of the western expedition of the Mongolian Empire in nearly half a century from 1217 to 1258, Mongolian cavalry galloped through Asia and Europe for three times, swept thousands of miles, destroyed many famous countries and established a large-scale Mongolian Empire in world history.
in the spring of the second year of the new year (AD 1206), Tiemuzhen unified all Mongolian ministries, claimed to establish Mongolia. Since then, a series of military operations have been launched to use troops to the West.
Genghis Khan like
(1) the first western expedition – the war on the khwarazm country
khwarazm was the most powerful country in Central Asia at that time, bordering on Mongolia. After the accession to the throne at the end of Maha, it gradually became strong and annexed Persia, Afghanistan and other countries through many expeditions, Reached its heyday. Since then, due to the enfeoffment of the sons, there were many branches of government, and the national strength gradually weakened.
in the tenth year of emperor Taizu of the Yuan Dynasty (1215 AD), Genghis Khan sent envoys to the kingdom of huarazimo to conclude trade agreements. On the way, the governor was also unable to make money, falsely accused the caravan of being a spy, reported to the king that he wanted to kill it, and embezzled its goods and camels. Genghis Khan sent envoys to mahamo to accuse him of treachery and ask him to hand over the murderer in order to make every effort to attack the kingdom of Jin, avoid interrupting trade and strive for a peaceful solution. Mahamo refused to ask and killed the envoy and escorted the two deputy envoys out of the country. Genghis Khan therefore planned to levy huala Zimo.
in the 13th year of emperor Taizu of the Yuan Dynasty (1218 AD), after the Yuan Dynasty destroyed the Western Liao Dynasty, Mongolia borders the western regions. In the 14th year, Genghis Khan personally led a large army to the west, which lasted five years, eliminated 400000 troops and conquered huarazimo.
in June of the 14th year of emperor Taizu of the Yuan Dynasty (1219 AD), Genghis Khan’s Pro unification army set out from the loss river of Erdi, crossed the Altai mountain, passed through Biesi Bali, Yangji Bali, Tiandi, Weiwu’er and other places, with a total of 230000 troops, known as 600000, and set out for huacizimo. Mohamed agreed with the minister to order all cities to be strong and clear and not to go to war. Genghis Khan then concentrated on the military for a short time around the Mid Autumn Festival, and immediately launched an attack on the strategic sensitive area of mahamo, so as to create the illusion of cutting off the connection between the Kingdom and the two major resource areas and the preparation base of the new army, and attract the attention of mahamo. Mahamo fell into the trap and sent his main force to pull Khan to deal with Zhebei. Genghis Khan led the main force to the erdala of the SYR river. The army was divided into four routes. Genghis Khan and his son Tuolei led the main force to cross the SYR river with subutai as the pioneer and cut off the channel of mahamo’s support to the besieged cities.
the 13th century Mongolian cavalry
Genghis Khan sent shuchi as the commander and Chagatai as the deputy to command the first and second route armies to attack Yulong Jiechi in the autumn of 1220. Genghis Khan spent one year and seven months to wipe out 300000 troops of huarazimu, capture huarazimu’s territory and the middle of the river, win the strategic decisive battle of the middle of the river, and lay a foundation for the destruction of huarazimu. After
, mahamo died because his mother and concubines were captured, and his young son suffered from disease. He knew that he would die soon, so he made zalantin his heir. Genghis Khan immediately ordered zhebe and subutai to lead 30000 cavalry to explore the Caucasus in North Vietnam. Zhebei and subutai led their troops to detour from the south to the Caspian Sea, enter Azerbaijan (today’s Azerbaijan), carry out the war of Georgia (or gu’erzhi, today’s Georgia), sweep out the northern and southern campaigns in the Caucasus, carry out the war of the Terek River and the Chalga River, break through the 100000 Russian coalition forces, open the door of Russia and return home.
torpedoes were ordered to lead troops to sweep the huloshan area west of the Amu Darya River (now southern Turkmen, northeastern Iran and northwestern Afghanistan). Genghis Khan led the main force to capture temi and ferry, marched into khurte region (now northern Afghanistan) and Saman (now Samangan in northern Afghanistan), captured badaha injury (now North of Hindu Kush mountain in northeastern Afghanistan and south of the Pinchi River) and barihei and talihan (now taligan in northeastern Afghanistan), and calmed the region north of Amu Darya River, Then he marched and conquered another talihan (also known as yanneisilati – Kuhei).
