After the Pearl Harbor tragedy, the American public pursued it and strongly demanded that the government and the army investigate the matter.
Because careful people found that among the many suspicious events before the tragedy, those doubts focused on senior generals such as Marshall.
One of the doubtful points: in November 1941, clouds covered the Pacific Ocean.
By deciphering Japanese telegrams, US intelligence agencies have clearly determined that the sea and army of Japan may launch an attack on a target in the Pacific Ocean.
To this end, Admiral Harold stark, the Secretary of naval operations of the United States, once sent a power to the navy in the Pacific on November 24, warning them to be on guard against the attack of the Japanese army at all times.
However, general Kimmel, the commander of the US Navy Fleet in Pearl Harbor, did not receive Stark’s warning.
Almost at the same time that stark issued the warning, the U.S. Army chief of Staff General Marshall also issued an unprecedented telegram to the U.S. commander in the Philippines: “all troops are in a state of emergency.
” But lieutenant general short, the commander of the Hawaiian garrison, did not get such an order.
Doubt 2: at the end of November 1941, when the Japanese army continued its crazy attack in China and there were signs of starting in the Pacific Ocean, Marshall left and went to North Carolina to watch a less important military exercise of the U.S. Army. After Marshall left Washington, the US intelligence department learned from the intercepted Japanese telegram that Tokyo was preparing to stop negotiations with the United States.
So Admiral Stark issued a warning to the naval forces in the Pacific region.
But Admiral Kimmel, the commander of the navy in Hawaii, could not see from the text of the warning telegram that the Japanese were about to go to war with themselves.
Because the message is: beware of sabotage.
Therefore, the action taken by Pearl Harbor is only to deploy sentries around the Pearl Harbor Naval base to move the aircraft to a safe place to protect it from saboteurs sneaking in and blowing it up.
After arranging all this, lieutenant general Schott, who was responsible for the security of Pearl Harbor, reported to Washington that his troops had “entered A-level status”.
A-level alert status should be the highest alert, followed by B-level and C-level.
But in fact, Schott’s A-level alert state here is not the highest level of alert.
Not long ago, the army stationed in Hawaii had made a major adjustment to the significance represented by the alert status of level a, B and C, that is, level C was the highest, level B was the second, and level a was the lowest.
The level a reported by Schott was just to prevent sabotage activities.
It’s understandable if outsiders don’t know about such a thing, but Marshall was in great doubt when he saw Schott’s telegram back in Washington after watching the exercise from North Carolina.
Doubt 3: on the evening of December 6, 1941, the Americans intercepted a telegram from the Japanese, but only the first 13 items.
The ambassador to the United States said that they would send the exact message to the US government in the early morning of the 14th day.
From the first 13 parts of the telegram sent by the Japanese Foreign Ministry, it can be seen that the negotiations between Japan and the United States have broken down.
The Japanese impolitely rejected the note from US Secretary of state hull asking the Japanese side to make a practical guarantee a few days ago.
At the end of the dinner, talking about the endless telegram, he said, “that means you’re going to do it!” At this time, Marshall and stark, the heads of the Washington army, had a full opportunity to warn their subordinates of the war, but they did not do so.
The next morning, the Americans finally listened to the last part of the telegram sent by the Japanese Foreign Ministry and the telegram requesting to inform the US government at 1 p.m. Everyone present at that time felt very uneasy about this, because they had a premonition that something unexpected might happen at about 7:30 a.m. Pearl Harbor time at 1 p.m. Washington time.
The Intelligence Director suggested to Stark: “do you want to contact commander Kimmel immediately by telephone now?” But stark said thoughtfully, “I’d better not call.
Let me discuss it with the president first.
Please go back first.
” Doubt 4: half an hour after stark saw the important Japanese telegram, army chief of staff Marshall also saw the ultimatum.
He asked the senior officers present in an inquiring tone: “how do you feel after reading this’ 1 pm notification telegram ‘? What do you think you should judge the situation according to this telegram?” In this regard, people present agreed that this message showed that the Japanese would be ready to attack somewhere in the Pacific Ocean shortly after 1 p.m. Marshall agreed with everyone’s judgment.
