigrants who were thrown to the United States by their tragic fate clearly realized that once Germany had the atomic bomb, the only way other countries could resist this threat was to use their own atomic bomb to compete with the fascist atomic bomb.
On August 3, 1939, schillard and Einstein jointly wrote a long letter to the president, suggesting that the United States develop an atomic bomb.
On October 11, when Sachs, the president’s financial adviser and international financier, came to Roosevelt with this letter from Einstein and a memorandum prepared by schillard, the American president knew nothing about this mysterious field and lacked greater enthusiasm.
Sachs reported that these scientists expressed serious concern about the possibility that Hitler Germany might produce an atomic bomb.
However, Roosevelt’s expression of indifference and disbelief when listening to saxophone made Saxophone very worried.
What if the president threw these letters aside and didn’t study them carefully? The wise Saxophone had an idea, so he didn’t adopt Fulton’s proposal to use a steam boat, so he couldn’t cross the English ChannelThe example of conquering Britain persuaded the president: “do you know Fulton?” Asked Sachs.
“That’s the glory of our country.
An inventor who pays attention to practical results, not a talker.
” Roosevelt replied.
Sachs smiled and then told the story of Fulton’s visit to Napoleon and his proposal to set up a ship powered by steam engine to land in Britain.
“Warships don’t use sails?” Napoleon was puzzled, so he ordered the guard: “blow out this whimsical inventor!” Later, a British historian commented on this matter: “thanks to this order, Britain was spared the pain of national subjugation.
if Napoleon had a little thought, the historical process of the 19th century might be completely different.
” Roosevelt listened and thought for a moment.
He understood Sachs’s intention and clearly realized what it would mean to have an atomic bomb.
He brought a bottle of French brandy from the Napoleonic era.
They clinked glasses and drank it all at once.
On October 19, 1939, President Roosevelt made a decision and adopted the suggestions of Einstein and others.
He pressed the button on his desk.
Facing the military aides who answered, pointing to a lot of explanatory materials, he said calmly, “this matter must be dealt with.
” On December 7, 1941, the Japanese Navy and air force secretly attacked Pearl Harbor, and the Pacific War broke out, which greatly promoted the development of atomic bomb.
According to the instructions of President Roosevelt, a special committee with the code name “s-11” was formed.
The main members are Secretary of the army Stimson, director of scientific research and development Dr.
Boucher, and President of Harvard University Dr.
The atomic laboratory is located in Los Alamos, 7300 feet above sea level in northern New Mexico.
It is led by Robert Oppenheimer, a “dull, thin and slovenly” man.
For the sake of strict confidentiality, the plan to develop an atomic bomb is called the “Manhattan Project”.
The world’s first-class mathematicians, physicists and Chemists (many of whom are Nobel laureates) come here.
There are three families living in a humble cabin.
Two couples live in one room each, and a bachelor has to sleep in the lobby at night.
In the compound surrounded by barbed wire with “danger” signs written in English and Spanish, the developers referred to each other as “loster” (the missing Alamos) to describe their almost isolated situation.
For relatives who are far away, only let them know the mailing address of “box 1633, Santa Fe, New Mexico”.
At the beginning, the United States government only provided funds for nuclear testing.
Therefore, in the first two years, the main attention of the “s-11” Action Committee focused on the experimental topics of separating enriched uranium and how to produce fission chain reaction.
By December 1942, these selfless scientists had been able to carry out chain reactions and experiments in the laboratory.
This is a memorable and historic event.
In the past, people could only make the atom produce fission, but after the success of this test, people can control the fission at will, make it produce or stop it.
This is an epoch-making major breakthrough.
It shows that the theoretical principle proved by experiment can be put into industrial production immediately.
The US government has set two principles for the “Manhattan” plan: one is to produce atomic bombs for the military.
The second is to build an atomic bomb before the Germans.
Therefore, a multi pronged approach was adopted.
For more than two years, groves sat in the headquarters of the “Manhattan” project, while Robert Oppenheimer, the director of Los Alamos atomic laboratory, spoke to him several times a day to report on the progress of the work.
By Christmas night 1944, groves announced to his colleagues that the world’s first atomic bomb could be built in August 1945.
In the autumn of 1944, while studying the atomic bomb, the US Air Force began to refit the B-29 super heavy bomber.