zalantin succeeded to the throne as king of khwarazmo and was determined to fight against the Mongolian army according to the old capital. However, the 90000 garrison of the old capital yulongjiechi did not support or even plotted to kill zalantin. Zalantin fled to gojinin (now Ghazni in the southwest of Kabul, Afghanistan) and struggled to save the country. His subordinates defected from all directions. Zalantin was confident and rearmed, Prepare for a counterattack. The two armies met in baruan (now Bamian, northwest of Kabul, Afghanistan). Genghis Khan immediately led Chagatai, wokuotai and Tuolei armies to march to balu’an to pursue and annihilate zalantin. In November 16, he held the battle of Shenhe (now Indus River), completely annihilated more than 40000 zalantin, and zalantin led more than 50 people to flee to India. Genghis Khan sent tow Lei and Bala two generals to cross the Shenhe River to pursue zalantin and return them without success.
(2) the second western expedition – the war to conquer the countries west of the Volga River
after the Mongolian gold war, wokuotai Khan established a solid rule in the Central Plains and Central Asia. However, the Urals and chincha and good offices to the West (now the Kirov Prefecture in northern Europe of Russia and the region to the west of the Tatar Autonomous Republic and Ukraine and Belarus) have not been settled. In the seventh year of Emperor Taizong of the Yuan Dynasty (1235), wokuotai convened huliletai and decided to enlist qincha, uluros and other unsung countries. Khurusuman, the leader of the qincha Department living between the Volga River and the Ural River, was afraid of the Mongolian army and sent an envoy to pay in advance. The Mongolian army arrived and was ready to surrender. Only the leader of the qincha department, Ba Chi man, who lived in the lower reaches of the Volga River, resolutely resisted the war. At that time, Russia, Poland and Hungary were divided into principalities, which acted independently and did not listen to the orders of the Archduke. Germany, Italy and Austria were involved in the crusade. The situation in Europe is favorable for Mongolia’s western expedition. “SPE, KDS”, “SPE, KDS”, “SPE, KDS”The eldest son of Sihan, the eldest son of Shu Chi, the eldest son of Ba Du, the second son of Chagatai, the eldest son of Bai da’er, the third son of wokuotai, the eldest son of GUI you, and the fourth son of Tuolei, the eldest son of mengge, were all in charge of the Royal Army. Nayan at all levels below 10000 households (the leader of thousands of households) also sent the eldest son to join the army, ordered Ba Du as the commander and subutai as the deputy general. A total of 150000 troops arrived at the East Bank of Volga River in autumn. Subutai led the vanguard army to capture buliar (now the east of viatka POLYANA, Russia). In the winter of the same year, mengge marched into the qincha department in the lower reaches of the Volga River. The leader of the Department of oulebulrik, bachiman, haunted the dense forest and attacked the Mongolian army from time to time. In the spring of the next year, subutai moved south from buria to reinforce mengge. Ba Chi man was so frightened that he fled into the sea when he heard about the arrival of the fast Bu Tai army. Mongo led his army to attack the island of kuantianjisi sea (today’s Caspian Sea), captured Ba Chi man and executed him. As a result, Hirota Jihai and other parts north of the Outer Caucasus Mountains were shocked. In the summer and autumn of the ninth year (1237), he recuperated his horse in the east of the Volga River and decided to levy OROS. In December, Batu and other kings led their troops across the Volga River and conquered the cities of lieyezan (a “lieyezan”, now the city of riazan in the southeast Zan state of Moscow) and kolomna (now the city of kolomna in the southeast of Moscow). In February of the following year, they besieged Vladimir (now northeast of Moscow, Russia), the capital of the Grand Duchy of Vladimir. Grand Duke kuoerji fled the city and went to the Bank of the Sidi River (now the upper reaches of the Volga River) to wait for the reinforcements of the Principality of Kiev. The Mongolian army besieged the city for five days and