The victory of the October Revolution promoted the upsurge of the workers’ movement, the proletarian revolutionary movement and the national democratic revolutionary movement in European countries.

From 1918 to 1923, some European countries and regions set off a wave of revolution, shaking the rule of the bourgeoisie in various countries.

After the October Revolution in Russia, the first revolution took place in Finland.

It broke out the general strike of the alliance on November 13, 1917, and quickly developed into an armed uprising with the help of the Russian army affected by the Bolsheviks.

The Finnish bourgeoisie formed a government and declared its independence by Parliament on December 6.

Soviet Russia recognized Finland’s independence on December 18.

In January 1918, the Finnish bourgeois government attempted to disarm the workers’ Red Guard.

With the support of the former Russian soldiers stationed in Finland, the workers’ Red Guard overthrew the bourgeois government, dissolved the Parliament and established the people’s Committee of revolutionary power on January 28, announcing the birth of the socialist working Republic of Finland.

Some members of the bourgeois government fled to the northwest and set up another government to secretly sign military agreements with Germany and formulate joint operation plans.

On April 3, 25000 German invaders landed in Hanko and occupied the capital Helsinki on April 10.

On May 15, the Finnish revolution was strangled.

Under the influence of the October Revolution, the Soviet regime was successively established on the east coast of the Baltic Sea.

In mid December 1917, Latvia held a meeting of representatives of Engineering soldiers, peasants and Soviets to establish a Soviet government.

On December 17 of the following year, the establishment of the Latvian Soviet Socialist Republic was announced.

On November 29 of the same year, the Estonian labor commune, the Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic, was established in Narva.

On December 16, the Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic was established.

Soviet Russia recognized the independence of the three countries on December 25 of that year.

In 1919, the Soviet regimes of the three countries were overthrown one after another, and bourgeois states were established respectively.

After the fall of the Hapsburg empire in November 1918, it split into four new countries: Austria, Hungary, Czechoslovakia and the kingdom of Slovenia Serbia Croatia.

Their borders are delimited by ethnic relations.

This relationship remained despite centuries of rule by the Hapsburg empire.

The Hapsburg Dynasty originated in the 10th century and experienced many vicissitudes.

Queen Maria tracia reigned from 1740 to 1780.

Although she ruled the country with an iron hand, she lost Silesia.

Therefore, she fought repeatedly with most European countries in an attempt to recover the lost land.

In 1867, the territory of Hapsburg was divided into the Austrian Empire with Vienna as its capital and the Hungarian kingdom with Budapest as its capital.

Germanic people account for the majority in Austria and Mazar people account for the majority in Hungary.

The luxurious life in Hapsburg is in sharp contrast to the poor life of farmers.

When Gavrilo Principe assassinated Archduke Franz Ferdinand in 1914, Serbia saw the action as a blow to the indifferent ruling class.

The last Hapsburg emperor, Charles I, turned the Austro Hungarian Empire into a de facto military Federation during the war.

Coupled with extreme inflation and generational racial discontent, it is entirely possible to cause a bloody change.

However, nationalist groups have often met abroad for many years in order to solve problems by peaceful means.

In early November 1918, the socialist party and the pan Germanic party petitioned Charles I to give up the throne.

On November 11, Charlie abdicated and two days later withdrew from the Hungarian throne.

So all ethnic groups immediately began to establish a government.

The defeat of the Austro Hungarian Army on the Italian battlefield inspired the national democratic revolutionary movement of the countries to which Austro Hungarian belongs.

On October 28, 1918, Budapest developed from a mass demonstration into an armed uprising.

On the 31st, a bourgeois coalition government headed by count Karoli was formed.

On November 16, the Republic of Hungary was established.

The Caroli government was unable to alleviate the economic, political and social crisis, but took the risk to suppress the Hungarian Communist Party.

On February 20, 1919, it arrested 57 Members of the Central Committee of the Hungarian Communist Party headed by Kuhn Bella and more than 150 activists of the Hungarian Communist Party.

The proletariat and the working masses are strongly opposed to this perverse counter revolutionary repression, and have repeatedly launched strikes, demonstrations and even bloody conflicts.

The Central Committee of the Hungarian Communist Party, which went underground, decided to launch an armed uprising.

