When Filipinos learned the truth behind the US military’s treacherous and independent occupation of Manila, it seemed as if a bolt from the blue blew up on their heads.
They were in a great uproar and were furious.
They wanted to immediately kill into the city and fight with the US military.
Although aginaldo regretted that he was too credulous and cheated by Dewey, he knew that it was not the time to work hard.
He persuaded his subordinates to focus on the overall situation.
The future is long.
Let’s swallow this evil spirit for the time being.
While Merritt and Dewey celebrated each other and invited rewards, aginaldo quietly withdrew his troops to a mountain town called mallolo north of Manila.
Here, he convened representatives of all parties, convened a constituent assembly and formulated the first republic constitution of the Philippines.
On January 23, 1899, the Republic of the Philippines was officially established, and aginaldo was naturally elected as the first president.
“From now on, January 23 will be the national day of the Philippines,” he said in his inaugural speech He also solemnly declared that “in the future, the Philippine people will live under the democratic government of the Republic of the Philippines and get rid of any foreign rule.
” At the same time, aginaldo also sent representatives to London, Paris, Madrid, Hong Kong and various parts of the United States to unite various forces and rush around to win public opinion’s sympathy for the Philippine people fighting for freedom.
However, in front of the US government, any ideals and efforts of Filipinos can only be wishful thinking.
Originally, under the great pressure of Filipinos and domestic “anti imperialist” elements, Merritt and Dewey asked for instructions on the strategy and asked suspiciously, “will the government take all measures to make these indigenous people submit to the authority of the United States?” President McKinley replied immediately and without hesitation: “the insurgents must recognize the authority of the United States.
you can take any necessary means to achieve these ends according to your own ideas.
” With this “Shangfang sword”, Dewey and other people led the God meeting, secretly rejoiced, immediately tore off the mask and raised the bloody butcher’s knife to the allies who fought side by side in the past without scruples.
In October 1898, Dewey commanded the navy to suddenly attack the Philippine small fleet and ordered to block the maritime traffic between China and the Philippines, thus cutting off the foreign aid channels for the survival of the Philippine revolutionary army.
Although aginaldo sent letters and telegrams, made reasonable representations and repeatedly lodged strong protests, Dewey pretended to be deaf and ignored them.
On the night of February 4, 1899, with the fire support of Dewey’s naval sub fleet and gunboats on the Pasig River, the U.S. army launched a sudden attack, forcibly occupied all trenches outside Manila, killed and injured hundreds of Filipino soldiers.
At this point, aginaldo was unbearable and angrily announced the war against the United States on February 5.
In the national report, he said: “At 9 o’clock last night, I received a telegram from kalongkan station, reporting that the U.S. military attacked my San Juan camp and the troops guarding the warehouse around Manila without reason or warning, resulting in many casualties.
Due to the enemy’s aggression, our army had to fight back defensively.
I regret the fighting between the two sides.
But I have a clear conscience, because I have been doing my best to maintain the friendship between our army and the U.S. military, even though we have suffered some humiliation and sacrificed some rights.
But those who pretended to be friends and saviors intended to take over the mantle of Spain and rule us.
They insulted our national dignity and the honor of the Philippine army.
I have an inescapable responsibility to defend this dignity and honor without any humiliation.
Because of this provocation completely out of our expectation, for honor, for love for the motherland and for the protection of the motherland, I would like to announce that the peaceful and friendly relationship between the Philippine army and the United States occupying force has ended, and the United States occupying force will be treated as our enemy from today on.
” The three-year war between the United States and the Philippines was officially launched.
At the beginning of the war, the American occupying forces, with their advantages in number and equipment, succeeded everywhere, and were magnificent and invincible.
General Otis, Merritt’s successor, was dazzled by the temporary victory and sent a telegram to Washington triumphantly saying: I will be able to solve the military problem in three months.
President McKinley was overjoyed and believed it, so he slowed down the process of recruiting volunteer troops to the Philippines for reinforcement.
Unexpectedly, just a few days after Otis sent this forgetful telegram, a heroic and combat contingent under aginaldo quietly entered Manila by taking advantage of the enemy’s unprepared.
At 9:00 that night, they set fire to many places in the city at the same time.
While the US Army was in chaos, they wiped out an American outpost cleanly, then retreated quickly and left the city safely.
This sudden attack, which came and went without a trace, really shocked the Americans.
For a time, they turned pale when talking about the tiger, and people were in danger.
They no longer dared to underestimate the Philippine army.
Otis also made a 180 degree turn in his attitude and immediately sent a telegram to Washington to ask for reinforcements.
At the beginning of March, when the reinforcements arrived in Manila, the US Army strengthened its courage and attacked mallolo.