forced the oroth people to take part in the siege. Batu troops attacked Rostov, Moscow and other more than 10 cities near Vladimir. In March, Batu sent an army to suddenly attack Dagong military camp on the Bank of Sidi River, completely annihilate his troops, and Dagong died. The Mongolian army thus advanced to Novgorod, the ancient capital of the Principality of Kiev (now Novgorod city in Novgorod, Novgorod, Russia), to the city for 20 Li, and suddenly changed its way south to march north to the Caucasus. Mengge and Guiyou suppressed the ASU rebels, took the capital to the east of the Volga River, and recuperated in qincha Caoyuan. Ten years (1238), mengge and Guiyou conquered tiemen pass (now jerbintexi in southern Uzbekistan) and opened the north-south traffic line of the Caucasus. In the autumn of the same year, Genghis Khan called mengge and GUI to return from the East. In the eleventh year, Batu sent troops across the Don River and returned to the south of dauros for captivity. The princes of uluros were busy fighting for power and profit and could not unite against the enemy, so that the Mongolian army captured the cities of bereslale and Chernigov. When attacking the city of Chernigov, the Mongolian army used giant riprap machines. In the autumn of the same year, Batu personally led a large army to qiwa city (today’s Kiev City, Ukraine), where all route armies gathered. Batu ordered four guns to attack fiercely day and night. It was conquered only on November 19. After capturing the city of qiwa, the Mongolian army continued to advance westward to capture the capital city of the Principality of garic, Vladimir Warren (now Vladimir vorensky, Warren state, northwest Ukraine) and other cities in the territory. Archduke Danielle of garridge fled to Mazar. Russia was occupied by the Mongolian army. At the beginning of the 12th year of
(1240), the Mongolian army left 30000 troops to guard nanuoros, and the rest 120000 people marched to Mazar (now Hungary) in three ways. Beilu took baidar as the commander and led 30000 people under Chagatai to destroy Mazar’s foreign aid to Poland; With Hedan as the commander, the South Road led 30000 people under kuotai to bypass the Carpathians and make a detour from the South; Under the command of Batu and subutai, the middle road led 60000 troops across the Carpathians to the capital pisti (now near Budapest, Hungary). The second route army of the north and South started first. Baidar divided the South Route Army, crossed the visdora River and marched towards Poland. At that time, Poland was divided into several small feudal states. King poleslav only had jurisdiction over the directly subordinate places, and the other feudal states ran their own affairs. In February of the 12th year, the Mongolian army successively captured sandomir city (now sandomesh city on the West Bank of the visva River in the southeast of Warsaw, Poland) under the jurisdiction of Polish Communist Lord poleslav. In March, the Polish army defeated the Polish army, captured the capital city krakov (today’s Krakow City in the south of Poland) and set it on fire. Then the Mongolian army attacked the Polish vassal state Silesia (today’s Silesia in southwest Poland). They crossed the Oder River by raft and attacked its capital floslav (today’s flozlav in Silesia, Poland). Henry II, king of Silesia, retreated to legnitz (near gerlitz in Dresden, Germany) and gathered 30000 troops from Poland, Germanic and Teutonic Knights to prepare for the battle. Baidar gave up attacking floslav and went near legnitz to lead Henry to war. At the beginning of April, Henry led the army to fight. The Mongolian army pretended to retreat and Henry followed. Taking advantage of Henry’s fatigue, the Mongolian army suddenly launched a counter attack and wiped out its army. Henry was captured and beheaded. The Mongolian army took advantage of the victory and went south to invade Moravia (now Moravia in the south of the Czech Republic). After looting and burning the land, they marched in the direction of Mazar and met Batu. The South Route Army under the command of Hedan bypassed the Carpathians and entered Mazar. It successively captured the cities of Ludan and varadin. In April, it met PATU on the Hungarian Plain.