He announced: “I have decided to issue an emergency martial law order to the whole army.
” Then he picked up his pencil and drew up a telegram to all army commanders in the Pacific region on a piece of paper: “the Japanese will deliver a note that is essentially equivalent to an ultimatum at 1 p.m. Eastern standard time today and immediately order the destruction of the telegraph.
” After the telegram was drafted, Marshall called stark and offered to jointly issue a warning to the army and Navy at the same time.
After receiving the call, stark asked whether the telegram could be sent through the Navy’s communication system, but Marshall declined.
He insisted on using the army’s communication system.
Surprisingly, the army system ended up sending telegrams through the most time-consuming western United Telecommunications Company.
When the telegram arrived at Pearl Harbor after several twists and turns, it was seven hours after the tragic attack on Pearl Harbor.
Doubt 5: after the Pearl Harbor Incident broke out, the United States unanimously demanded that the relevant senior generals be held accountable for their negligence.
As a result, Admiral Kimmel, the commander of the Navy and army in Pearl Harbor, lieutenant general Schott and Admiral Stark, the Minister of naval operations, were successively dismissed from office.
But to people’s surprise, the army chief of Staff General Marshall, who delayed the fighter plane more seriously than them, was not punished.
For these doubts, public opinion later speculated that it was the conspiracy of President Roosevelt and Marshall.
On the evening of December 4, 1941, when President Roosevelt studied the military situation in the Pacific with Secretary of the army Stimson, Secretary of the Navy Knox and army chief of Staff General Marshall in his Oval Office in the White House, he received a report from the intelligence department that a Japanese fleet named “mobile force” was quietly sailing to the Pacificcentral section.
Roosevelt believed that just as the United States gained great benefits from participating in World War I, only by directly participating in the war can the United States obtain the greatest interests and the highest position in the future.
Therefore, he always wanted to personally lead the US military to participate in World War II.
From his second term as president to the year before Pearl Harbor, the neutral status of the United States has existed in name only.
However, he could not achieve the purpose of directly participating in the war at that time, because the anti war forces in the United States were very strong at that time.
Opinion polls show that 74% of the people in the country oppose the direct involvement of the United States in the war.
In this case, he needs an excuse to get support in order to embark on the road to war.
However, his opponent did not give him this excuse, because he never forgot the decisive role of American intervention in the outcome of World War I.
Therefore, he neither paid attention to the neutral activities of the United States nor gave the United States an excuse to participate in the war.
After attacking the “water hose” sent by the United States for a while, Hitler immediately issued a strict order to the German admiral, requiring that no submarine should attack the American fleet in the Atlantic Ocean.
However, President Roosevelt, who firmly believed that the United States must participate in the war, never gave up looking for the opportunity to lead the United States to participate in the war.
Now, the Japanese are about to give him that long-awaited opportunity.
How could Roosevelt miss this God given opportunity! So he told Stimson, Knox and Marshall his intention.
This is to let pearl harbor be attacked by the Japanese army without notifying the garrison of Pearl Harbor! On December 7, what President Roosevelt expected finally happened! The famous emergency telegram came from Hawaii: “Pearl Harbor was attacked!” At noon the next day, President Roosevelt, who had always been in seclusion, made an unusual move.
Instead of appearing in his wheelchair as usual, he was helped into the Capitol by his eldest son.
When he came to the hall, cheers broke out like a storm.
Both Democrats and Republicans are expressing their loyalty to him and through him to their motherland.
Outside the Capitol, Americans from all over the country gathered by the radio to listen to the live broadcast of the president’s speech.
Roosevelt held the podium in one hand, opened his black notebook in the other, and then tried the microphone.
He calmly looked around the hall and greeted all the participants.
President Roosevelt spoke in his thick voice, Started the most unforgettable speech of his life: “Yesterday, December 7, 1941, the United States was deliberately and violently attacked by Japan.
This day will always be our national humiliation day! – the United States of America was suddenly and deliberately attacked by the Navy and air force of the Japanese Empire.
history will prove that Hawaii is so far away from Japan that this attack was carefully planned.
During this period, the Japanese government made a hypocritical voice Minghe deceived the United States by expressing his desire to continue to maintain peace.
