On the day of the “9 ` 11” terrorist attacks, the US government immediately took a series of measures to deal with the terrorist attacks: at 9:20, US President Bush made a speech and declared that the US government had taken appropriate measures to protect the American people and would trace and severely punish the terrorists who made the bombings.
All tunnels and bridges in New York City will be closed at 9:00.
At 9:40, the Pentagon issued the highest national security warning.
The FAA ordered the closure of all airports and the grounding of all domestic flights.
– at 10:05, personnel in the White House, the Treasury Department, the State Department and other major government agencies began to evacuate.
At 10:25, the United States ordered all international flights to the United States to Canada.
At 11:04, the United Nations headquarters was evacuated.
— all parts of the United States quickly entered a state of alert.
The secret service immediately escorted Vice President Cheney to the president’s emergency operations center to take command.
When he learned that air force one was the next target, Cheney immediately telegraphed bush, who had just boarded the presidential plane in Florida, to ask him not to fly back to Washington immediately.
Los Angeles is on full tactical alert.
California declared high alert.
Close all entry points and close the US Mexico border.
Some troops are deployed near the Pentagon.
If unidentified aircraft are found, they will be destroyed.
Dispatch F-16 fighters to intercept any hijacked airliner in order to prevent greater disasters.
Several warships, such as the “USS” and “USS Washington”, have been in full combat readiness on the east coast of the United States.
US troops overseas are also on high alert.
The US state department authorized the closure of US embassies around the world and urged them to take all necessary security measures.
— the Federal Reserve has provided cash to other banks and said it will maintain normal operation to prevent a run.
— thousands of FBI agents have been deployed throughout the United States to trace the culprit.
Agencies involved in tracking down terrorists include the Central Intelligence Agency, the FBI, the immigration and Naturalization Service, the United States Department of justice, the prison administration and the drug administration.
Emergency is emergency.
The “9 ` 11” terrorist attacks have stimulated President Bush, the US government and the American people too strongly.
They must come up with a set of measures to combat terrorism and terrorists.
After the “9 ` 11” terrorist attacks, the American people were at a loss.
The US government first took measures to stabilize people’s hearts.
In the “9 ` 11” terrorist disaster, the president of the United States became the focus of attention.
President Bush feels the opportunity to show himself! Within 24 hours after the September 11 terrorist attacks, President Bush delivered four consecutive emergency speeches, and President Bush always spoke in person at important moments in the future.
President Bush’s excellent performance not only won the people’s welcome, but also stabilized the people’s psychology, but also induced the people’s will that the United States will not give up, and the United States will retaliate.
According to the results of a poll published by Newsweek on September 15, President Bush’s public opinion support is as high as 85%, higher than that of his father, former US President Bush during the Gulf War, and higher than that of the US president at the time of the Pearl Harbor incident.
Bush is a rare “weak president” in the presidential election in American history, and the “9 ` 11” incident made Bush a “strong president”.
Bush affirmed that “this is a terrorist incident against the United States.
If no measures are taken, the terrorist acts against the United States will not stop”, “the federal government will make every effort to help the victims and their families”, “and conduct a comprehensive investigation into the incident to find the planners of the crime”.
“If freedom is violated, the United States will fight back,” Bush said.
The federal government “has taken all appropriate security measures to protect the American people”.
The federal government is fully “saving lives and helping the victims” and “there is no doubt that the United States will pursue the perpetrators of this incident until the murderer is captured and brought to justice”.
Bush promised: “we will do our best to give them a strong fight back.”. Terrorist attacks have threatened “our freedom”, but “our country is strong”, “our people are great”, “terrorism cannot shake the foundation of our nation and our country”, terrorist attacks “can destroy the construction of steel”, but can not “destroy the steel will of the American people”, Nor can it “extinguish the flame in the hearts of Americans”, and the United States will do its best to “give them a powerful counterattack”.
