Socrates, who “knew nothing” (469-399 BC), was widely regarded by later generations as the founder of western philosophy.
He and his student Plato and Plato’s student Aristotle are known as the “three sages of Greece”.
Socrates was born in the family of an ordinary citizen in Athens.
He has simple language and ordinary appearance.
He was born with a flat nose, thick lips, protruding eyes, clumsy and short body and sacred thought.
In his early years, he inherited his father’s career, engaged in carving stone statues, and later studied philosophy.
In Athens, he debated philosophical issues with many wise men at that time, mainly on ethics and educational politics.
He was considered the wisest man of his time.
As a citizen, he joined the army three times and showed tenacity and courage in the war.
In addition, he served as a juror in the Athens civic assembly.
Socrates made a living by imparting knowledge.
In his 30s, he became a social morality teacher who didn’t get paid or set up a library.
Many children of rich and poor families often gathered around him to learn from him and ask him for advice, but Socrates often said, “I only know that I know nothing.
” He spent most of his life outdoors.
He likes to talk with all kinds of people in public places such as markets, sports fields and streets, such as war, politics, friendship, art, ethics and so on.
“My mother is a midwife.
I want to follow her footsteps.
I am a spiritual midwife and help others produce their own thoughts,” he said Socrates lived a hard life all his life.
Regardless of the severe cold and heat, he always wears an ordinary single clothes, often does not wear shoes, and does not pay attention to eating, but he doesn’t seem to pay attention to these, just learning.
Socrates did not leave any works.
We can only explore them from the records of his two students, Plato and Xenophon.
However, their records are often contradictory.
Therefore, which record is closer to the truth has always been a topic of debate.
Socrates’ theory is mystical.
He believes that the survival, development and destruction of all things in heaven and on earth are arranged by God, and God is the master of the world.
He opposed the study of nature as blasphemy.
He advocates people to understand the truth of being a man and live a moral life.
His philosophy mainly studies and discusses ethical and moral issues.
In the history of European culture, Socrates has always been regarded as a saint who died for the pursuit of truth and has the same status in Chinese history.
Plato, the soul of ancient Greek culture (427-347 BC), is an ancient Greek thinker and one of the founders of Western cultural tradition.
Plato was born in a prominent noble family in Athens.
In his early years, he loved literature and politics.
After communicating with Socrates at the age of about 20, he began to engage in philosophical research.
After Socrates was executed, he took refuge in mecala, and then traveled to Silene, Egypt, southern Italy and Sicily in Africa.
In order to realize his political ideal, he went to the court of tlagu in Sicily three times, but none of them succeeded.
In 387 BC, he returned to Athens and set up his own college in agamem and began to engage in research, writing and teaching.
Plato wrote rich works in his life.
There are more than 40 dialogic works spread so far, of which 24 are confirmed to be written by Plato.
These works extensively discuss the ideas of philosophy, politics, ethics, aesthetics, education and law.
In philosophy, Plato insisted on objective idealism with idealism as the core.
In solving the original problem, he put forward the theory of the existence of the knowable world and the sensible world.
The former is a real and eternal world composed of various ideas, and the latter is a changeable and unreal world.
Idea is the real essence of all things and an independent entity of objective existence.
It is immortal and beyond experience, and all things are just imitations of idea.
In his later years, he put forward the famous “general seed theory” because he felt the internal contradiction of the theory of ideas.
By examining the relationship between the six most common concepts, he pointed out that some ideas can be combined with each other, even like existence and non existence.
Through the investigation of pure concepts, Plato became a typical example of ancient concept dialectics, which opened the precedent of Western speculative philosophy.
Plato also used the creator to explain the connection between the two worlds, that is, the divine idea as the Supreme Master of the universe was used as a model, the matrix was used as raw material, and the perfect world was created under the guidance of “goodness”.
He also put forward the theory of social ethics based on the blueprint of the Republic, pointing out that wisdom, courage and moderation will achieve justice when they do their respective duties under the command of human rationality.
Like individuals, the virtues of rulers, warriors and the masses are wisdom, courage and moderation.
If the three classes abide by discipline and give full play to their abilities, the society will achieve justice and supreme goodness.
To achieve the supreme good, Plato also emphasized the rule of the king of philosophy.
In his later years, when he wrote the law, he put forward the view that the rule of law should replace the rule of philosophy.
In terms of aesthetic thought, he stressed that only the concept of beauty is absolutely eternal.
The beauty of perceptual things is only because it imitates beauty itself, and art only imitates natural perceptual things, so art is the lowest, but artistic works have a great subtle impact on people.
He also believes that poets rely on inspiration when they lose common sense and fall into a state of madness.
Plato’s aesthetic thought has a great influence on Western Aesthetics and literary theory.
The most learned thinker Aristotle Aristotle (384-322 BC), a student of Plato and a teacher of the great emperor.
In 335 BC, he opened a school called Luc ó n in Athens, known as the “carefree school”.
Aristotle inherited Plato and advocated that education is the function of the state and schools should be managed by the state.
He first put forward the idea of children’s physical and mental development stage, agreed with the education of fitness and harmonious development in Athens, advocated that natural quality, habit formation and rational development should be regarded as the three sources of moral education, and advocated “elegant” education to make education serve leisure.
Aristotle studied hard all his life, engaged in research involving almost all disciplines, and wrote a large number of works, including instrumental theory, metaphysics, physics, ethics and political science, poetics, etc.
He founded formal logic, enriched and developed various branches of philosophy, and made great contributions to the development of natural science.
Marx once called Aristotle the most erudite of ancient Greek philosophers.