On March 19, 1919, the military representative of the allies in Hungary issued an ultimatum on the grounds of delimiting a new military demarcation section, ordering Hungary to reply on the evening of March 21 and withdraw its troops from March 23.

To this end, Hungary will lose more than 10 million residents and about 20000 square kilometers of land.

The Caroline government is at a loss.

The representatives of the Social Democratic Party and the Hungarian Communist Party negotiated in prison and reached an agreement on March 21.

They decided to merge the two parties and temporarily call it the “Hungarian socialist party” to seize power immediately.

The Budapest Soviet, with 20000 garrison troops and 34000 other armed personnel, adopted a resolution advocating the dictatorship of the proletariat.

On the same day, the Karoli government was forced to resign, and the revolutionary government announced the birth of the Hungarian Soviet Republic.

Kuhn Beira, the leader of the Hungarian Communist Party, served as the people’s member of the diplomatic Committee in the revolutionary government and actually played a leading role.

After learning the news, the Allied Powers participating in the Paris peace conference immediately held an emergency meeting on March 26 to plan to strangle the Soviet regime in the heart of Europe.

Since April 16, the invading forces of Romania, Czechoslovakia and France have launched large-scale attacks on Hungary from the East, South and North, with a total force of more than 200000.

The Hungarian Red Army resolutely fought back, turned to attack on the Northern Line in late May, broke through the defense line of the Romanian Czech coalition army, and liberated Slovakia in mid June.

On June 16, it announced the establishment of the Slovak Soviet Socialist Republic and joined the Socialist Federal Republic of Hungary.

After the Hungarian red army withdrew from the region, the Slovak Soviet Republic was extinguished by the Czechoslovak bourgeois government for 21 days.

The Hungarian Red Army unilaterally withdrew its troops from the north on June 30 because it believed in the promise of the allies on Romania’s withdrawal and the implementation of the ceasefire on the southern line.

In addition, the new chief of general staff leaked the operation plan to the allies and got into trouble in the operation.

The rightist leader of the former Social Democratic Party has held secret negotiations with the allies since late July.

On August 1, the Hungarian Soviet government was forced to resign.

The Hungarian Soviet Republic was overthrown after 133 days of struggle.

In the autumn of 1918, Germany was doomed.

On October 28, the German naval command ordered the ocean fleet to go to sea and “sink with glory” without victoryNo “.

Kiel sailors refused to carry out and spontaneously held an uprising on November 3, opening the prelude to Germany’s “November Revolution”.

The flames of the revolution quickly spread all over Germany.

On November 6, the Hamburg regime fell into the hands of the engineer Soviet.

The monarchs of Bavaria, Saxony and other states were successively ousted, and Bavaria announced the establishment of a democratic social republic.

Berlin workers held an armed uprising on November 9.

The government sent troops to suppress the rebellious uprising workers, and there was only a small conflict in the uprising.

But the political struggle was extremely fierce from the beginning.

Prince Baden, the imperial prime minister, abdicated the Imperial Emperor and king of Prussia and handed over the post of prime minister to Albert, the right leader of the Social Democratic Party.

Albert issued a “prime minister” message, asking citizens to “leave the streets, keep calm and maintain order”.

The 14-year-old leader of the German Democratic Party called for the suspension of the march to the right in the afternoon regardless of the intention of the Republican Party.

At 16:00, the leader of spartakism, lipknessy, announced Germany as a “free Socialist Republic” on the balcony of the palace.

On November 10, the Social Democratic Party and the independent social democratic party jointly organized the first interim revolutionary government, named the people’s Committee.

Its policy agenda proclaims “socialism”, but it does not go beyond the scope of bourgeois democracy.

Lipknessy refused to join the government.

On the contrary, Hindenburg and the army expressed their loyalty to it on the same day.

Albert and the military reached a secret agreement on the 11th to end the “anarchy” and suppress Bolshevism.

In order to meet the needs of the revolutionary situation, the Spartak faction, formerly a member of the independent social democratic party, formed the Spartak Alliance on November 11.

On December 30, the inaugural meeting of the German Communist Party was held and libknessy and Luxembourg were elected as the party’s chairmen.

The leaders of the right wing of the Social Democratic Party manipulated the situation by virtue of the people’s Committee and trade union organizations they controlled, and gradually controlled Berlin and the all German engineer Soviet Union.

They orchestrated two bloody clashes with the left in December.

