After 8 years of bloody struggle, the people of Indochina finally won the victory against the French invaders.

On March 13, 1954, the roar of gunfire in Dien Bien Phu declared the end of the rule of the French colonists on this land.

The failure of the French shocked the Americans.

The US government, which pursues the policy of confrontation between the East and the west, cannot tolerate such a new gap in the strategy of containing China in the Far East.

At the same time, it cannot tolerate the establishment of a unified national power by the Communist Party of Vietnam.

Under such circumstances, the United States is determined to fill the “vacuum” created by the French, to exert the whole body’s solution, to interfere with the settlement of the Indochina issue and to obstruct the peace, independence and territorial integrity of Indochina countries.

In May 1954, the Geneva conference aimed at ending the war between French colonial forces and Vietnamese Democrats led by the Communist Party was held as scheduled.

Representatives of the United States, France, Britain, the Soviet Union and China attended the meeting.

Through the joint efforts of the participating countries, an agreement was finally reached on the Vietnam issue on July 21.

The Geneva Agreement stipulates that a temporary military demarcation line shall be drawn along the 17 ° north latitude line, officially dividing Vietnam into two parts.

The Vietnamese people’s army and the French Army shall assemble in the north and South regions respectively to implement a ceasefire.

France recognizes Vietnam’s independence and withdraws from Indochina.

Vietnam held free national elections in July 1956.

At the same time, it is also stipulated in the agreement that no foreign countries should establish military bases in Indochina.

Although the United States also participated in the Geneva conference at that time, it refused to sign the agreement.

Later, for fear of being condemned by world public opinion, the representative of the United States was forced to issue a statement saying that the United States would not use the threat of force to hinder the implementation of the Geneva Agreement.

What is “no threat of force”? It can be seen from this statement that the United States wants to meddle in the Indochina issue and leave room for its future armed intervention.

Shortly after the agreement was signed, the United States broke its promise.

From September 6 to September 8, 1954, the United States convened the foreign ministers of Britain, France, Australia, New Zealand, the Philippines, Thailand and Pakistan to meet in Manila and jointly signed the Southeast Asia Collective Defense Treaty (Manila Treaty).

The treaty stipulates that if any Contracting State or treaty protecting state in Southeast Asia or the southwest Pacific region is invaded by force, each Contracting State will take action to deal with the common danger in accordance with its own constitutional procedures.

In the same region, if any Contracting State or treaty protecting state is threatened by “any means other than armed attack”, the Contracting States will immediately consult to reach the agreement required for joint defensive action, etc.

The treaty designated Vietnam (South Vietnam), Laos and Kampuchea as a treaty protectorate, thus bringing the 3 countries of Indochina into the US defense system and providing an excuse for further intervention.

It is a flagrant violation of the spirit of the Manila treaty and the Geneva Agreement on the protection of Laos, and it is a flagrant violation of the spirit of the Manila treaty and the Geneva Agreement.

After the Geneva conference, the president of the United States stressed that the United States must cooperate with anti Communist and anti French “nationalists” in South Vietnam to make them regard the United States as a friend they must rely on.

In order to control South Vietnam, the United States must find someone who obeys the will of the United States to act as its spokesman.

After careful selection, they chose Wu Tingyan.

Wu Tingyan, born in a noble family in hue, South Vietnam in January 1901, is a devout Catholic.

His father, Wu Tingguo, was a scholar.

He once served as Minister of etiquette and palace warden of the Annan court, and later became prime minister.

After graduating from the French Academy of administration in 1921, Wu Tingyan entered the Vietnamese colonial government.

He once prospered.

He served as the head from 1929 to 1933.

In May 1933, he served as the cabinet minister of the court of the Baotai Dynasty, and then resigned and lived in seclusion.

When Japan invaded Indochina, Wu Tingyan had been hooked up with the Japanese and actively engaged in anti Communist activities, but they were not reused.

Wu Tingyan is an armed Catholic leader.

He is pro american, advertises anti France and has a greater influence among some bourgeoisie and intellectuals in Vietnam under the banner of safeguarding national independence.

His political proposition is “opposing communism and saving the country”, and he opposes any compromise with the Vietnamese League led by Vietnam.

After the French reoccupied Vietnam after Japan’s surrender, he automatically chose to live in exile.

He first settled in Belgium and later in the United States.

Wu Tingyan has long been involved with top American figures.

Among his protectors in the United States are Bill Douglas of the Supreme Court and Mike Mansfield of the Senate.

Later, he became president and became one of his biggest supporters.

In June 1950, Wu Tingyan organized the “extreme Democratic Movement” in China, Vietnam and South Vietnam to oppose imperialism and communism.

