In the late 20th century, the United States mainly focused on two hot spots: the Middle East and the Balkans.
In the Middle East, the crackdown on Iraq continued after the Gulf War, but under the influence of world peace forces, the “thunder” did not explode and the “Desert Fox” came to a hasty end, which made Americans lose face.
Therefore, they once again extended their hand of dominating the world to the Balkans.
As we all know, although there was a ceasefire in the war in Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1992, peace in this region has not been truly realized.
In recent years, the conflict between Serbs and Albanians in Kosovo has escalated year by year.
This makes those in power in the United States who like to interfere in the internal affairs of other countries uneasy.
On 15 January 1999, the Serbian police force was attacked by the “Kosovo Liberation Army” while pursuing the terrorists who killed the Serbian police a few days ago.
The Serbian police responded and killed 45 Albanian terrorists.
On the 16th, after taking foreign observers and Albanian journalists to the scene to investigate, Walker, head of the OSCE observer mission in Kosovo, issued a statement saying that it was not terrorists but Albanian civilians who were killed by Serbian police in lacak village.
Walker’s statement immediately caused an uproar.
The Federal Republic of Yugoslavia government first refuted that Volcker had become the spokesman of Albanian terrorists, asked the OSCE to replace the head of the observer mission in Kosovo, and immediately announced that he was allowed to leave the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia within 48 hours.
It’s a hornet’s nest.
The United States and other western countries took the opportunity to attack, saying that the actions of the Serbian police force had seriously undermined the UN Security Council agreement No. 1199. US Secretary of state Albright said that if the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia government cannot meet the requirements of the United Nations and NATO, the West will resort to force, because force is the “only language that the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia can understand”.
Then, the special meeting of the NATO Council announced that the full power of when to use force was delegated to NATO Secretary General Solana.
1199 agreement was adopted by the United Nations Security Council on September 23, 1998 under the leadership of western countries.
He called on the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia to withdraw its troops from Kosovo immediately and said that “further action” would be taken when necessary to restore peace and stability in the region.
On October 12, the 16 NATO member States held a permanent council meeting in Brussels and approved the plan of air strike against the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.
In November, at the 44th Annual Meeting of NATO, NATO member states adopted a resolution by an overwhelming majority: NATO uses force outside the region of its States parties without the authorization of the United Nations.
At the same time, in order to realize the new intention of NATO, it actively carried out armed intervention in Yugoslavia.
With the active promotion of the United States, NATO began to gather military forces for armed intervention in Kosovo.
By March 24, 1999, the US led NATO had assembled a total of 460 fighters and bombers in Italy, of which the United States had provided 260.
These combat aircraft are mainly deployed in 12 air bases in Italy.
This also includes 6 B-52 fighter bombers deployed in the UK, 12 F-117A stealth fighters and 10 EA-6B electronic warfare aircraft deployed in Italy.
In addition to the United States, other NATO countries have also invested in air combat forces: four harriers from Britain, 14 tornadoes from Germany, 14 F-16 fighters from the Netherlands, 10 F-16 fighters from Belgium, 20 Jaguars and mirage 2000 fighters from France, 8 F-16 fighters from Norway Spain has four FA-18 fighters and one transport aircraft.
Italy’s eight tornado fighters.
In addition, seven warships of the US Navy carrying Tomahawk cruise missiles and warships of Germany, the Netherlands, Italy, Spain, the United Kingdom and Turkey patrolled the Mediterranean Sea.
The US cruiser “Anjiao”, the destroyer “aleburke” and the aircraft carrier “” carrying 48 FA-18 and F-14 fighters also began to cruise in the Aegean Sea.
The French aircraft carrier Fuxi arrived in the Adriatic Sea under the escort of two French destroyers (“Casar” and “tulville”) and a British destroyer (“Somerset”).
Under the pressure of Western powers, the two sides held the first round of negotiations in Rambouillet, a suburb southwest of Paris, on February 6.
After more than 20 days of talks, the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and Kosovo Albanians failed to reach an agreement on the realization of substantive autonomy in Kosovo.
The second round of negotiations reopened in Paris on March 15.
The negotiations reached an impasse because the amendments proposed by the fry delegation to the contact group’s peace plan were rejected by international mediators.
On March 18, the weather in Paris was gray, and God seemed to show people something.