Now I declare: the United States and the Japanese Empire have entered a state of war! ” President Roosevelt’s speech lasted a little more than six minutes.
This simple speech was as far-reaching as Wilson’s 1917 speech asking Congress to declare war on Germany during World War I.
After Roosevelt’s speech, the US Congress passed the “Declaration of war against Japan” and clearly pointed out that Japan had taken combat action against US territories without provocation.
The two houses of Congress held a joint meeting today and decided to declare war against Japan.
Authorize the president to command the US Army and Navy and use national resources to engage in war and win.
The Senate and the house of Representatives represent the people of the whole country and unanimously support the president.
On December 9, President Roosevelt signed this document and officially declared war on Japan.
After Roosevelt signed the document declaring war on Japan, the United States quickly implemented the national mobilization.
On December 9, 1941, two days after Japan’s sneak attack on Pearl Harbor, Roosevelt delivered the famous “fireside talk”.
He told the Americans: all military industries, including industrial production enterprises of important raw materials, implement a seven day workweek to accelerate all existing production.
Build more new factories, expand old factories, and turn many small factories to wartime needs, so as to rapidly improve production capacity.
He instructed the relevant departments and bureaus in charge of production in the US government to immediately take extraordinary measures to achieve the following production objectives: greatly increase the output of aircraft, so as to produce 60000 aircraft in 1942.
Through the transformation of old factories and the construction of new factories, the output of tanks in 1942 will reach 45000.
The production of air defense artillery should also be greatly improved.
We will strive to produce 20000 in 1942 and 35000 in 1943.
Due to the attack of Nazi submarines, the Allied merchant ships suffered great losses.
Therefore, the production of merchant ships must be accelerated.
In 1941, the United States completed the construction of 1.
1 million tons and strive to reach 6 million tons in 1942.
Through continued efforts, the tonnage of merchant ships built in 1943 will exceed 10 million tons.
In order to accomplish this task, Roosevelt issued executive order No.
902 on January 16, 1942, establishing the wartime production bureau, the leading organization of wartime economy, and appointed Donald Nelson as the director.
The bureau is subordinate to the emergency management agency led by the president’s “executive board”.
Its main task is to deal with production problems during the war, change many equipment in American industrial production into production means needed in wartime, and expand military production capacity.
After the Pearl Harbor incident, the U.S. Army increased by 11 million and the staff of state organs increased by 2 million.
Most of these people were mobilized from the production department.
As the national economy turns into a wartime state, the production of industrial production, especially military industry, will be greatly improved.
Therefore, more and more skilled labor will be needed to enter the production sector.
In order to solve the contradiction of labor in and out, the US government has taken the following measures: absorbing a large number of unemployed people to work.
8 million women and adults to participate in labor.
Expand the number of adult workers by 2.
Mobilize agricultural workers and bankrupt farmers in the southern and prairie states to work in industrial enterprises in the eastern, central and Western and Pacific coastal States, and turn 5 million agricultural people into industrial labor.
During the general mobilization of the national economy, the “bureau of scientific research and development” was established to ensure that the US armed forces have a technological advantage.
The U.S. government has established a research and development center composed of the president, vice president, Secretary of defense, chief of staff of the army and two scientistsThe bullet was developed by the supreme leading group and jointly with the British.
The government allocated US $50 million and the army was responsible for establishing a special agency code named “Manhattan Project” to carry out the development of the atomic bomb in an all-round way under the condition of strict confidentiality.
On April 28, 1942, Roosevelt clearly put forward the government’s economic policy of raising war funds in his “fireside talk” to the national radio.
This policy will affect every citizen of the United States.
For entrepreneurs, the government should reduce their profits to a reasonable level through taxation.
As a result, through our efforts, we raised $139.
6 billion in military spending through taxation alone throughout the war, accounting for 45% of the total defense expenditure.
After the above mobilization, the United States and Britain also established the Joint Chiefs of staff of the Allied forces in Washington in January 1942.
Members of the US side include admiral Marshall, chief of staff of the army, Admiral Kim, commander in chief of the Navy, and lieutenant general Arnold, commander of the army aviation.
In July 1942, Lieutenant General Li Haijun was added as the representative of the president.