Batu and subutai led the Middle Route Army to attack Hungary in two ways. King Bella IV sent only a few troops to guard the passes in the Carpathians and cut down trees to block the roads. On March 12, the Mongolian army raided all the passes in the Carpathians and broke them all on March 15. Batu led his army to attack the city of bast, and all the places they passed were burned. On hearing the news, Bella IV gathered 100000 troops to defend the city from Perth to the city of bast. The Mongolian army arrived at the city and attacked without breaking. The Hungarian Army will not go to war. Batu led the army to retire. Bela IV went out of the city to pursue and stationed in the west of the sayo River (one is sayue River, now TiSA River in eastern Hungary) (now solnock), sending 1000 troops to guard the bridge to prevent the attack of the Mongolian army. The Mongolian army retreated to the swamp in the east of the river, where the Hungarian Army was not on guard, and set up a camp. At night, it attacked in two ways: first, led by Batu, sent troops to seize the bridge and set up guns to attack, but failed; One route, led by xubutai, made a raft dive from the lower reaches of the river and detoured behind the side of the Hungarian Army. Batu stormed the bridge guarding army and seized the bridge. At dawn, the two route armies besieged the Hungarian Army camp on all sides and launched a sudden attack. The Hungarian Army broke through the siege and Badu put a road to the West. The Hungarian Army fled to the West. The Mongolian army ambushed on three sides and wiped out its army. Bella IV fled to Austria. The Mongolian army arrived at the city of Perth and broke through it. In this battle, the Mongolian army also suffered heavy losses. In summer and autumn, the whole army met the enemies of Austria and Bohemia in the city of neustad near the city of PerthFight back and retreat immediately. In December, after the Danube River was frozen, the Mongolian army attacked the ancient capital of Hungary, gran. The city is located on the Bank of the Danube River, surrounded by deep trenches and garrison buildings. When the Mongolian army arrived at the city, it set 30 cannons to attack the city, drove the prisoners and filled the trenches. The attack was very fierce. The merchants of France, Germany and other countries in the city burned all their belongings. After the Mongolian army destroyed the city, it burned it down. Batu sent Hedan army to chase Bella. Bella heard that the Mongolian army chased him and hid on the island off the Adriatic coast. Hedan goes to the seaside and sweeps the two cities of sparato and cataro. At the beginning of the first year (1242) after Ma Naizhen, the news of wokuotai’s death came, and Batu recalled Hedan. Hedan joins Batu via Serbia. In March, Batu led the army to return to the East.
(3) the third western expedition – the war to attack Persia
from the second year of emperor Xianzong of the Yuan Dynasty to the first year of emperor Shizu Zhongtong (1252 ~ 1260), mengge Khan sent his brother xuliewu to lead 100000 troops to attack Persia. That is, the third western expedition of Mongolia.
after the Mongolian army destroyed huacizimo and conquered the troops of Bogar, chincha, wurlos, Poland and Hungary, the strength of the Mongolian Empire has expanded to Central Asia and Europe. In the first year of emperor Xianzong of the Yuan Dynasty (1251), mengge followed the throne of Khan and followed the instructions of his grandfather Genghis Khan to expand his territory and establish Khan. During the reign of wokuotai Khan, he sent the great general chuermahan to attack Persia. After several expeditions, chulmahan and others only destroyed zalantin (the son of mahamo, the king of huacizimo). The Caucasus and Asia Minor were called vassal, but they had not conquered Persia. When Mongo ascended the throne, two countries remained independent in Persia: one was the wooden thorn Yi country of the assassin faction, which was established in the masandhran region (today’s mazandhran Province in northern Iran); First, the kingdom of great food in black, with its capital in Baghdad. To the west is Syria. This is not mutually supportive and isolated. Among them, mu Ciyi people robbed Mongolian business trips for many times. In order to protect the rights and interests of the Mongolian Khanate and expand its territory, mengge Khan decided to expedition to Persia in order to establish a unified regime there.
at the end of July of the second year (1252), xuliewu ordered the timid not to spend as the pioneer to lead 12000 people to start first, preparing for the attack of the army. Xuliewu himself remained in Helin and continued to organize the western expedition. On the ninth day of October in the third year (1253), xuliewu led the army to March, and mengge ordered the king balahan and touta’er to lead the army of Ba as the vanguard. The xuliewu army passed through alimali (now atnock in the northwest of Huocheng Town, Huocheng County, Xinjiang) and arrived at Turkestan (a Turkestan, which refers to the area south of today’s Kazakh Balkash lake and north of the SYR River) and the middle of the river (the area between today’s SYR River and amu Darya River). In the summer of 1254, the xuliewu army stayed in Turkistan. In September of the fifth year (1255), the xuliewu army arrived in Samarkand (today’s Samarkand in Uzbekistan). After 40 days of rest, it continued to advance westward to Tiemenguan (today’s jerbintexi in southern Uzbekistan) and stayed here for another month. In the spring of the sixth year (1256), xuliewu led his army across the Amu Darya River and began to force into the mulayi region (now northern Iran). The total military strength of