After inflicting heavy losses on the enemy, the Philippine army voluntarily abandoned the town and transferred the whole army to San Idro.
On June 10, the Philippine army won another beautiful battle in lasbinia and defeated an enemy division.
In his diary, U.S. captain Saxton wrote dejectedly: “this is something never happened in U.S. military history.
The whole division was defeated.
” In order to save face, the US military command deceived itself and explained to the press that the reason why the US military lost the war was because the weather was too hot that day.
The implication is that it is not the Filipinos who defeated the US military, but the daunting tropical rain forest climate.
In fact, Otis knew better than anyone that if he did not catch aginaldo himself, it would only be empty words to end the war.
So he desperately asked Washington for reinforcements.
In early November, when another batch of reinforcements arrived, Otis immediately divided the whole army into three routes and launched a large-scale attack on the main force of aginaldo army on the Luzon plain.
After several fierce battles, the Americans captured many important officials of the Philippine government, and aginaldo was forced to retreat into the mountains of northern Luzon.
Then Otis launched a second assault on the province of kameidi and the inner lake region, which severely damaged an outstanding general under aginaldo- Trias was in charge and occupied all the islands of the Luzon islands in one fell swoop.
At this time, Otis became arrogant again.
He reported to Washington: “we will not encounter organized riots again, only some bandits.
” However, Otis soon realized painfully that he had miscalculated the situation again.
The war did not end, but entered a new stage.
It turned out that aginaldo and his trusted assistant Trias learned a lesson from their failure and adjusted their strategies and tactics in time.
They announced the dissolution of the regular army, and all regular armies were changed into guerrillas.
The whole country was divided into several guerrilla areas, each with a commander.
They generally adopted the tactics of breaking up the whole into parts, fighting on their own, being flexible and running after fighting.
At the same time, they also went deep into the countryside to establish a secret regime and mobilized the masses to thwart all kinds of “soft policies” implemented by the occupation army authorities.
As a result, the US military has increasingly fallen into the quagmire of guerrilla warfare and has been unable to extricate itself for a long time.
In 1900, when he succeeded Otis as commander, he made the following report to Washington: there were rebels on every island in the whole archipelago.
They are undoubtedly supported by local residents.
In other words, although the towns are nominally occupied and managed by the United States, they are actually rebel bases, not only in the sense that they supply goods to the guerrillas, but also provide refuge for the guerrillas.
At present, the highest tactic of the Philippine army is to disband immediately when attacked by the U.S. military and avoid nearby towns.
They are very successful in this, because the people support them, and because once they blend into the residents, no one knows whether they are guerrillas or civilians.
Of course, the success of this unique mode of combat is due to the unity of the people of the whole country.
This unity is a fact and there is no doubt about it.
This MacArthur was the father of Douglas MacArthur, a five-star general of the US Army who was all powerful in the Second World War.
In the history of the U.S. military, there are two famous families of “sons inherit their father’s career”, one is Henry Lee and Robert Lee, the other is Arthur MacArthur and Douglas MacArthur.
Arthur MacArthur was born in chicako, Massachusetts in 1845.
At the age of 17, he joined the Milwaukee unit of the 24th Wisconsin Volunteer Infantry Regiment.
In the civil war, he fought bravely and was wounded many times.
He won the medal of honor, the highest reward of the United States.
At the age of 19, he was promoted to the rank of colonel and became the youngest colonel in the federal army.
After the war, he was demobilized in the western region.
After being demobilized, he was demobilized and put on the rank of captain in many places.
In 1889, he was promoted to major and served at the army command in Washington, D.C., for four years.
During this period, he studied hard and received a doctorate in law.
Later, he was promoted to lieutenant colonel and served in Houston, Texas for four years.
In 1897, he was 52 years old and was sent to St.
Had it not been for the outbreak of the Spanish American war, he would probably have spent his military career there in silence and obscurity.
Arthur MacArthur was promoted to brigadier general after the US West Air War in April 1898.
Since then, his fortune has changed,.
He firmly believed that war would be an excellent opportunity for him to show his skills and make achievements.
Sure enough, with the departure of Otis, when the situation was getting worse and out of control, MacArthur naturally ascended the throne of U.S. commander in the Philippines.
As soon as he came to power, he adopted a strategy completely different from Otis.
The core of this strategy is to adopt “tougher policies” to deal with the guerrillas.
In December 1900, MacArthur announced the implementation of “General Order No.
100″, which stipulated that war should be conducted between troops in military uniforms in common forms.
However, the guerrillas are not worthy of pity.
They should be sent to concentration camps, exiled or executed.
If the commander is out of “military need”, he can take all necessary means to carry out “retaliation”.