Members of the British side are: Field Marshal Deere, Admiral little and field marshal Harris.
The tasks of the Joint Chiefs of staff of the Allied forces are: under the leadership of the heads of State concerned, coordinate the global strategies of the two countries, unify the command of the US and British armies, manage intelligence agencies and information exchange, supervise the administration of the occupied areas, and be responsible for formulating transportation, logistics, arms and other plans.
The specific strategic division of labor is: the United States is responsible for the Pacific theater, Britain is responsible for the Middle East and Indian Ocean theater, the United States and Britain are jointly responsible for the European, Mediterranean and Atlantic Theater, and the Chinese theater is under the command of the United States and Britain.
In addition, a joint command of the United States, Britain, the Netherlands and Australia has been established in the Far East battlefield, under the overall command of British general verville.
In order to adapt to the Joint Chiefs of staff of the Allied forces, the United States has reorganized its military command mechanism.
The members of the United States participating in the Joint Chiefs of staff of the Allied forces are separately formed into a joint chiefs of staff, which provides advice to the president and is directly responsible to the president.
Since the members of the Joint Chiefs of staff of the US side are leaders of various services, the organization has actually become the core of the operation of the entire US military machine.
In addition to the above-mentioned joint strategic command organization, in order to meet the needs of battlefield command, the staffing of all US armed forces has also been specifically adjusted.
These measures undoubtedly hit and contained the global expansion of Germany, Italy and Japan, but there will be a time difference from planning to real implementation.
In this time gap, the Japanese army’s offensive was aggressive.
While sneaking into Pearl Harbor, Japan also launched an attack on other waters of the Pacific Ocean.
The conquered area was like an open fan with a handle in Tokyo.
The radius of the fan was more than 3000 miles, extending eastward to the central Pacific, southward to the coast of Australia, and westward to the coast of India.
When Japan reaches the top of the Malay Peninsula, it can encircle Singapore, bomb the unloading port of the Yunnan Myanmar highway, Yangon, and land in Borneo, Celebes, New Guinea, New Britain and Solomon Islands, threatening the lifeline of the United States to Australia.
From the beginning of the attack on Pearl Harbor, Japan was determined to sweep Southeast Asia, destroy the military bases of the United States, Britain and the Netherlands in South Asia, and forcibly occupy important areas such as the Philippines, Guam, Hong Kong, British Malaysia, Singapore, Myanmar, Java, Sumatra, Borneo, islands and Dutch Timor.
In the face of the Japanese offensive, not only the British and Dutch forces could not stop the Japanese attack, but also the three important military bases of the US military in the Pacific, Guam, Wake Island and the Philippines, fell into the hands of the enemy.
On December 8, 1941, the day after the attack on Pearl Harbor, the Japanese army launched an attack on the Philippines.
The Japanese attacked the island country, which is composed of more than 7000 large and small islands, because it is the traffic hub of the Pacific Ocean, the South China Sea and the Indian Ocean.
Luzon, the largest island, has the largest military base of the United States in the Far East, Clark and Kamidi.
The Japanese army’s attempt to fight against the Philippines is to capture Luzon Island, Manila and Davao, Mindanao island in the Philippine Islands, expel the US military from the Far East, support the war against the Dutch East Indies, and control the maritime traffic line between Japan and Nanyang.
The operation plan formulated by the Japanese army adopts the strong attack method of landing operation.
At about 9:00 on December 8, 500 aircraft of the Japanese army, navy and air force dispatched from to bomb the US military aviation base on Luzon Island, destroying half of the 200 US aircraft on Clark’s IBA airport near Manila.
Among them, 23 of the “air fortress” B-17 bombers, which posed the greatest threat to the Japanese army, were destroyed on the ground.
In this way, the Japanese army gained air superiority in the early stage of the war.
Then, the Japanese advance force began to take action and occupied Batan island north of Luzon island with a battalion.
They seized three more airports and launched a joint attack in the direction of Manila.
At the same time, the Japanese aviation continued to attack the US Navy and air forces, bombed two naval bases in Manila Bay, sank four ships and destroyed 14 naval patrol aircraft.
On the 17th of the war, the US military was forced to withdraw the remaining aircraft and warships in the Philippines to Australia and other places.