mulayi state is more than 100000, including 60000 or 70000 troops in kukhistan (now northwest Afghanistan and northeast Iran), and 50000 or 60000 troops in RUD Bayer district (now North Iran and Rudbar in the southwest of the Caspian sea). When entering the territory of Mu Ciyi, the timid leader first captured several castles in Kuxi Stan, and then besieged its important castle gu’er. During this period, the timid buhuabu successively destroyed more than 50000 people of the wooden thorn Yi army, weakening the strength of luklaiding. When luklaiding took the throne, the xuliewu western expedition army was approaching its border through samaergan. Soon after, xuliewu led the western expedition army into shuigan city and ordered Baizhu to lead the army to move to Asia Minor. At the same time, the Dukes of Armenia and Georgia were ordered to lead the expedition. Then the xuliewu army entered Sava. Send kukhairkha to lead the troops to support the timid Buhua and jointly attack the kusestan fortresses. After conquering Tuwen (now ferdos, Khorasan Province, Eastern Iran), the two generals joined the xuliewu army. Xuliewu continues to pass through Tusi (now Mashhad in Northeast Iran) and arrives at habushan (now sabzawal in Northeast Iran) in nishab state. Send Baker and timuk to Mu Ciyi and order him to surrender. Mulayi has a heavy army and occupies a dangerous position. They keep the city. Xuliewu cannot succeed in quick battle. Therefore, adopt the strategy of gradual consumption. In June of the sixth year, seeing the xuliewu army pressing down on the territory step by step, luklaiding felt unable to protect himself, so he sent his brother shaxinsha to the xuliewu command department to ask for surrender. Xuliewu wrote to luklaiding: if luklaiding voluntarily abandons several castles and pays a visit in person, his country can be protected from damage. After receiving xuliewu’s letter, luklaiding fell several fortresses and leveled some fortresses. Xuliewu also ordered the general in front of the tent to withdraw wu’er and withdraw from the mula Yi border. However, lukreddin requested a year’s grace for the visit. In September, Xu liewu was in bistam, and then gave rukriddin a grace and ordered him to see him. Lukreddin still asked for grace, and asked for all the other forts to be donated except for the model of Arah (now Rasht, the capital of Kiran in northwest Iran), rambasar (now near rangarud in the southwest of Lixi in northern Iran) and the third fort of cile. He said that he had ordered the generals of kirduku fort and kusistan to go to the camp to receive money. Luklaiding thought that the cold winter was coming, and the xuliewu army could not risk the cold to fight in the mountain country, so he made a verbal concession to delay time and wait for a good opportunity. Xuliewu believed that luklaiding had no sincerity to surrender and was determined to solve it by force. He divided the whole army into three routes and attacked the fort of maimendes, the capital of musiyi state (in the elburtu mountain at the junction of Giran province and Mazandaran Province in the north of Iran). After fierce fighting, the rukridin army was not supported and was forced to rise and fall on November 19. In December, xuliewu led a large army into the vicinity of lambassar. Command the tower also not to spend the army and the Persian army to besiege the fort of lampassar. Tayil Buhua army fought with the Persian army for dozens of days before conquering rambasar. The second class teacher in the beginning of January, the seventh year. So far, all the mulayi countries were occupied by xuliewu. On September 21, 1257, xuliewu led his army to attack Baoda (now Iraq). Leader of Baoda stateMustasin declared war, immediately summoned important officials to study the general strategy of resistance, and then decided to organize 70000 troops to fight. Xuliewu first sent the timid Buhua cavalry to enter the mountain between mutaiyi and Baoda, opened the channel from Hamadan to Baghdad, and then attacked Baoda in three ways: the right army, led by Baizhu, crossed the Tigris River from maoxili (on the northern border of today’s Iraq) and attacked the northwest of Baoda; The left army, led by the timid Buhua and hudsun, attacked the land of Baoda southeast Rohr; The Chinese army, led by xuliewu himself, attacked kelmansha (now Iran’s hetaran, former Kerman commander) and huolewan (now northeast of Baghdad). In November, the three armed forces simultaneously advanced to Baghdad, the capital of the Republic of Korea. Xuliewu Chinese army first broke through kelmansha and marched to huole end on December 18. At the same time, the timid left army occupied most of Rohr; Baizhu led the right army to cross the Tigris River near Taklit (now Tikrit, Salahuddin Province, northwest of Baghdad, Iraq), and met more than 12000 people at the headquarters of reporting general fadudin. Baizhu took advantage of the night to strip off the Tigris River embankment, flooded the plain behind the reporting military camp, and then launched an attack on the fadudin army, finally annihilating the fadudin army. Seeing the defeat of the fadudin army, mustasin immediately ordered the repair of the garrison of the Baghdad city wall and the layout of obstacles along the street. At this time, the right army of Baizhu had entered and occupied the attached City West of the Baghdad city; The timid left army has arrived and retreated; The xuliewu Chinese Army assembled in the east of Baghdad on January 18, 2008. On the 30th, the armies began to attack at the same time. On the 10th day of February, mustasin knew that the defeat could not be saved, so he led his three sons, officials and more than 3000 dignitaries out of Baghdad and surrendered to xuliewu. On the 13th, the xuliewu army entered Baghdad. The kingdom of Baoda perished.