At the same time, MacArthur recruited a large number of pro american Filipinos to act as the ears, eyes and running dogs driven by them in order to make up for the inherent deficiencies of Americans in local language, customs and terrain.
By June 1901, he had 5400 Philippine scouts and 6000 Philippine police on paramilitary missions.
Under his personal chairmanship, the army set up a military intelligence service to improve the understanding of guerrilla activities and transmit information in a timely manner.
He also asked the navy to strengthen patrols and do everything possible to cut off the communication between the insurgents on the islands and the import of overseas weapons.
As a doctor of law who knows the past and the present, MacArthur knows that it is not enough to carry out his policy by force alone, which must be supplemented by political “heart attack tactics”.
Therefore, in addition to continuing to emphasize the so-called “goodwill” activities, he also instructed a group of pro american elements to form the Philippine Federal Party.
After its establishment, the party cooperated closely with the authorities of the occupying forces and became the sworn enemy of the independence movement led by aginaldo.
MacArthur’s “killer maces” are really powerful, which has indeed brought great difficulties to the resistance activities of Philippine guerrillas everywhere.
For a moment, Washington even sent a telegram of praise, and MacArthur, sitting in the governor’s office in Manila, was even more smiling and proud.
However, the Filipino people fighting for freedom will not give in easily.
They fought one after another and looked at death as if they were returning home.
In the process of fighting to the death with the aggressors, countless epic heroes emerged.
Among them, debila, the general of the Philippine army who died in the battle of razikou, is an outstanding representative who makes Chinese people proud and frightens the enemy.
Grigorio debila, a former university student in Manila, has actively participated in the war against the Spanish since 1897.
He is deeply loved by aginaldo because of his great wit and outstanding military achievements.
When he was in exile in Hong Kong, debila was loyal and devoted to life and death.
After returning home, aginaldo appointed him commander of brakan military region and led the rank of brigadier general.
In the subsequent guerrilla war against the United States, debila was brave and good at fighting and made many miracles.
Because he often rides a white war horse, he is called “white horse young general”.
Colonel stosenbira was killed by the US Army.
Since then, the reputation of “white horse general” has spread all over the Philippine Islands.
On this day,The occupying forces finally pacified the remaining forces of the Philippine rebel army.
On July 4, 1902, the president who had just taken office because of McKinley’s assassination announced to the world at the White House that the war had ended victoriously.
This so-called victory based on the blood, bones, tears and pain of the Filipino people is extremely disgraceful.
One American general bluntly called it an “evil war”, while another admitted that the Americans “brutally suppressed an uprising in the Philippines that was more just than the revolution we were proud of”.
The actions of the US Army in this war will always be nailed to the pillar of shame in history.
If we say that at the turn of the century at the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century, the U.S. military owed a huge blood debt to the Philippine people, then its participation in the invasion of China by the Eight Power Allied forces has caused immeasurable havoc and disaster to China! After the United States won the war against Spain and occupied the Philippines, its next goal is to seize the attractive and huge Chinese market.
At this time, the sphere of influence of the United States has been “forcibly delimited”, but there is no room for other powers to intervene.
Want to take it by force? Britain, Russia, Germany, Japan, France and Italy are not broken Spain.
None of them is easy to provoke.
In this case, the US government, which is bent on gaining a monopoly in the Chinese market and turning the Pacific into an “American lake”, can only make another decision.
The United States has painstakingly put forward a policy of “open doors and equal opportunities”.
Its central meaning is to ask the great powers to ensure that China’s existing “sphere of influence” of various countries will implement “door opening” to American goods, that is, to ensure Americans’ freedom of movement and maintain the principle of “equal opportunities”.
This proposal was first supported by the British government, which was begging the United States at that time, and other powers reluctantly agreed under the situation and pressure.
In this way, the Americans just squeezed out a glimmer of opportunity from the teeth of the great powers.
Subsequently, rich and powerful American companies poured in.
The stars and stripes of the United States fluttered in the wind in the vast mainland of China.
However, the greedy American bourgeoisie is not satisfied with this.
Not only American businessmen, but also American missionaries insisted that the government adopt clearer and tougher policies in order to reap more and greater benefits.
To this end, U.S. envoy to Beijing Conger openly opposed the maintenance of China’s integrity and wantonly threatened that when dividing China in the future, the United States “should be prepared to obtain at least a good port through negotiation or forcible occupation, so as to use this port as a base to exercise its rights and use its power”.
Just then, the Boxer Movement broke out.
When talking about the Boxer Movement in China, he said: “Yes, the Chinese do hate Europeans, but what kind of Europeans do they hate? And why? The Chinese do not hate the European people, because there is no conflict between them.