After 1950, Wu Tingyan went to the United States to give speeches and lobby to publicize his anti Communist views, which was highly appreciated by some political dignitaries in the United States.

After the Geneva conference, he took advantage of the good opportunity of France’s withdrawal to organize his own armed forces in South Vietnam and prepare to compete with North Vietnam.

The United States’ support for Wu Tingyan is first to help Wu Tingyan establish a pro american government to obstruct the reunification of Vietnam.

On January 7, 1955, according to the Geneva Agreement, the north and the south of Vietnam should consult and jointly decide on the procedures and preparations for universal suffrage.

The north of Vietnam once said that the compatriots of the whole country, from south to north, regardless of class, religion and party, all hope for national reunification and hope that the Consultative Conference will be held as soon as possible and achieve good results.

On July 19, Ho Chi Minh sent a letter to the South Vietnamese government to put forward clear suggestions on the consultation meeting.

From the very beginning, the Wu Tingyan group was determined to prevent universal suffrage.

They not only stepped up the recruitment and expansion of troops, but also wantonly persecuted those who had made meritorious contributions to the war of resistance and those who demanded peaceful reunification in the South Vietnamese ruled area.

On August 9, 1955, the Wu Tingyan government again issued a statement through Saigon radio, continuing to deny the Geneva Agreement and refusing to conduct any consultation to discuss free universal suffrage and peaceful reunification of Vietnam.

Vietnam’s international monitoring committee condemned Wu Tingyan’s violation of the Geneva Agreement.

However, only the United States can force South Vietnam to respect the Geneva Agreement, but the position of the United States is basically the same as that of Wu Tingyan.

In October 1955, Wu Tingyan held the so-called presidential election at the instigation of the CIA.

As a result, he won with 98% of the votes.

In this regard, the central governmentIt has adopted a policy of taking refuge in the United States and blatantly abandoning the Geneva Agreement, persecuting patriotic democrats, launching an attack on the fighting forces of Li á o, provoking civil war and undermining domestic peace and unity.

This is exactly what Americans want.

The US government immediately responded by increasing aid to Laos, importing a large number of weapons, sending Philippine US Air Force personnel, building strategic roads and airports, and establishing US military bases in Laos.

The international community is very concerned about the military assistance provided by the United States to pesananikon.

Reuters reported on August 8, 1959: “American diplomats in Vientiane announced that the United States has begun to replace the old American equipment still used by the Lao army, including tanks, military trucks and guns.

In order to train the Lao people to use new weapons, more than 100 Americans have come to Laos since July 25.

” The news agency also said, “the United States has decided to give Laos some helicopters to strengthen Laos’ military strength.

Some U.S. military advisers have been sent to various units of the Royal Lao army, and have also been sent to sangnu and the Vietnam Laos border area to command the Royal Lao army and expand Laos’ civil war.

” India weekly also confirmed: “after the royal government of Laos officially announced military measures against the combat forces of the former Li á o country, 80 American officers have been sent to the garrison of the Royal Army.

People think they only play an advisory role, but in fact, their task is to directly command the combat forces of the former Li á o country.

” Faced with the situation that the United States has gradually turned Laos into its military base and the sananikon group has madly provoked civil war, the Lao Patriotic Front Party has issued a letter of call to the people of the whole country to oppose American intervention and the sananikon group’s policy of betraying the country and harming the people, abide by the Geneva Agreement and establish a peaceful, neutral, democratic, national harmony and unified country.

On December 30, 1959, with the support of the United States, the far right forces in Laos launched a coup, forced Lao king savang vadana to hand over power to the right army, and established the government of Zhao sonsanit Fumi nosavan.

But the puppet traitorous government did not last long.

On August 9, 1960, the Revolutionary Committee headed by lieutenant gunler, with the support of the Lao patriotic forces, launched a coup to overthrow the government of the American running dog Zhao sonsanit Fumi nosavan, and issued a statement claiming that the purpose of the coup was to defend the motherland, religion, king and constitution, oppose American interference, stop the civil war and achieve national harmony, Respect the agreements concluded by the kingdom of Laos and realize the real policy of peace and neutrality.

The United States took a hostile attitude towards the coup in Laos from the beginning, claiming to intervene in Laos, but it was strongly opposed by peace loving people all over the world.

On January 20, 1961, John F.

Kennedy was sworn in as the 35th president of the United States at the White House.

On the day of the inauguration ceremony, the outgoing president called him aside and put forward urgent suggestions to him: first, Laos is your big problem.

Second, you must send troops.

If you do, I will come from Gettysburg and stand by your side to support you.