That night, the Albanian delegation signed the peace agreement proposed by the contact group, but the Serbian side refused to sign it.
Two of the three international mediators were Americans.
They signed the peace agreement in the name of witnesses.
Boris mayorski, another Russian, was also present but did not sign.
On the morning of March 19, the president of the Kosovo peace talks issued a statement on the indefinite adjournment of the talks.
After signing unilaterally, the Albanians issued a statement, which implied a threat to the fry: “we solemnly warn the authorities in Belgrade not to launch any ground attack or obstruct the freedom of movement of the observation group.
Any such act of ignoring the warning will have the most serious consequences.
” Faced with the threat of NATO “signing or bombing”, Serbian Deputy Prime Minister Š e š elj said: “Serbia is preparing for self-defense.
This is the most common thing to do under the current situation.
” Issued a red warning on the breakdown of the peace talks: if Yugoslav leader Milosevic does not accept the peace agreement signed by the Albanians, NATO will take action against Serbia’s objectives.
“The Serbs will be responsible for the consequences,” Secretary of state Albright said Clark, the supreme commander of NATO’s European allies, also reiterated that if necessary, the allies will not hesitate to launch a fierce attack on the Yugoslav armed forces.
The Pentagon spokesman said that the aircraft carrying the Tomahawk had been “fully prepared”.
In order to prepare sufficient public opinion for a possible NATO air attack on the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, President Clinton also began to sell his adventurous Kosovo policy to Congress and the American people.
So, including Secretary of state Albright andClinton’s national security aides, including Defense Secretary Cohen, put forward the US strategy at a secret meeting of the Senate.
The White House said the Kosovo crisis has reached a “decisive stage”.
On the one hand, the Western powers show off their military prowess, and on the other hand, the strong attitude of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia that it will never retreat in the face of domestic and foreign troubles.
The Kosovo crisis has reached an imminent situation.
But at this time, President Clinton still felt that the time to use force was not yet ripe.
Therefore, he once again sent special envoy Holbrooke to Belgrade for diplomatic mediation.
Holbrooke’s trip to Europe was to deliver NATO’s “ultimatum” or a diplomatic attempt, but the result was obvious: nothing.
Taking into account military, political and diplomatic factors, Clinton sent Holbrooke to Belgrade on whether to start the war machine at the last critical moment, indicating that he still had illusions about the army pressing Milosevic to form an alliance under the city.
In addition, Russian Prime Minister primakov is also scheduled to come to Washington before March 23, which will also be an important opportunity for a peaceful solution to the Kosovo crisis.
Why did Clinton send Holbrooke to the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia instead of others? Because Holbrooke successfully persuaded Milosevic to accept the Dayton agreement during the war in Bosnia and Herzegovina, he was praised by the West as an expert in solving the problems in the Balkans.
However, this time he did not hold much hope.
On the morning of March 22, Holbrooke flew to Brussels.
After getting off the plane, he went directly to the residence of British ambassador to the European Union Stephen wall, had breakfast with the ambassador, discussed relevant matters, and then drove to the NATO headquarters to see the latest plan of bombing the fry, aiming to increase his chips in the negotiations with Milosevic.
After leaving NATO headquarters, he flew to Belgrade to start negotiations with Milosevic.
The news came out the next day was frustrating.
The atmosphere of the dialogue between the two was very unfriendly at the beginning.
Milosevic complained as usual that Holbrooke deceived him on the Bosnia and Herzegovina issue.
During the talks, this atmosphere has not been improved, and neither side showed signs of compromise.
On March 23 Brussels time, after discussing the Kosovo crisis and the use of force against the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, the NATO Council announced that NATO decided to give the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia an hour to consider accepting the peace agreement before the air raid.
On the morning of March 24, Holbrooke held another meeting with Milosevic.
Holbrooke made a final showdown with Milosevic: “sign or get bombed”.
At the same time, he proposed a concession measure authorized by some key figures, including cook and Albright: Milosevic did not have to sign the Rambouillet autonomy agreement, If he agrees to reduce Serbian troops in Kosovo and restart negotiations, NATO can postpone the bombing.
However, the last flowers did not move Milosevic, which annoyed Holbrooke.
On March 24, he returned to the secret room of the U.S. Embassy in Serbia and spoke on the phone with Clinton and Albright, saying that “there is no other way”.