They hate European capitalists and European governments that only capitalists follow.
Those who come to China just to make a fortune, those who take advantage of their own interests Can the Chinese not hate those who call civilization to cheat, plunder and suppress, those who fight China (the war between Britain and France against China in 1856) in order to obtain the right to sell opium that poisons the people, and those who cover up the plunder policy with preaching nonsense? ” Because of this, the boxer anti imperialist patriotic movement, which first rose in Shandong Province of China in 1898, quickly spread to North China and swept through Beijing and Tianjin with the momentum of wind and rain, which greatly increased the ambition of the Chinese nation and destroyed the prestige of foreign invaders, thus writing a great chapter in modern Chinese history.
In the early stage of the Boxer Movement, the imperialist powers conspired to invade China and jointly attacked China.
Fearing that it would fall behind others, the United States immediately said that it would “help each other in the same boat” and “work together to help each other”.
On April 6, 1900, the envoys of Britain, the United States, France and Germany jointly sent a note to the Qing government, demanding that the boxers be “exterminated” within two months, “or they would send water and land forces into Shandong and Zhili provinces to exterminate them instead”.
On May 30, the envoys of Britain, France, Russia and the United States went to the prime minister’s Yamen to threaten, claiming that “regardless of the attitude of the Chinese government, foreign envoys have decided to send troops to Beijing”.
From May 31 to June 10, in the name of protecting the embassy, Britain, the United States, France, Germany, Japan, Italy, Russia, Austria and other eight countries respectively transferred land and naval forces from military bases in China, colonial countries and China, carried by warships and transport ships to Dagu and Tanggu, and entered the Tianjin concession.
The “Eight Power coalition” was officially formed, with a total force of more than 128000 at most.
Among them, there are more than 5800 U.S. troops.
The commander is colonel Sha Fei.
The troops stationed in the United States and Luzon Island are organized into three infantry regiments, three cavalry regiments, three artillery battalions and one artillery company.
There are about 1000 Marines.
In the following two months, the Eight Power Allied forces attacked Dagu, captured Tianjin and invaded Beijing.
In each war, there were ferocious figures of American soldiers charging into battle, burning, killing and looting.
At the same time, they were also hit hard by the boxers.
After the end of the first World War in Langfang, the commander of the British and American Coalition forces, Seymour, was still haunted and lamented: “if the Western guns used by the boxers are set, the coalition forces led by them will be destroyed.
” In August, the Eight Power Allied forces captured Beijing.
Then the soldiers robbed the Imperial Palace, houses and shops on the 3rd, and “all the savings since the yuan and Ming dynasties have been wiped out, from ancient relics to national treasures”.
At the same time, boxer fighters and a large number of innocent people who remained in the city were slaughtered.
The aggressors committed all kinds of crimes, raped and plundered, and there was no way to win.
The heinous crimes committed by the Allied forces of the eight powers are so numerous that many Americans feel ashamed.
US Secretary of State John Hayes said in a private letter: “we kill at least ten people to one.
We loot and burn millions of dollars worth of property, and the whole scene will make the most barbarian people feel sorry.
” Locke hill, an American diplomat in Beijing at that time, wrote: “from Dagu to Beijing, the whole region fell into anarchy.
Where civilized Western troops went, the consequences were indescribable.
I think that’s just what the Mongols did in the 13th century! From Gangkou to Beijing, almost no complete house was left, and anyone can take it awayEverything was taken away.
At least half of the houses were set on fire after looting.
The looting was carried out in Beijing.
From generals to soldiers, from ministers to the lowest level of entourage, from archbishops to junior priests, everyone participated in robbery and extortion.
My wife and I went to the observatory in Beijing yesterday.
There are a batch of refined copper astronomical instruments, which have been preserved since the 13th century.
But coalition soldiers are dismantling and preparing to ship to Paris or Berlin.
These instruments have gone through seven centuries without damage, but now they can’t escape the hands of civilized Westerners.
Isn’t it sad! I have no face to stay in China.
What I see and hear is really difficult for people.
This war will certainly be recorded in history as the most shameful war of this century.
” The direct result of the war of aggression against China by the Allied forces of the eight powers was to force the Qing government to sign the Xin Chou treaty, which was humiliating and humiliating to the country.
Ancient China has stepped into the abyss of pain and humiliation.
90 years later, the great man of the century said when receiving foreign guests: “I am a Chinese and understand the history of foreign aggression against China.
When I heard that the summit of the seven western countries decided to sanction China, I immediately thought of the history of the eight power coalition invading China in 1900.
” It can be seen that this incident is deeply stimulating and traumatic to the Chinese people.