The Japanese army has fully mastered the sea and air supremacy in the Philippines.
Five days later, after a preliminary rest, the 48th and 16th divisions of the landing forces landed in renyain Bay and Ramon Bay on Luzon island under the cover of the Navy’s third fleet and the fifth flight group.
The 48th division went south and the 16th Division went west to attack Manila on both sides, cutting off the link between the north and south of Luzon Island and annihilating each one.
In the course of the battle, the Japanese army landed on Mindanao, the second largest island in the Philippines.
After quickly occupying namo, they landed on hele island on the 25th.
Within 17 days, the Japanese army successfully made 9 landings in the Philippines.
During the Japanese attack, the Philippines had 130000 us and Philippine troops, but 110000 of them were hastily formed, poorly equipped and lack training.
On the long coastline of the Philippines, these troops are scattered in five defense areas, with many weak defense areas.
At the time of the Japanese landing, although the US military could meet, the US and Philippine troops lacked sea and air support, and their combat effectiveness was greatly reduced.
Under the rapid assault of the Japanese army, the US army suffered heavy losses, and Manila’s defense line was quickly broken through.
On December 26, MacArthur ordered to withdraw from Manila and concentrate his troops on the preset positions on the Bataan peninsula.
But at this time, the Japanese army did not catch up with the retreating troops of the United States and the Philippines, and still pushed forward to Manila according to the original battle plan.
oneOn January 1, 942, Morioka division entered sabot and completed the preparation for the attack on Manila.
On January 3, the Japanese army quickly captured Manila.
After the Japanese captured Manila, they took the opportunity of the withdrawal of the main force of the U.S. military to Bataan Peninsula and quickly launched an attack on Bataan.
On January 10, 1942, the Japanese army launched an attack on the U.S. troops on the Bataan Peninsula, but the U.S. defenders on the Bataan Peninsula resisted tenaciously.
At this time, the southern army had transferred the 5th flight group and Tuqiao division to attack Myanmar to participate in the battle against the Dutch East Indies, which greatly reduced the combat effectiveness of the Japanese army attacking the island.
Due to the unfamiliar terrain and the prevalence of tropical diseases, the Japanese army was greatly reduced.
On January 28, the Japanese army was forced to stop the attack, and the battle on the Badan Peninsula fell into a stalemate.
In early March, the Japanese army readjusted its forces and reinforced Badan.
On April 3, after being reinforced by 22000 people, aircraft and artillery, the Japanese army concentrated 30000 people to launch a second attack on Badan peninsula.
Due to the failure of the expected reinforcements, the U.S. military also had a lot of patients.
MacArthur was also ordered to go to Australia to organize the U.S. military command in the southwest Pacific, and the morale of the U.S. military was even lower.
Under the fierce attack of the Japanese army, the defenders of Bataan peninsula were forced to retreat from Bataan Peninsula to malivels at the southern end of the island.
The U.S. troops fell down in the hot sun, and many died along the road.
In addition, the Japanese killed thousands of people.
The Americans called the March a “death march”.
On April 9, 75000 defenders announced their surrender.
After the Japanese captured Bataan Peninsula, they marched on the victory and continuously carried out heavy shelling and bombing on gorithilu island near Bataan island.
He crossed the Strait and landed on May 5.
The next day, lieutenant general Wainwright, who succeeded MacArthur, broadcast the letter of surrender on May 6, and 15000 American and Philippine troops stationed on the island became Japanese prisoners of war.
Subsequently, most of the American and Philippine troops from other southern islands also surrendered, and some of them broke up or sneaked into the mountains.
While occupying the Philippines, the Japanese army also launched attacks on US naval bases on Guam and Wake Island.
Guam is the US naval base in the Mariana Islands.
On the morning of December 10, 1941, under the cover of the naval aviation of the fourth fleet, the South China Sea detachment landed on the South and north coasts of Guam in three ways.
In the afternoon of that day, the Japanese army occupied the island with superior forces, and all 500 US troops on the island surrendered.
Wake Island is an important air and sea base of the United States in the central Pacific.
There are only 450 US Marines stationed on the island, with more than 1000 engineering workers, 18 guns and 12 fighters.