Bush stressed that the United States “this country is in a state of insecurity, it is in a state of war”, terrorists “can not be hidden forever”, “and will not be safe forever”, “the United States will use all its strength to defeat these enemies”, “This is a very symbolic war.
It is a war between good and evil.
We believe that good will defeat evil.
” we will be with our allies.
We will be very patient and concentrate.
With extraordinary perseverance and all our energy and will, we will win this war. “. Bush prayed to God: “disaster and grief become the driving force of our unity.”. President Bush attended the prayer ceremony of the National Cathedral in Washington on the “national mourning day”, emphasizing that “our country has been premeditated, heavy and cruel”, “conspiracy, fraud and murder have put a war before us”, “the task of defending the promises of our parents has been handed over to us”, “Our responsibility to history is clear: to respond to these attacks and eliminate the demons of the world”, “this conflict began with the planning of other terrorists, but will end in the way we choose”, “we American people are generous, friendly, resourceful and brave people”, “Our unity comes from disaster and grief.
At the same time, it is our firm belief in defeating the enemy.”. After the September 11 terrorist attacks, the Bush administration also actively carried out rescue operations to evacuate the crowd, treat the injured and rescue survivors, so as to reduce casualties and give a satisfactory explanation to the people.
On September 14 and 15, the US Senate and house of Representatives passed an emergency Appropriation Bill respectively, approving US $40 billion for anti-terrorism operations, emergency relief and post disaster reconstruction.
The world is concerned about the “9 ` 11” terrorist attacks.
Combating terrorism in the new century needs the international communityWe will cooperate and act together.
After the “9 ` 11” terrorist attacks, the international community was shrouded in an atmosphere of confusion, hesitation and waiting.
At this moment, the international community has become extremely quiet, observing the trend of the United States.
In this regard, the US government has to make major adjustments to its foreign policy, prepare for the establishment of an international anti-terrorism alliance, and take combating international terrorism as the top priority of its foreign policy.
After the “9 ’11” terrorist attacks, the Bush administration quickly introduced new foreign relations norms and quickly clarified the enemy and our camp.
On September 12, the U.S. government made it clear that it would distinguish enemies and friends based on the cooperative attitude of various countries towards the U.S. anti-terrorism action, highlighting the determination of the United States to carry out anti-terrorism action and its clear-cut tough attitude in dealing with international relations, which prompted some countries with originally vague attitude to publicly express their positions and maximize the camp of the anti-terrorism alliance.
On the evening of September 20, Bush told the world in his speech at the joint session of the house of Representatives: “you choose to stand with us, or you will stand with terrorists”.
“From today on, the United States will regard any country that continues to shelter or support terrorism as a hostile regime.”. After the “9 ` 11” terrorist attacks, the United States decided to search for the murderer and insisted on military retaliation.
To this end, the United States paid special attention to using the strength of its allies and asked them to cooperate in diplomatic support, judicial investigation and military retaliation.
The allies of the United States also actively respond to the requirements of the United States out of their own interests, and the allies have become the core pillar of the United States in combating terrorism.
On September 12, US Secretary of State Powell asked NATO to launch the common defense clause to provide military assistance to the United States.
NATO Secretary General Robertson said that if the terrorist attacks in the United States are commanded abroad, these terrorist attacks can be regarded as attacks against the whole NATO.
Then NATO will launch its mutual protection clause.
This means that if the United States decides to take military action to retaliate for terrorist attacks, the United States can get the support and assistance of NATO.
On September 20, the United States sent under secretary of state Armitage to inform the allies of the United States plan to wage war on terrorism on a global scale.
On October 3, NATO held an executive committee meeting in the United States.
The United States put forward a request for collective defense at the meeting.
On the afternoon of October 4, NATO Secretary General Robertson announced at NATO headquarters in Brussels that NATO had agreed to the request of the United States and would take eight specific measures “individually and collectively” to assist the United States in combating terrorism.
This is another major action taken by NATO after determining that the terrorist attack on the United States conforms to the scope of use of Article V of the Washington treaty.
This shows that Article V of the Washington treaty has entered the stage of concrete implementation.