At the same time, 1500 officers and soldiers of the “509” brigade were concentrated in various preparations for throwing the atomic bomb.
At Wendover Air Force Base in Salt Lake City, Utah, a daunting placard stands at the gate: “when you leave here, leave everything you see and hear here!” The newly formed “509” mixed brigade of the U.S. Army aviation team receives special training here.
The captain and captain is colonel Paul til C í, who is only 27 years old.
He and his partners have participated in operations in Europe and North Africa.
Each of them is an excellent pilot with rich bombing experience.
What makes these young people feel different from their previous training is that the bomb they use here is not the kind they used to throw in the past, but a large and stupid simulated bomb.
Moreover, the whole brigade seemed to have nothing to do, but occasionally flew to the enemy’s territory to throw a bomb.
This abnormal behavior of the mixed brigade was often ridiculed by other troops on the island, and they felt bored themselves.
On July 16, 1945, after the successful test explosion of the atomic bomb, in the face of a land without any life within a kilometer and a half, the intellectual elites of Los Alamos were first elated and then felt guilty.
Bainbridge, who was in charge of the implosion test, announced his “blessing”: “anyone who sees it will never forget it, a dirty and creepy performance.
” He then said to Oppenheimer, “now we are all sons of bitches!” Oppenheimer’s expression was cold and he was smoking “Camel” cigarettes.
He felt painfully that the world was no longer what it was.
He remembered the Scriptures in Mahabharata and found a roughly similar image for himself, “I have become the God of death, the destroyer of the world”.
Not interested in politics all his life, Fermi, who was honest, easy-going and passionate, rushed to groves and shouted, “now the war should be over!” “Yes, but only after we throw them into Japan!” Groves replied coldly.
The United States did not hesitate to make an atomic bomb at all costs.
Of course, it should come in handy.
But how to send and where to send is a headache.
After countless meetings, the committee chaired by U.S. Secretary of the army Stimson finally made such a decision in the fierce quarrel: drop the atomic bomb to a densely populated industrial city with military facilities on Japanese territory as soon as possible, so as to achieve the goal of killing and wounding a large number of people, the Soviet Union’s participation in the war made the Japanese imperialist ruling group desperate and cornered.
At 10:58 a.m. on August 9, the United States dropped its second atomic bomb on Nagasaki.
The atomic bomb, code named “fat man”, was originally intended to be thrown into xiaocang.
Because the clouds over xiaocang were thick and the aiming point could not be found, it flew to Nagasaki instead.
Therefore, the tragedy that should have happened in xiaocang fell on Nagasaki.
The throwing of atomic bombs, which caused great disasters and massacres to mankind, and the Soviet Union’s dispatch of troops to fight against Japan accelerated the collapse of Japanese imperialism and finally prompted the emperor and government of Japan to make a quick decision to surrender.
On the same day that the “fat man” bombed Nagasaki, Prime Minister Suzuki convened the members of the supreme war Steering Council to discuss the surrender.
At the meeting, a 3-to-3 situation was formed and there was a stalemate.
At midnight, the emperor convened the pre imperial meeting, but there was still a great debate.
Helpless Suzuki had to hand over the contradiction to the emperor and ask the emperor to make a decision.
Although the Japanese Constitution stipulates that the emperor has only the power to approve but not to propose policies, he is determined to break this example.
The emperor stood up painfully and said, “I have seriously considered the situation at home and abroad and concluded that continuing the war means the destruction of the nation and prolonging human bloodshed and atrocities.
I can’t bear to see innocent people suffer again.
The only way to restore world peace and relieve the terrible suffering of the country is to end the war.
” On the morning of August 14, the emperor instructed the Suzuki cabinet at the pre imperial meeting to accept the conditions of the allies and immediately draft an imperial edict of unconditional surrender.
At 12 noon on August 15, the emperor delivered a radio speech announcing unconditional surrender.
On August 26, a US fleet with 383 warships and 1300 carrier based aircraft advanced into the Tokyo Bay.
On the 28th, the vanguard troops landed at the airport near Tokyo.
On the 30th, a large number of us and British troops began landing near Tokyo and other areas.
On the same day, he arrived in Tokyo, controlled the radio station in Tokyo and established his own information bureau.