On December 8, 1941, the day after the Japanese sneak attack on Pearl Harbor, 36 bombers were dispatched to air strike wick island and destroy seven US aircraft.
On the 10th, the first part of the fourth fleet of the Japanese army and its Marines landed on Wake Island and were severely attacked by us artillery and four fighter planes.
Two Japanese destroyers were sunk and two cruisers were injured.
They evacuated in a hurry.
After being reinforced by two aircraft carriers and three heavy cruisers, the Japanese army landed again on December 23 and occupied the island before the US special task force to reinforce Wake Island arrived.
More than 1000 people on the island surrendered.
Like the fate of the US military in the above three islands, the Allied forces of the United States, Britain and the Netherlands also suffered disastrous defeats in Malaysia, the East Indies and other places, exposing their own shortcomings: backward military thinking and wrong strategic judgment.
Before the war, the enemy was paralyzed and underestimated, effective defense measures were not taken, and there was a lack of coordinated organization and command.
After the defeat in the first battle, there was a defeatist feeling of fearing the enemy and fearing the war, which made the whole army lose its combat effectiveness.
They have long pursued colonial policies in South Asian countries without the support of the masses.
The troops are mostly mercenaries composed of local people.
They have many internal contradictions, poor equipment, insufficient training, low morale and weak combat effectiveness.
Although they had advantages in quantity, they lacked tenacious spirit.
Under the rapid attack of the Japanese army, they either collapsed or fell.
Morale is low.
Before the end of the first week of 1942, some 30000 Filipino and American soldiers dug trenches behind a strong natural defense line, the Abu Kai defense line across the Bataan peninsula.
About 20 miles behind this line, retreat positions on the hillside were preparing for war.
This is the defense designed by the “orange operation plan”.
With 15000 US troops and 65000 Philippine troops available, MacArthur is expected to block the Japanese army in six months or more.
However, MacArthur was too optimistic and his plan soon came to naught.
Because the rice brought during the retreat was not enough to eat for 20 days, the flour was only enough to eat for 30 days, and the canned fish was enough to eat for 50 days.
These foods were supplied to 80000 troops and 26000 civilians flocking to Badan, which was not enough for a month.
When the Japanese surrounded Bataan, MacArthur came to the point of ordering the horse to live.
MacArthur tried to revive the morale of the team, but his courage and determination could not stop the cruel attack of the Japanese army, and Abu Kai’s front line soon collapsed.
General Wainwright’s left-wing position was violently attacked and began to collapse.
There is no commander in the army.
In order to solve the stalemate in the Philippine battlefield as soon as possible.
In March, the Japanese army sent two more infantry regiments and two artillery regiments to launch a new attack.
In order to save face and avoid General MacArthur becoming a prisoner of the Japanese army, Roosevelt ordered him to hand over the army to lieutenant general Wainwright and let him go to Australia to serve as the commander-in-chief of the newly established allied forces in the southwest Pacific region.
On the evening of March 11, MacArthur, his wife and 4-year-old son secretly left Corregidor in captain Barkley’s torpedo boat.
Through the sea blocked by the Japanese army, he landed near the Talmon pineapple cannery on the North Bank of Mindanao at dawn on the 13th.
As he disembarked, MacArthur looked pale and his eyes blackened.
He said to balkley, “you saved me from the tiger.
I will never forget it.
” He said he would apply for the silver star to the person who sent him.
Hideki Tojo was very angry when he learned that MacArthur had escaped.
He had planned to capture MacArthur alive and let him walk the streets in Tokyo, but it was a pity that MacArthur ran too fast.
In this way, in the first stage of the Pacific War, the Japanese army carried out a strategic attack, and the Allies were in a passive strategic defense position with heavy losses.
From December 8, 1941 to the end of April 1942, the Japanese army defeated more than 300000 troops of the United States, Britain and the Netherlands in the Far East at the cost of 15000 people in five months, successively occupied Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore, Myanmar, the Philippines, Dutch East India and Hong Kong and some Islands in the Western Pacific, and seized 3.
86 million square kilometers of land, It has controlled 150 million people and rich strategic resources in this area and achieved the expected goal of the warof.