On September 13, US President Bush contacted Japanese Prime Minister Koizumi through a hotline and proposed that the United States would establish an international anti-terrorism alliance and hoped that Japan would provide support.
Koizumi said that Japan would provide support according to the “new cooperation guidelines”.
On September 25, Koizumi paid a state visit to the United States.
Koizumi and Bush held talks in Washington on the United States Declaration of war on terrorism and other issues.
Koizumi promised Bush that Japan would treat the terrorist attack on the United States not only as an American problem, but also as its own problem.
Japan provides military service support to the United States in accordance with the guidelines for us Japan defense cooperation.
On September 21, when the US aircraft carrier Kitty Hawk went to the Indian Ocean from Yokosuka port, Japan, the Japanese maritime self defense force sent an Aegis destroyer and a 10000 ton ocean supply ship to accompany the formation.
On October 6, Japan once again sent six Japanese Air Self Defense Force transport aircraft carrying materials to assist Afghan refugees and 140 self defense personnel from Xiaomu base in Aichi county to Islamabad, the capital of Pakistan, to help the United States “appease” Pakistan.
While holding consultations with Japanese Prime Minister Koizumi, President Bush opened a hotline with Australian Prime Minister Howard and proposed that the United States would establish an international anti-terrorism alliance and hoped that Australia would provide support.
On September 14, a special meeting of the Australian cabinet decided to launch the Pacific common defense organization treaty signed by Australia, New Zealand and the United States.
The treaty is similar to NATO’s common defense clause, which stipulates that one country is attacked and the other two countries have the obligation to help.
On September 20, at the request of the United States, a “pace” class destroyer that Australia carried out an oil embargo against Iraq with the Fifth Fleet of the United States in the Gulf continued to stay in the Persian Gulf, ready to provide combat support to the US aircraft carrier battle group.
Australia also promised the United States that it would send supply ships to support the US military if necessary.
At the same time, the Australian government has decided that Australian soldiers stationed in Britain can take joint action with NATO forces to support us military operations when necessary.
On October 4, the Australian government announced that its special forces would send a team of 150 people on standby to provide help at any time.
Australia will also send tankers and reconnaissance planes to participate in the military assembly of the United States and other countries.
Before the September 11 terrorist attacks, the Bush administration pursued “unilateralism”, the consultation and coordination mechanism of major powers in the international community was seriously damaged, and the cooperation mechanism of major powers existed in name only.
The U.S. government pursues both unilateralism and pragmatism in diplomacy – unilateralism when it concerns the long-term strategic interests of the United States.
Practice pragmatism when other countries are needed.
After the “9 / 11” terrorist attacks, the Bush administration realized that it was unimaginable to establish an international anti-terrorism alliance without the participation of China and Russia.
Therefore, it was forced to converge and hold consultations with China and Russia on anti-terrorism issues.
On the premise of obtaining the support of Russia, especially the air corridors of Russia, Tajikistan and other countries, the US government’s anti-terrorism measures actively strive for China’s support.
On the evening of September 13, US President Bush took the initiative to talk to President Jiang Zemin, saying that international terrorism is a threat to world peace.
He looks forward to strengthening cooperation with President Jiang and other leaders of the international community to jointly combat international terrorism.
Bush hoped that the United States and China would strengthen cooperation in this regard in the UN Security Council.
On September 15, the two-day special meeting of China US maritime military security consultation ended in Guam, the United States.
The two sides fully exchanged views on China US maritime military security issues.
At the meeting, the Chinese delegation expressed condolences to the victims of the incident and condolences to the families of the victims of the US Department of defense.
The US side is grateful for this.
On the afternoon of September 21, the presidentBush met with Chinese Foreign Minister Tang Jiaxuan in the Oval Office of the White House and congratulated China on its imminent accession to the world trade organization.
Both the United States and China are great countries.
He looked forward to meeting with President Jiang Zemin and thanked President Jiang Zemin for expressing deep condolences to the US government and people on behalf of the Chinese government and people after the terrorist attacks in New York and Washington.