On January 5, 1919, the proletarian revolutionaries began the “January battle” in Berlin.

On the 6th, a general strike and an armed uprising were held, announcing the overthrow of Albert’s government, but the uprising did not receive a wide response.

The government suppressed by force on the 10th and slaughtered the insurgents.

The uprising failed on the 13th.

On the 15th, lipknessy and Luxembourg were killed.

In the spring of the same year, a wave of “second revolution” appeared all over Germany.

A general strike of 350000 Ruhr miners lasted nearly four weeks.

Saxony workers announced the “second revolution” on March 2 to seize the power of the government.

Brunswick and other places established worker peasant Soviet republics.

Berlin launched the “March uprising” on March 3, and was in serious turmoil and street fighting for four or five days in a row.

The government sent troops to suppress on the 9th, and the uprising was submerged in a pool of blood again on the 16th.

In Bavaria, the Bavarian engineer Soviet Republic headed by Communists was established on the evening of April 13.

The Berlin government sent out troops to join the local army and launch a fierce battle with the Bavarian Red Army.

On May 1, government troops entered Munich, and the battle in the city ended on May 5.

The killing of the Bavarian worker peasant Soviet Republic marked the end of the German revolution from 1918 to 1919.

The “November Revolution” overthrew the autocratic monarchy and established a parliamentary republic.

As a bourgeois democratic revolution, it achieved basic victory.

As the struggle of the proletariat to realize the socialist revolution, due to the serious division of the proletariat, the majority represented by the rightist leaders of the social democratic parties compromised with the bourgeoisie, which was defeated.

The German revolutionary movement in the early post-war period still had a aftershock in 1923.

During the Ruhr crisis, various domestic contradictions intensified again, causing strong dissatisfaction among the people, and the revolutionary situation appeared again.

Driven by the Communists, many cities in Germany established armed organizations of the “proletarian hundred regiment”.

On May Day, 700000 people in Berlin marched, and 400000 people in Ruhr participated in the “may strike”.

With the consent of the occupying forces, the guno government drove a large number of national defense forces and police forces into Ruhr for bloody repression.

Protests were held across Germany.

On August 11, 3 million workers took part in the national general strike, forcing the Cournot government to step down on August 12.

On October 10 and 16, the governments of Saxony and Thuringia led by the left-wing Social Democrats accepted Communists into the cabinet to form the workers’ governments of the two states.

Despite their repeated statements of loyalty to the Weimar constitution, Albert declared the country in an “extraordinary state” and authorized the national defense force to take military action.

On October 30, the workers’ government of Saxony was forcibly dissolved.

A few days later, the tulingen state workers’ government also died prematurely.

On October 23, Hamburg workers held an armed uprising under the leadership of the German Communist Party Hamburg Party led by thalman.

In balmuk District, the central stronghold of the uprising, 300 uprising fighters fought bravely and hard for two days to transfer.

The workers’ uprising in Hamburg fought for three days and finally failed because of isolation.

In Italy, the proletariat held many strikes from 1919 to 1920.

The strike movement shifted from economic struggle to political struggle.

In the spring of 1920, the left wing of Italian Socialist Party led by Gramsci proposed that the seizure of power should start from the factory and take the establishment of factory Committee as the form of socialist political power and the driving force for the proletariat to strive for revolutionary victory.

In May, the owners of Milan metallurgical factory and other factory owners closed down the alliance, undermining the workers’ strike.

The metallurgical union organized workers to occupy the factory.

By the end of August, the Milan metallurgical plant was all controlled by workers.

In September, Italian workers across the country participated in the movement to occupy their factories.

They organized factory red guards and elected factory committees to lead production.

Due to the shortage of raw materials, production was forced to stop and the movement was frustrated.

Under the influence of the workers’ movement, farmers also developed from the spontaneous struggle against rent and tax to the land occupation movement with veterans as the main body.

By April 1920, millions of farmers and veterans in Italy had participated in the land occupation struggle.

With the rapid rise of the workers’ and peasants’ movement, the voice of establishing Soviet regime appeared in some areas of northern and central Italy.

Turin and Florence have been known as “Communist cities”.

After the local election in 1920, it controlled the majority of seats in provinces, cities and towns across the country.

However, there were great differences within the social party, and the main leaders were deeply influenced by the second international reformism, the Italian workers’ movement from 1919 to 1920.