after xuliewu occupied Baoda, he continued to attack westward. He traveled thousands of miles west to Arabia, captured more than 100 cities and subdued Sultan Baal. In September of the ninth year (1259), xuliewu army entered Syria. There are about 100000 Syrian troops. The xuliewu army was divided into three routes and began to attack. When the army marched to the river Euphrates (now the Euphrates), King nashir of Syria was greatly frightened and immediately summoned ministers and generals to discuss war strategies. Due to differences of opinion, the army was distracted and confused. King nashir sent to Cairo to ask for help from the king of Egypt. Egypt has no time for assistance due to civil strife. At this time, xuliewu had captured bilet on the river eflat, then stormed nine fortresses on the river eflat, and then advanced towards Aleppo. On the 24th day of the first month of the first year of the reign of emperor Shizu of the Yuan Dynasty (1260), xuliewu began to attack Aleppo. After seven days of continuous attacks, the city of Kirk. Xuliewu army forced into Damascus, the capital of Syria, from Aleppo city. After learning of the fall of Aleppo, King nashir fled from Damascus. Damascus citizens greet the xuliewu army. On the first day of March, timid Buhua led the Ministry to arrive and announced the order of reassuring the people that no infringement of life and property is allowed. On the night of March 21, the timid Buhua army besieged the sub city of Damascus. After fierce fighting, the defenders of the sub City surrendered on the sixth day of April. Xuliewu completely occupied the Syrian state. After that, he continued to attack Asia Minor (now Turkey’s Asia Minor Peninsula) and defeated the coalition forces of the Balkan countries. Xuliewu ordered Guo Kan to cross the sea and capture Fulang country (i.e. Cyprus Island), which greatly shocked the Mediterranean countries. The Eastern Roman court and the Jesuit countries in Western Europe also sent envoys to contact Xu liewu and want to unite with the Mongolian army to discuss the Muslim countries. Xuliewu entered the southwest end of Asia and prepared to attack Egypt. At this time, mengge Khan died. Xu liewu ordered him not to spend time guarding Syria and led his troops to the East. The third western expedition of the Mongolian army ended here.
Mongolian cavalry conquered and occupied many countries and regions successively through three Western expeditions. Chagatai Khanate was established in qincha and huarazima, west of the Aral Sea and north of the Caspian Sea, and Xiliao and Weiwuer, from the west of Altai to the Amu Darya River in the East; Wokuotai Khanate was established in Naiman old land west of the upper reaches of the Obi River to the Balkash lake; Qincha Khanate was established in Ryazan, Vladimir, Moscow, Kiev and other places in the Volga River Basin; In Iran, Afghanistan, Syria and other places in the two river basin, the Ili Khanate was established, collectively known as the four great khanates, forming a powerful Mongolian Empire in world history.
Mongolian expeditions, both geographically and in terms of influence, are unprecedented in history and unmatched by any nation. It has greatly promoted the process of world history. In the process of continuous war, the Mongols supported the war and used it for the enemy. They paid great attention to absorbing the advanced technology of other nationalities and regions and improving their weapons and equipment. Therefore, they always maintained a strong combat effectiveness. With the martial spirit of bravery and good fighting, they were invincible, making their territory far surpass that of the Han and Tang Dynasties. Although the Mongolian three Western expeditions brought great disasters to the invaded countries and local people, they objectively greatly promoted the cultural and economic exchanges between the East and the West and promoted the great integration of all ethnic groups. In particular, the introduction of gunpowder and firearms invented by China into Europe has not only had a great impact on the European military, but also played a significant role in promoting the reform of European society, the rise of science and even the progress and development of the whole human civilization. Marx once said that the spread of China’s three great inventions of gunpowder, movable type printing and compass to the west is the three great omens of the arrival of European capitalist society. Francis Bacon, a modern British thinker, also believed that “these three things have changed the face and state of things in the whole world”, and nothing else “can produce greater power and influence in human cause than these three mechanical inventions”.