In this way, the Kosovo crisis finally evolved into war.
On the evening of March 24 local time in Yugoslavia, the warships of NATO countries cruising in the Adriatic Sea were ablaze with fire, which shone all night in the nearby waters.
One “Tomahawk” cruise missile after another was launched into the fry.
At the same time, six B-52 fighter bombers in the fry also launched one cruise missile.
Then, more than 70 NATO combat aircraft took off from various air bases in Italy and bombed the territory of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, opening the prelude to NATO’s first large-scale military operation against a sovereign country since its establishment, code named “alliance force” operation.
Is there really no way, or is it an artificial dead end to war? The analysis of the air raid conducted by the US “Newsweek” shows that due to diplomatic mistakes and loss of opportunity, the government may subject itself to the wrong policy choice of “increasingly tight repression”.
First of all, it did not give Milosevic a face saving compromise, nor did it work out a reliable military plan for tough diplomacy.
However, when the government knew that air strikes were inevitable, it forgot the comprehensive plan and how to deal with the humanitarian problems of thousands of refugees.
Moreover, the decision to go to war came from Albright’s carefully planned foreign policy: “diplomacy supported by the threat of force.
” For months, as secretary of state, a senior hawk in the government, she has been trying to get all 19 NATO members to support Washington.
By the time of the meeting on March 13, even the president had 100% support for her.
According to a well-informed source.
At another top secret meeting held at the white house two days later, the gloomy estimation of the inevitable air raid by the chairman of the Joint Chiefs of staff Sheldon shocked the dignitaries attending the meeting.
It is said that the estimation is very terrible, and even Albright is scared to almost accept the opinion of the doves.
But in the end, they chose to subdue Milosevic by force.
The first phase of the air raid was from March 24 to 26.
The main targets of the attack were air defense facilities, military bases and other fixed military targets in the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.
During this stage, missiles and bombs launched or dropped by NATO combat aircraft led by the United States and cruise missiles launched from warships in the Adriatic Sea hit more than 50 military targets of the Central African Union, killing 10 people, wounding 38 and missing one.
On the evening of March 27 local time, NATO Secretary General Solana ordered the air raid to enter the second stage, and authorized Clark, the supreme commander of NATO’s European allies, to carry out air strikes on the fry at a free time.
According to the order issued by NATO Secretary General Solana to NATO Allied Commander Clark, NATO began to expand the scope of attack, carry out 24-hour uninterrupted air strikes on the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, focusing on attacking the ground armed forces of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, especially the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia army, police, military barracks and various heavy weapons south of 44 degrees north latitude, mainly in Kosovo and its nearby areas.
Just as NATO had just entered the second phase of air strikes, at 9 p.m. on the 27th, an F-117A stealth fighter bomber, the most sophisticated weapon of the United States, was shot down.
The plane shot down was from the 82nd squadron of the US Air Force in New Mexico.
The aircraft number was 806f-117a “Nighthawk” stealth warfareA timetable has been drawn up for the follow-up concrete steps to the Kosovo crisis.
4、 The chairman of the meeting will brief Chinese leaders on the results of today’s meeting.
5、 The foreign ministers of the eight countries will continue to meet to review the implementation.
When the foreign ministers of the eight countries issued their 5-point statement, the White House also announced that the bombing would not stop.
Moreover, there is still a debate in the United States over whether to send ground troops.
Some people say that the statement of the foreign ministers of the eight countries is only a principled opinion on the settlement of the Kosovo issue, which is still thousands of miles away from the real settlement of the problem! Without ground troops, the war will not end.
In terms of sending ground troops, although public opinion has created a lot, the United States and its allies dare not take this step rashly.
According to the analysis of military experts, NATO needs 75000 troops to occupy Kosovo, while it needs at least 200000 troops to control Yugoslavia.
This is a decision that President Clinton dare not make easily.
Moreover, some people have long warned that if the United States insists on sending ground troops, it will be “the second Vietnam”, and the “Vietnam War” is still a lingering nightmare in the United States.
However, after more than 40 days of air strikes, there was more talk about sending ground troops.
It was British Prime Minister Tony Blair who stood out, but he was alone.
Clinton delayed to make clear his position, saying at most that “the possibility of any choice is not ruled out”.
Therefore, they can only seek a political solution to the Kosovo crisis.