On September 2, 1945, the ceremony for Japan to officially sign the letter of surrender was held on the USS Missouri.
Why did the ceremony take place on a warship? Here are two small episodes: after Japan announced its unconditional surrender, President Truman appointed MacArthur as the supreme commander of the Allied forces, responsible for arranging and presiding over the Japanese surrender ceremony and occupying Japan.
Nimitz was indignant when the news reached Guam.
In his view, the Navy made more contributions than the army in the Pacific War, and the above appointment made MacArthur take the lead, making him a world-renowned figure, giving the impression that Japan was mainly defeated by his army.
In order to save the face of the Navy and Nimitz, Secretary of the Navy Forrester suggested that if the surrender ceremony was presided over by MacArthur, it should be held on a naval ship.
If MacArthur signs the surrender on behalf of the allies, Nimitz should sign on behalf of the United States.
Truman, after much consideration, agreed to the proposal, which resolved the contradiction between the two generals.
However, the old contradictions have been solved and new contradictions have emerged.
The Navy decided to hold the surrender ceremony on admiral Halsey’s flagship Missouri, and MacArthur asked the staff to tell Nimitz that he wanted to fly his general’s flag on Missouri.
But according to tradition, the main mast of the ship only raises the general flag of the highest naval officer of the fleet.
Finally, Nimitz’s adjutant was smart.
He came up with a way to have the best of both worlds, that is, put MacArthur and Nimitz’s blue flags side by side on the main mast.
As a result, both generals were delighted.
At dawn on September 2, the sky was overcast, and the whole Tokyo Bay was shrouded in sad clouds.
In the distance, clouds floated on the snowy top of Mount Fuji.
Surrounded by hundreds of naval ships, the US battleship Missouri stands out in the cloudy Tokyo Bay.
Interestingly, the American flag flying on the main mast of the battleship “Missouri” is the star spangled flag flying on the top of the Capitol building in Washington when Pearl Harbor was attacked on December 7, 1941.
On the battleship, the flags of the United States, the Soviet Union, China, Britain and France were shaking in the wind.
A marine dining table with a green blanket was placed between the No.
2 turret and the ship’s railing, with a chair on each side.
A solemn and historic moment has come – the signing ceremony of the official surrender of Japanese imperialism will be held here.
Out of contempt for Japanese fascism, the Allied officers and soldiers attending the ceremony wore military civilian clothes.
American officers and soldiers are more casual, wearing Khaki shirts, no ties and no coats.
At 8:30, General MacArthur, the supreme commander of the allies, boarded the deck of the battleship Missouri, and Admiral Halsey stood beside him.
At 8:50, representatives of the nine allied countries and other generals stepped onto the deck one after another.
The representatives of the nine countries are: the United States on behalf of admiral C.W. Nimitz, China on behalf of General Xu Yongchang, the United Kingdom on behalf of admiral Bruce Fraser, the Soviet Union on behalf of lieutenant general jeremiaco, Australia on behalf of T.A. brame, Canada on behalf of Moore Cosgrave, France on behalf of Leclaire, the Netherlands on behalf of d.e.l. herfrick, and New Zealand on behalf of Leonard Exeter.
At 8:55, Japan’s new foreign minister, Chongguang Kui, dragged the prosthetic leg that had been installed after being bombed at a rally to commemorate the birthday of the emperor of Japan in Shanghai, and struggled to climb up the deck of the Missouri from the small ship.
Chief of staff Meijin meizhilang also climbed up.
When 11 expressionless Japanese in black morning gowns and Tan army uniforms boarded the battleship deck, serious allied officials greeted them with silence.
The surrender ceremony was held at 9 a.m. under the auspices of General MacArthur.
He began with a brief speech: “We, the representatives of the major Warring States, are gathered here today to sign a solemn agreement to restore peace.
Our responsibility for winning and losing sides is to achieve higher dignity, which is conducive to the goal we will strive for and enable all our people to faithfully and unreservedly fulfill the responsibilities we will officially assume here.
In this villa At this critical moment, we will bid farewell to the world full of bloody massacres and welcome a very beautiful new world.
In this new world, we will be committed to safeguarding human dignity and realizing the best wishes of mankind to pursue freedom, tolerance and justice.
This is our sincere hope and, in fact, the hope of all mankind.
I am the supreme commander of the alliance.