The United States hopes to strengthen cooperation with China and other countries on the issue of counter-terrorism.
Chinese Foreign Minister Tang Jiaxuan and US Secretary of State Powell reached many consensus during their talks on the 21st: the two sides stressed the importance of consultation and cooperation between the two countries in the field of counter-terrorism, agreed to hold expert consultations on counter-terrorism in the near future, and will strengthen consultation and cooperation in the UN Security Council.
On September 25, the United States and law enforcement officials of the Chinese Ministry of Foreign Affairs held consultations in Washington to strengthen anti-terrorism cooperation.
The United States believes that the talks are “serious and effective” and will hold further talks in the future.
On October 7, after the US military launched a military operation in Afghanistan, President Bush personally called President Jiang Zemin to inform China that the US military operation had begun and thanked the Chinese government for its strong statement against international terrorism.
After the “9 / 11” terrorist attacks, the United States basically locked in that bin Laden was the culprit of the “9 / 11” incident.
However, bin Laden has considerable influence among the people in the Arab world, not to mention that the United States has been deeply dissatisfied with Israel.
In order to obtain the understanding and support of the Arab world, the United States has done a lot of work to the Arab world.
On the one hand, the White House spokesman was ordered to publicly acknowledge the improper use of the word “Crusader” in a speech by Bush and apologize to the Arab world on behalf of bush.
On the other hand, Bush personally paid a visit to a mosque in the embassy area of Washington on September 17 and said: “we are all full of anger and excitement, but we should remember that all Americans should respect each other.
” “Those who want to vent their anger by intimidating their compatriots do not represent the spirit of the United States.
They represent the most despicable side of human nature, and they should be ashamed of such acts.
Violence against innocent people violates the basic principles of the Islamic faith, and terrorism is not the faith of the Islamic people.
It is important for my compatriots to know this.
” Out of respect for Islam, Bush, white house and intelligence staff took off their shoes when entering the mosque.
On the evening of September 14, at the emergency meeting of the National Security Council held at Camp David, the anti-terrorism operation code was designated as “operation Eagle” to highlight that air attack is the main way of this war.
However, because this name is contrary to the original intention of the United States to establish the world anti terrorist alliance, it changed the code name to “infinite justice”.
Unexpectedly, the code name of “infinite justice” has violated the great taboo of Muslims.
Because only Allah can be called “infinite justice” in Arab countries, such a code name will anger the whole Muslim world, so it was renamed again.
On September 23, the US Department of Defense announced that the operation code was changed to “enduring freedom”.
This code indicates the durability of the U.S. military action against terrorism.
At the same time, it also wants to show that the United States is the defender of the “free world”.
This has dispelled the Arab world’s dissatisfaction with the action.
To appease the Arab world, Bush is ready to support Palestinian statehood.
The New York Times reported on October 2 that the Bush administration was ready to adjust its Middle East Policy and support the establishment of a Palestinian state before the outbreak of the September 11 incident.
When meeting with leaders of both parties in the US Congress at the White House on the 2nd, Bush said that as long as Israel’s right to exist is respected, the US Middle East peace plan will always include the establishment of a Palestinian state.
In view of the special relationship between Pakistan and the Taliban and Pakistan’s special geographical location, the United States pays special attention to Pakistan’s attitude on combating terrorism.
The United States used both kindness and prestige to guide Pakistan, and finally forced Pakistan to agree to support the United States in combating the Taliban regime.
By October 7, the efforts of the United States on the diplomatic front had ended.
On September 22 and 25, the United Arab Emirates and Saudi Arabia successively announced the severance of diplomatic relations with the Taliban regime.
Major Arab countries, including Saudi Arabia, Uzbekistan, Turkey and Pakistan, pledged to support the anti-terrorism actions of the United States, and an international anti-terrorism alliance was formed.