NATO led by the United States used the latest weapons and failed to subdue a small country for two months.
On the contrary, it was difficult to enter and retreat.
Even western public opinion thought it was a shame.
A think tank in Washington had a good discussion on the theme of “finding a decent way out”.
His prevailing view is that there will be a way out, but it is difficult to be decent.
On June 3, Finnish President Ahtisaari came to Cologne via Belgrade to report to his EU colleagues that Milosevic had accepted the peace plan proposed by Russia and Western countries.
As soon as he got out of the car, German Chancellor Schroeder, who was waiting there, came forward and hugged him tightly.
The Finnish President probably did not expect such a welcome.
“This is a good day for Europe, including the Yugoslav people,” Schroeder said Of course, peace still needs to be fought, but through these things, people find that political Europe has begun to be born.
Only then did the Kosovo issue return to the United Nations.
On June 11, the UN Security Council held a meeting and adopted the draft resolution on Kosovo jointly submitted by seven western countries and Russia with 14 votes in favour and 1 abstention.
UN Secretary General Kofi Annan said that “this resolution makes people see the beginning of ending the dark and miserable chapter in the history of the Balkans”.
In accordance with the spirit of the resolution provided to the UN Security Council by the meeting of foreign ministers of the eight countries, the fry signed the withdrawal agreement on June 9 and began to withdraw troops from June 10.
On that day, NATO confirmed the start of the withdrawal of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and announced a moratorium on bombing.
On June 20, NATO Secretary General Solana announced that NATO had officially stopped bombing the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia because all 41000 Yugoslav Army and police had withdrawn from Kosovo.
So far, the Kosovo war, which lasted more than 80 days, has ended.
The bombing ended and Yugoslavia, including Kosovo, enjoyed peace again.
In the face of the arrogant actions of the US led NATO, all just people in the world can not help asking what the United States and NATO are going to do.
In response, Clinton had already answered this question in the 1997 national security strategy report for the new century.
The new strategic concept put forward in this report is to enable the United States not only to maintain strong military strength, but also to accelerate the pace of the new military revolution and ensure that the United States has the first dominant position in the world in the 21st century.
In a word, it is to dominate the world.
Can Clinton’s dream come true? Common sense tells people that strength lies in strength for a time, and reason lies in victory and defeat through the ages.
The US led NATO’s “new gunboat policy” endangers world peace and regional security and is opposed by all peace loving countries and people in the world.
It is unpopular, and their dream of dominating the world will never succeed.
During the indiscriminate bombing of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, NATO led by the United States carried out a missile attack on the Chinese Embassy in Yugoslavia, which aroused great indignation of the Chinese people and brought great damage to China US relations.
At 8:30 p.m. (Beijing time at 3:30 on the 28th), NATO Secretary General Solana, after consultation with representatives of NATO member states, ordered the attack on Yugoslavia to enter the second stage.
At the same time, Solana authorized Clark, commander of NATO allies, and Clark was free to launch an attack on the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.
This is a decision to expand the scope of the attack.
According to the order given by NATO Secretary General Solana to NATO Allied Commander Clark, NATO began to carry out 24-hour uninterrupted air strikes on the fry, focusing on strengthening the direct attack on the fry armed forces.
Meanwhile, US President Clinton issued a statement on the shooting down of the F-117 stealth aircraft, expressing strong support for the decision made by NATO Secretary General Solana to expand the scope of the attack on the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.
Despite the escalation of air strikes, there is still no good choice, which makes the most worried thing of the US government come true: Milosevic is more tenacious than anyone thought.
On the surface, the government is united, but the Pentagon and the CIA quietly keep a distance from the “no fault destruction” caused by Clinton.
Now the military’s top leaders insist gloomily that they have warned that air strikes alone will not work.
In fact, when the bombing began, members of the Joint Chiefs of staff did not go to the Pentagon conference room to monitor the beginning of the bombing as usual.
There’s nothing strange about that.
The main question is why diplomacy is so ineffective and why Milosevic is so difficult to deal with.
But this is not always the case.
Clinton may have likened Serbia’s dictator, but last fall Holbrooke found him willing (albeit reluctantly) to negotiate.
Under the threat of what was then called a small-scale irritant blow, Milosevic agreed to take international peacekeeping operations in Kosovo and withdraw his troops while continuing talks on Kosovo’s autonomy.