The former president, who had always avoided the involvement of the United States in any war in Southeast Asia, believed that a tougher policy should be adopted towards communism.

Because in the previous days, the Royal Army of Laos and the Communist Party’s batli á o suddenly entered a state of war.

President Kennedy was influenced by Eisenhower and continued to pursue the former president’s policy toward Indochina from the day he took office.

On May 5, Kennedy announced at a press conference that if necessary, he would consider using the U.S. Army to “help South Vietnam Resist the pressure of the Communist Party”.

Vice President Lyndon Baines Johnson will immediately go to talk with Wu Tingyan.

Although President Kennedy fully supported Wu Tingyan’s regime, he was worried about the possible results of Wu Tingyan’s dictatorship.

During Eisenhower’s administration, the United States took supporting Wu Tingyan as the price of “defending freedom and defending the motherland”.

However, Americans in Vietnam, especially the press, reported that there was no freedom under Wu Tingyan’s rule in South Vietnam.

The Vietnam issue has plagued the new young president from beginning to end.

Once, during a meeting between Kennedy and the president of France, De Gaulle told him, “the ideology you seek will not change anything.

You Americans wanted to take over our position in Indochina yesterday, and today you want to rekindle the war that we have ended.

I dare predict that you will be plunged into a military and political bottomless step by step.

” The complete failure of the US invasion of Cuba (Bay of pigs) in 1961 made Kennedy soberly realize for the first time that the United States seems to have to ease its policy.

He told his assistant Roger Hillman many times, “Bay of pigs has taught me many things.

One is that you can’t trust generals or the CIA.

the other is that if the American people don’t want to use American troops to remove a communist country only 90 miles from our coast, how can I ask them to use troops to remove a communist country 9000 miles away?” Kennedy’s response to the Cuban crisis and the Lao crisis was regarded by some people in the United States as “surrender in a sense”.

On the Vietnam issue, Kennedy has been in conflicting proposals on the military and political situation since 1961.

Kennedy and his administration were in a difficult position on how to deal with the Vietnam issue.

Kennedy knew that to keep Vietnam from becoming a burden and to get the United States out of trouble, it would ultimately depend on President Wu Tingyan, who has 17 million people 9000 miles away.

With the development of the situation, after a period of hesitation, Kennedy finally decided to continue to support the Wu Tingyan regime.

After entering 1960, the situation on the battlefield of South Vietnam was more and more conducive to the revolutionary armed forces of South Vietnam.

On December 20, 1960, the South Vietnam National Liberation Front was established and began to establish its own main force and local forces.

In February 1961, the South Vietnam National Liberation Front unified the people’s armed forces in all parts of Vietnam to form the South Vietnam people’s Liberation Armed Force, which marked that the struggle of the people of South Vietnam against American intervention and the puppet regime of South Vietnam moved towards an organized armed struggle.

Under such circumstances, in order to suppress the revolutionary struggle of the people of South Vietnam and save the puppet regime of Wu Tingyan, the United States is determined to fight naked and suppress the vigorous people rising everywhereEthnic liberation movement.

In May 1961, the United States sent 100 officers and soldiers of “special forces” (code named “Green Berets”) into South Vietnam to prepare for the “special war” led by the puppet army of South Vietnam.

Since then, the United States fell into the quagmire of the Vietnam War and began the 14 year war of aggression against Vietnam.

In May 1961, US Vice President Johnson visited Saigon and signed the so-called Johnson Wu Tingyan joint communique.

After that, the US military formulated the “stirley plan” to “calm” the South Vietnamese guerrillas within 18 months.

In October of the same year, general Taylor of the United States went to South Vietnam for a field visit and dished out the “stirley Taylor plan”.

The main content of the plan is to win over the peasants, control the people and dry up the source of the occurrence and development of the revolutionary armed forces.

Destroy the organization of the South Vietnam party, shake and disintegrate the party’s leadership over the people’s armed struggle.

Block the contact between the South Vietnamese revolutionary armed forces and the outside world, especially cut off the support from the north and the south.

In order to implement this plan, the United States established a military command under the command of General Paul Huggins in Saigon on February 8, 1962 to transport American troops, military personnel and combat materials to South Vietnam on a large scale.

More than 370 US combat aircraft, including ad-6, T-28 and B-26, F-102 and rf-101 “jet” aircraft, “flying banana”, “scholsky”, h-34, hu-1a and hu-1b helicopters, and US Army aircraft equipped with rockets, “Mohawk”, have stationed in South Vietnam, Three backup escort destroyers of the seventh fleet under the command of rear admiral stirley, based in Xi à N port, have been operating along the coast of South Vietnam.