Although political mobilization, diplomatic adjustment and efforts are very important, the most important thing to fight against the terrorist organization headed by Osama bin Laden is to formulate specific and effective military measures.
After the “9 ` 11” terrorist attacks, the US government was determined to take military revenge and stepped up the pace of preparation for military attacks, forming a momentum of overwhelming bin Laden’s “Al Qaeda” organization and the Taliban regime.
First, highlight the keynote of counter-terrorism action – “acts of war”.
At 9:30 on September 12, US President Bush held an emergency national security meeting at the White House.
The participants included Vice President Cheney, Secretary of State Powell, Secretary of Defense Rumsfeld, and Air Force General Richard miles, chairman of the Joint Chiefs of staff, to discuss the plan to deal with the “9 / 11” terrorist attacks.
Bush made it clear that terrorist attacks are “acts of war”.
Secondly, a bill was introduced to authorize the president to make war decisions.
On September 14, the US Senate passed a joint resolution of the Senate and the house of Representatives by 98 votes to 0, authorizing President Bush to use military force to retaliate against the terrorist attacks on September 11.
The resolution said that in order to prevent similar attacks on the United States in the future, the president is authorized to use “all necessary and appropriate forces” to attack “countries, organizations and personnel planning, instigating, implementing and helping terrorist attacks or the shelter of these organizations and personnel” on September 11.
On September 15, the US House of Representatives passed the war authorization act by an absolute majority of 420 votes to 1, authorizing President Bush to wage war against terrorists.
Thirdly, establish a “war cabinet” and implement their respective responsibilities.
On September 17, US President Bush convened a meeting of the Supreme National Security Council and announced the formation of a “war cabinet”, which is fully responsible for commanding the war and officially declaring war on terrorists attacking the United States.
The “war cabinet” is mainly composed of President George W.
Bush, Vice President Dick Cheney, Secretary of State Colin Powell, Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld, national security adviser Condoleezza Rice, Attorney General John Ashcroft and the FBIChief Robert Miller, director of the Central Intelligence Agency George Tenet and the chairman of the Joint Chiefs of staff, General Richard miles, are composed of nine people.
The central headquarters of the U.S. military led by Franks is responsible for the overall implementation of military operations.
In addition, the US government and the US Army have also drawn up operational plans, adjusted and assembled the army, recruited a large number of reservists, prepared intelligence and mobilized war economy.
These contents will be introduced in detail in the next chapter.
President Bush is well aware that in order to wage the war on terrorism, the degree of stability and consolidation of the domestic rear of the war will be crucial.
According to opinion polls, 82% of people believe that the United States will suffer a second terrorist attack.
The intelligence of the US intelligence department also shows that the United States may face a second round of terrorist attacks.
The first thing is to strengthen vigilance.
On the day of the September 11 terrorist attacks, the US military maintained a high degree of vigilance.
The U.S. Air Force F-16 fighter appeared over Washington on an aerial alert mission.
On September 14, the US Department of defense ordered Air Force fighters and reconnaissance aircraft to patrol over seven major cities, including New York and Washington, to ensure the safety of us airspace.
Armored vehicles were deployed in the streets near the White House in Washington, and some police commanding traffic on the streets were replaced by reserve soldiers in field uniforms.
People on the streets obviously felt the atmosphere of war approaching.
On September 16, US warplanes continued to patrol along the air corridor between major cities on the east coast of the United States.
Two naval battle groups led by aircraft carriers “Washington” and “Kennedy” were deployed off the east coast of the United States to strengthen security measures.
A battle group led by aircraft carrier “Stannis” patrolled the waters of the West Bank.
Second, the CIA and the FBI joined forces to conduct a comprehensive search across the United States and around the world.
The FBI has invested more than 4000 special agents and more than 3000 investigation assistants to conduct extensive and in-depth investigations.
Its crime laboratory has sent more than 400 staff to search for evidence at four aircraft crash sites, hoping to find evidence that will help solve the case.
