core tip: three days after the siege, he was promoted to brigadier general due to the recommendation of the special commissioners. In this way, he crossed the ranks of lieutenant colonel and Colonel, and has risen steadily since then. On the whole, he has always been very lucky. However, he did not underestimate his achievements in Toulon. It was always felt that any officer who had received his kind of training, as long as he had ordinary intelligence, would find the key point of port safety. It is precisely because there is no opponent in this field that he is more talented. There were also some accidental factors that helped him: first, he happened to pass through oriur shortly after carlto’s artillery commander was injured; Secondly, his supporter salichetti was powerful and happened to be present at the time, so he could be recommended to occupy the vacancy; Third, Dutt knew him very well. As soon as Dutt took over as the artillery commander, he left him as an assistant and entrusted him with important tasks.

this article is taken from Napoleon as military commander. Author: James Marshall Cornwall [UK] Publishing House: PLA Publishing House

a brief comment on Napoleon’s military talent

believes that Napoleon’s legend is like the Apocalypse of St. John: “Everyone thinks there are mysteries, but no one knows what’s going on.” Many admirers have sung praises for Napoleon, and the facts about his career have been revealed by countless rigorous historians, so that there is little left for further exploration. Tangram is at the mercy of others. If it is not confused, it can be infinitely changeable, but the difficulty is to put them together to form the correct pattern. Among the better biographers of Napoleon, most are better at commenting on his strategy than strategy. For British readers, Napoleon’s statement as an innovative thinker in the field of military thought was successfully exposed by Liddell Hart. However, Liddell Hart was not the first person to discover this fact. It was revealed by Colin about 30 years ago, but Liddell Hart’s argument may be more convincing.

the fact is that Napoleon has not made any innovation in both strategic and tactical thought, and he has never claimed to have made a breakthrough in these two aspects. Because if he did make achievements, his troops would not suffer heavy losses repeatedly and even be completely destroyed in the last battle. But he is a master of war and a craftsman in his profession. Although he can’t use the tools and technologies at hand most economically, he knows how to give full play to their effectiveness.

this book aims to describe Napoleon as a military commander. However, in his career, due to the interweaving of strategy and strategy, it is inevitable that one aspect will not be involved in the other. In this regard, his life is quite similar to Cromwell, and Napoleon studied Cromwell carefully. Of course, whether as a politician or a militarist, Napoleon was a greater genius than Cromwell. However, this book is mainly about the military aspects of Napoleon’s career, and it is mainly written for those who study war.

my research is based on the following two premises: first, as mentioned above, Napoleon was not an innovator in the art of war or military science; Second, sir Weaver was quoted as saying, “good generals, unlike poets, are made, not born.” (soldiers and military life) I have tried to demonstrate the latter proposition in the first chapter of this book. This chapter describes Napoleon’s early education and training, especially his self-study. Because the changeable environment and rough experience in his early years undoubtedly had a significant impact on the formation of his personality and the development of his ability.

the so-called Napoleon invented a new set of tactics, which is an inherent absurdity in Napoleon’s legend. This is not the case. Colin clarified this problem 65 years ago in his book the military education of Napoleon. More recently, for British readers, Spencer Wilkinson unveiled this myth in 1930 and Liddell Hart unveiled it in 1933. Compared with, Hannibal and these three military leaders whom Napoleon deliberately imitated, Napoleon could not be called the inventor of “Blitzkrieg”. “Flash warfare” is not a new operational principle. It is just a bold application of the combination of mobility, speed and concentrated forces. The German army used “Blitzkrieg” in Poland in 1939 and France in 1940. When Napoleon called himself “spekds”, “spekds” and “spkds”, he did invent a new strategy in exile. According to records, he once said to general gurgo, “the great art of battle lies in changing your battle line in the process of battle; this is my own point of view, and it is quite new.” This is nonsense and unbelievable. Napoleon defended himself a lot like this during exile, not just that. However, the following paragraph, although also said in St. Helena, is quite pertinent:

carry out offensive operations, take Alexander, Hannibal, Caesar, Gustav adov, Tirena, Prince Eugene and Frederick the great as models, read the history of their 83 battles and follow their examples, This is the only way to become a famous general and master the mysteries of military art.

however, Napoleon is not a talker who only remembers history. His genius lies in his ability to learn from historical lessons in practice and apply them flexibly in actual combat. If Napoleon did not invent any new strategy, he did not invent any new ideas in tactics, organization, logistics management and equipment.

in terms of tactics, the French army in the period of government and Empire only continued to follow the methods developed by the revolutionary army in various campaigns from 1792 to 1795, which was based on the latest regulations issued to the old royal army in 1791. These tactics were carried out by France in the 18th centurySum up the experience of several wars. The normal step is to bombard the enemy’s array with the reserve fire of dispersing the scattered soldiers and the concentrated fire of assembling artillery to shake its defense, and then the commander launches the main attack with dense columns to the key points of the enemy’s array determined by him. Napoleon did not make any substantial changes to this basic procedure. As an artillery born commander who is familiar with the lethality and range of his arms, he may have increased the proportion of artillery to infantry and practiced retaining an artillery reserve under his own control to concentrate fire at the climax of the battle, but he did not innovate in artillery tactics. As we will see below, he worked very hard at the artillery school and paid attention to all the courses taught there.




are like “war tactics”, especially surrounded by the flanks of cavalry. They are not new tactics in the war, but Napoleon rarely used them in normal combat practice. At least in the battle of Waterloo, Wellington’s flanks were as fragile and vulnerable, but he did nothing. Napoleon’s army was divided into divisions and armies in terms of organization, so as to obtain greater flexibility in the movement of contacting the enemy and encounter, which was only an imitation of a practice adopted by the armies of other European countries based on the experience of the seven-year war.

Napoleon insisted that the army should supply locally in the combat area, so that it can move freely without the restriction of logistics supply. This is also the normal practice of the revolutionary army. It was formed because the government had insufficient financial resources and low support capacity during the national assembly period, so that it was difficult to help the army fighting outside France.

although Napoleon had a high technical knowledge of artillery and other weapons, in fact, the weapons and equipment of the French army did not improve during his 15 years in power and becoming emperor. The flint guns used by French infantry in Waterloo are exactly the same as those used in malengo; Similarly, the range and calibre of field guns remained unchanged throughout the ruling government and Empire. In fact, they were the same as those designed by gribaufa thirty years ago.