In addition, the United States handed over to Wu Tingyan four warships, five small destroyers, three Tank Landing boats and 500 ordinary landing boats.

By July 1962, the number of US military personnel in South Vietnam had increased to 8500 and soared to 11000 in November.

In 1962, according to the proposal of general Huggins of the United States, the Saigon regime first carried out the “delta sweeping plan” for 10 provinces around Saigon city.

With the support of US aircraft, warships and artillery, large-scale “raids” such as the “sunrise” campaign, the “Haiyan” campaign, the “Pingxi” campaign, the “Morning Star” campaign, the “Virtue” campaign and the “victory” campaign have been carried out successively.

In 1962, in addition to small-scale “mopping up”, more than one battalion participated in nearly 1000 large-scale military operations.

According to general Wheeler, the chief of staff of the US Army, there are several “limited military operations” and “mopping up” in South Vietnam every day.

In the first three months of 1963, more than 300 military operations were carried out to gather more than one battalion, compared with only 160 in the first three months of 1962.

General Huggins, the commander-in-chief of the invasion of Vietnam, himself admitted that the number of sweeps carried out by the United States and Wu Tingyan authorities was three times that of a year ago.

Saigon radio boasted on January 28, 1963 that in 1962, they killed 5713 people, injured 3215 people, arrested 277 people and burned thousands of houses in Fucheng Province, which has 64600 residents.

On January 10, 1963, when summing up the results of the war of aggression against Vietnam in one year, general Huggins admitted that the US Wu coalition army killed 30000 residents and lost 10000 soldiers in 1962.

There are two main types of “mopping up” operations jointly carried out by the United States and the puppets.

One is the mopping up aimed at eliminating the people’s armed forces and organs.

The troops are relatively concentrated and the duration is relatively short.

The other is the “clean-up and suppression” campaign aimed at cooperating with the establishment of a “strategic village”.

The troops are scattered and last for a long time.

While strengthening “military encirclement and suppression”, the US puppet army stepped up the implementation of the rural “appeasement” policy and vigorously established “strategic villages” and no man’s land.

The so-called “strategic village” established by the United States and puppets is to take the natural village as the unit, surround the civil fortifications and exercise strict control, so as to cut off their connection with the people’s armed forces, and then unite the villages into one, form a blockade zone, divide the liberated areas, and turn the “no front” war into a front war.

In order to establish the so-called “strategic village”, in addition to launching terrorist military operations and forcibly driving the people of South Vietnam out of their homes, they also spread chemical agents in the rice fields of South Vietnam to force farmers into the “strategic village” with hunger.

By the end of 1962, the US Wu air force had spread chemical agents about 50 times in several southern and central provinces.

From January 13 to February 11, 1963, the Meiwu group released chemical agents four times over many villages in Binzhi province.

A large number of people were poisoned, many livestock were killed and injured, and thousands of hectares of crops were destroyed.

In Lianggui and shunzhao villages alone, 8000 people were poisoned.

Wu Tingyan group always describes the “strategic village” as a “paradise” and “happy and prosperous” place for the South Vietnamese people.

But the news in the South Vietnamese newspaper depicts the following picture: there are several fences around, including sharp piles made of bamboo and wood, mines are buried in the ground, leaving only entrances and exits guarded by sentinels.

Trenches and earth walls were also dug around, and there were bunkers and t watchtowers at intervals.

By the end of 1962, 4077 “strategic villages” had been established.

The residents in the “strategic village” are under very strict control.

According to a news report in the speech newspaper on January 9, 1963, each resident of the “strategic village” has issued a plastic ID card with the fingerprint of the certificate holder.

The head of household must have a photo of the whole family together.

Everyone over the age of 10 must hold the photo to get a yellow pass to pass through the fence.

People must go in and out at the specified time.

When passing the checkpoint, they need to show their ID card and yellow pass to prove their identity.

People’s access is recorded and the register is sent back to the authorities as soon as it is used up.

Harvested rice must be stored in government warehouses.

Residents have no freedom of movement.

According to the struggle situation, the people’s armed forces of South Vietnam adopted a nationwide, comprehensive and long-term guerrilla war, “fight small wars and eat steadily”, “fight real and nameless wars”, “do not fight nominal wars”, accumulate small victories into big victories, gradually change the balance of forces, and create conditions for the development of guerrilla mobile warfare until the final elimination of the enemy.

Kennedy supported Wu Tingyan to launch a “special war” and was proud of himself.

As a result, the United States soon fell into the quagmire of war, which led to the intensification of the contradiction between the United States and Wu.