Try to find out all personnel still in the United States related to the terrorist attack through investigation, eliminate any factors that may threaten the security of the United States again from the investigation and arrest of these relevant personnel, and collect any possible data to find out the overseas criminals who assisted in the implementation of the terrorist attack.
The CIA has launched a general mobilization around the world and has close contact with intelligence units of various countries in the hope of getting clues to solve the case.
The CIA headquarters established hotlines with overseas branches to analyze all the information intercepted in the past few weeks.
Overseas intelligence agents also began to have frequent contact with local informants.
Meanwhile, the CIA launched all spy satellites in the hope of finding out where the terrorists were hiding.
On September 22, the US government announced that it would offer a reward of US $25 million to catch the perpetrators of the “9 ` 11” terrorist incident.
Thirdly, the US judicial department has also introduced a series of measures.
On the one hand, consider lifting the ban and “allowing” assassinations.
US Secretary of State Colin Powell said that the government is reviewing the executive order signed by President Ford in 1976 prohibiting American personnel from participating in and planning assassinations.
US Vice President Cheney also said that intelligence agencies could be allowed to recruit overseas personnel to eavesdrop on the calls of terrorist organizations.
On the other hand, a “counter terrorism task force” should be established throughout the country.
On September 18, US Attorney General Ashcroft announced that the Justice Department had decided to establish a national anti-terrorism task force led by the Department to combat terrorist activities.
He told the press that the anti-terrorism task force will use the law enforcement resources of the Federation and some major cities to launch a coordinated battle against terrorist activities, and local task forces will be able to carry out eavesdropping activities without the permission of the court.
In addition, the immigration and Naturalization Bureau under the Ministry of justice has revised the provisions on the detention of foreigners on the evening of 17.
The new provisions allow the immigration and Naturalization bureau to detain illegal foreigners for 48 hours, compared with 24 hours in the past.
At the same time, the Bush Administration organized the “homeland security office”, and Tom Ritchie became the director of the homeland security office.
The Department is responsible for coordinating more than 40 relevant agencies such as the Federal Security Department, the Department of justice, the military and the federal emergency measures agency to ensure the security of the United States, study how to enhance the protection of transportation, energy, food and other possible targets from terrorist activities, and how to make a strong response in case of terrorist attacks.
Adding crisis early warning is another measure to counter terrorism in the United States.
On the afternoon of September 13, after the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) lifted the ban on taking off and landing aircraft at some domestic airports, most major airports in the United States gradually resumed passenger and cargo flights.
But a few hours after the ban was lifted, the FAA issued a new order saying that all aircraft take-off and landing at three international airports in the New York area would be temporarily suspended.
The three airports are John F.
Kennedy International Airport, LaGuardia International Airport and Newark International Airport in New Jersey.
Two international flights from Lisbon, the capital of Portugal, and Rome, the capital of Italy, have been forced to turn back.
Their destination is New York.
The reason why the plane stopped taking off and landing was that the FBI found a new situation in the area.
After more than half a month of preparation and expectation, the day for the United States to use force in Afghanistan is getting closer and closer.
In order to label the war as “just”, the U.S. government talked about the request of UN Secretary General Kofi Annan to the Taliban to hand over bin Laden at the emergency meeting of the United Nations on the second day of the “September 11” incident.
However, the Taliban government in Afghanistan refused to accept this set and refused to hand over bin Laden to the Americans for trial.
Therefore, US President Bush announced on October 1 that if the Taliban did not hand over bin Laden, the United States would take military action against Afghanistan and the US military was ready to attack at any time.
On the same day, Secretary of State Powell said that a military build-up leading to the end of the Taliban is taking place around Afghanistan.
Defense Secretary Rumsfeld also said that the time for US military forces to take action is approaching, and the US military will launch an attack at an appropriate time.
On October 2, British Prime Minister Blair delivered a speech at the Labor Conference.
He warned the Afghan Taliban authorities to hand over bin Laden as soon as possible, otherwise they would face a “devastating” military attack.
So far, the United States and Britain have issued an ultimatum to Afghanistan.